Abstract: With the amendment of China's family planning, the number of firstborn children has increased gradually, thus resulting in only children transitioning to non-only children. The emotional changes and the mental and behavioral problems faced by these firstborn children have begun to receive extensive attention among scholars and society. Childhood emotional and behavioral problems can affect later adult life, such as by increasing the risk of maladjustment and peer rejection in adulthood. Research using innovative study designs is crucial to examine firstborn children's emotional and behavioral problems, and the factors influencing these problems. Empirical research on interventions will be highly important to ensure a healthy transition of firstborn children from only children to non-only children.
Abstract: The outbreak of tuberculosis in campus shows a profound impact on academic learning and mental health of students, which might result in more serious social problems. The present editorial addresses weak links in the school tuberculosis prevention and control. Disease prevention and control institutions, medical institutions, education administrative departments and schools need to clarify work responsibilities, strictly implement the school tuberculosis prevention and control laws, regulations and management guidelines, and coordinate with multiple departments, with the aim to strengthen early warning capacity for campus tuberculosis, improve tuberculosis screening and risk assessment of relevant personnel, and implement the health checkup of schools and faculty, as well as the screening, diagnosis, registration, treatment and follow-up of students cases. To further improve tuberculosis control across China, strengthening the awareness of tuberculosis prevention and control among institutions and the public, and improving adherence to tuberculosis treatment, as well as moving forward from passive to active tuberculosis monitoring and early prevention, reducing the occurrence of tuberculosis outbreak in school should be prioritized, so as to promote the smooth development of tuberculosis prevention and control work in China.
Abstract: Objective To understand the current situation of the social development between only children and firstborn of young age, so as to provide a reference for the promotion of the social development of young children.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 734 only children and firstborn children aged 3-9 in two kindergartens and two primary schools from grade 1 to grade 3 for questionnaire survey in Bengbu City. The content included the general information of children and their parents and the social assessment of children.Results The rate of emotional symptoms in firstborn children(27.8%) was higher than those of only children (17.6%)(χ2=9.45, P < 0.01). The results of univariate analysis showed that the rate of hyperactivity and inattention in social development of both only children and firstborns decreased with the increase of family socioeconomic status (P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis of only children showed that only children with high economic status had a lower risk of hyperactivity and inattention and had a higher risk of peer interaction(P < 0.05). The prosocial behavior of girls was better than that of boys in the aspect of social development of only children and firstborn children(OR=1.70, 2.85, P < 0.05). For only children, the occurrence risk of being difficult was lower when the primary caregiver was parents than grandparents(OR=1.63, P < 0.05). For firstborn children, the risk of being difficult in nuclear families was lower than that in third-generation families(OR=2.14, P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of the only child showed that boys had higher risk of hyperactive attention and less prosocial behavior than girls (OR=2.24, 1.70, P < 0.05), and a lower risk of developing mood disorders than girls(OR=0.57, P < 0.05). The social development of only children varied among different grades, and the risk of abnormal prosocial behavior was lower with the increase of grades (P < 0.05).Conclusion Higer family social status is positively associated with children's social development level. But parents with high economic status should also avoid too much material and spiritual doting. Parents should strengthen their own learning to enhance the level of socialized education, raising siblings equally, improve the quality of parent-child relationship, and promote the all-round development of children's socialization level.
Abstract: Objective This study systematically reviewed the findings of studies on the factors influencing emotional and behavioral problems among firstborn children in transition to siblinghood, to provide a theoretical basis for the study of emotional behavior in firstborn children during role transition.Methods CBM, VIP, CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, OVID and EBSCO were electronically searched to collect studies on the relevant factors influencing the emotional and behavioral characteristics of firstborn children in transition to siblinghood (TTS) from inception to March 3rd, 2021. Literature screening and data extraction were conducted by two independent authors to evaluate the risk of bias in the included studies. The results of the included studies were summarized by qualitative analysis.Results A total of nine studies were included, comprising four prospective cohort studies and five cross-sectional studies. Systematic evaluation results indicated three main types of factor associated with behavioral problems among firstborn children: factors of firstborn children (gender, age and temperament), family factors (parents' upbringing, family relationships, family environment, social economy, maternal behavior and whether firstborn children knew that the second children would arrive), and social factors (relationships between teachers and students, peer relationships and life changes). The main factors affecting emotions were their own factors (age and self-acceptance). Negative temperament in firstborn children, negative parenting styles, negative family relationships and family environments, prohibited behaviors among mothers, whether the firstborn children were informed of the arrival of the second children during pregnancy, poor relationships between teachers and students, peer relationships and life changes may increase the risk of emotional and behavioral problems among firstborn children. Whether other factors might have affected the results of the study is unclear.Conclusion Important factors influencing firstborn children's emotions and behaviors during TTS, must be confirmed through a high-quality prospective cohort study. Intervention studies may be appropriate to verify the results and provide an empirical basis for behavioral interventions in firstborn children with different emotional problems.
Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship between the emotional and behavioral problems and family relations of firstborn children from an urban area of Chongqing during the role transition period, to provide a scientific basis for creating a good family relationship and to reduce the occurrence of children's emotional behavior problems.Methods Totally 1 359 mothers of children in the role transition period were recruited from obstetric clinics at two Grade A hospitals in Chongqing, and mothers with informed consent using self-designed questionnaire and parental version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). It was analyzed the association between family relationships and the emotional/behavioral problems of firstborn children of different ages. SPSS statistical software (version 20) was used for the descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analysis.Results The parental relationship (56.6%), mother-child relationship (80.4%) and father-child relationship (64.9%) of most firstborn children was good, and 61.7% of families enjoyed a harmonious atmosphere. For the age groups 1.5-5 years and 6-13 years, the respective CBCL total scores were (18.22±13.63) and (24.20±17.52), and the detection rates were 10.7% and 10.5%, respectively. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that, for both age groups, firstborn children who had good parental relationships, good mother-child relationships, good father-child relationships, and a harmonious family atmosphere exhibited fewer internalizing, externalizing and overall emotional behavior problems (P < 0.05).Conclusion The total detection rate of emotional and behavioral problems among firstborn children in the role transition period, which is low. Good parental relationships, good parent-child relationships, and a harmonious family atmosphere are protective factors against emotional and behavioral disorders in firstborn children during the role transition period.
Abstract: Objective To compare the emotional and behavioral characteristics of preschool firstborn children across the transition to siblinghood with the only children in a district of Chongqing.Methods Data were derived from a cohort study on firstborn children transition to siblinghood. Totally 882 firstborn children (3.58±1.25) years old and 329 only children (3.98±1.02) years old were recruited from two hospitals and 19 kindergartens in a district of Chongqing, respectively. Their mothers filled out the parental version of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and self-designed questionnaire.Results The overall scores of emotional and behavioral problems of firstborn children and only children were (25.17±18.82) and (31.75±18.64). The results of rank sum test showed that the scores of the firstborn children in all dimensions, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and overall emotional and behavioral problems were lower than those of the only children (P < 0.05). Chi-square test results showed that the detection rates of internalizing, externalizing and overall emotional behavior problems in only children(12.77%, 13.07%, 14.59%) were higher than those in firstborn children(8.28%, 8.28%, 8.16%) (χ2=5.62, 6.36, 11.09, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression showed that after adjusting for age, gender, family economic pressure, temperament type of children, family atmosphere and family type, the scores of internalizing problems, externalizing problems and overall problems of the only children were still higher than those of the firstborn children (B=1.54, 2.32, 6.81, P < 0.05).Conclusion The firstborn children across the transition to siblinghood show less emotional and behavioral problems than the only children, and the scores and detection rates of all types of emotional and behavioral problems of the firstborn children are lower than those of the only children.
Abstract: Objective To understand aggressive behavior and associated family determinants of firstborn and only children in primary school, so as to provide the basis for child aggressive behavior prevention.Methods Using stratified cluster sampling method, 922 pupils from grade 2 to grade 6 were selected from three primary schools in Bengbu. The questionnaire survey included general information, family background and child aggressive behaviors.Results Among boys, the 7-year-old only child scored [26.0(22.0, 34.5)] higher than firstborn children [20.0(17.5, 26.5)] in overall aggression, and the 9-year-old firstborn child [27.5(23.0, 34.3)] scored higher than the only child [23.0(18.5, 28.5)]. The scores of 8-year-old firstborn child in the dimension of physical aggression [7.0(4.0, 11.0)] were higher than that of only child [5.0(3.0, 8.0)] (Z=1.97, 2.39, 2.11, P < 0.05). Among girls, 8-year-old only child scored higher [5.0(3.0, 7.0)] in the dimension of physical aggression than that of the firstborn child [3.0(3.0, 4.0)], and the 12-year-old firstborn child scored [7.0(6.0, 8.0)] higher in the dimension of hostility than that of the only child [4.5(3.3, 9.0)] (Z=2.48, 1.98, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis found that boys of firstborn children scored higher in all dimensions of aggressive behavior than those of girls except hostility, and paternal education was negatively associated with physical aggression and hostility (P < 0.05). Age was positively associated with verbal aggression among the only children (P < 0.05). Family economic status was negatively associated with physical aggression (P < 0.05). Paternal education was negatively associated with hostility among students with anger and hostility of family members higher than that of parents (P < 0.05).Conclusion Higher family economic status, high quality of parent company and appropriate parenting style can reduce the occurrence of children's aggressive behavior and promote healthy physical and psychological development.
Abstract: Objective To explore the influence of parental company before and after having second child on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool firstborn children, and to provide a reference for emotional problems prevention of firstborn children.Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted among mothers of firstborn children who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria from two Grade A hospitals in Chongqing from March to December 2019. The average age of 845 firstborn children was (3.56±1.24) years old. The chi-square test was used to compare the general characteristics and parent company of boys and girls. Rank sum test was used to compare the differences of emotional and behavioral problems of firstborn children with different parents' company. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare the differences of internalizing, externalizing and total problems in firstborn children with different parents' company.Results After having the second child, parents spent less time with their firstborn children, among which the decrease of the accompanying time of the mother and the total accompanying time of the parents were statistically significant(Z=3.76, 2.86, P < 0.05). The scores of internalizing problem were higher when the mother's company time decreased (B=1.18, 95%CI=0.01-2.36) and the parents' total company time decreased(B=1.41, 95%CI=0.33-2.48). The scores of the externalizing problem (B=1.25, 95%CI=0.10-2.39) and the total problem (B=4.31, 95%CI=1.05-7.57) with the decrease of parents' total company time were higher.Conclusion Parent company has an important influence on the emotional and behavioral problems of firstborn children. Firstborn children whose parents' accompanying time decreases after having second children scored higher on emotional and behavioral problems.
Abstract: Objective To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body weight and body composition of overweight and obese female college students. In order to provide a theoretical basis for choosing HIIT method.Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published till December 14, 2020 were searched in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, CBM, VIP and WanFang Databases. Literature screening was conducted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, methodological quality evaluation, Meta-analysis and publication bias test were conducted on the included literature.Results There were 20 RCTs among which 14 studies graded as moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed that HIIT could significantly reduce the weight of overweight and obese female college students (MD=-4.22, 95%CI=-7.20--1.25, P < 0.01). Improved body fat rate (MD=-5.31, 95%CI=-6.88--3.73, P < 0.01), BMI (MD=-2.11, 95%CI=-2.65--1.56, P < 0.01), total body fat (MD=-3.66, 95%CI=-4.89--2.43, P < 0.01), abdominal fat (MD=-0.31, 95%CI=-0.47--0.15, P < 0.01), trunk fat (MD=-2.15, 95%CI=-2.86--1.44, P < 0.01) were observed. There was no significant effect on lean body weight (MD=0.42, 95%CI=-0.94-1.78, P=0.55).Conclusion HIIT can significantly reduce the weight and improve body composition in overweight and obese female college students. It can provide a reliable basis for long-term HIIT in overweight and obese female college students.
Abstract: Objective To understand parent-child communication about sex-related topics in rural areas of Sichuan Province, and to provide the basis for family sex education.Methods A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select 2 801 parents of children from 53 township kindergartens in Sichuan Province. Questionnaires were conducted to parents about sex education in family by face-to-face interview or self-filling.Results About 41.63% of parents reported that children had questions about sex, and the rate of proper parent-child communication was 57.46%. The results of binary unconditional Logistic regression analysis showed that township residence(OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.12-1.90), high school or higher educational background of mothers(OR=1.77, 95%CI=1.38-2.28), non-left-behind children(OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.03-1.69), supportive for parent-child communication about sex-related topics(OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.05-2.63), sex education at home(OR=1.60, 95%CI=1.25-2.05) were associated with a higher rate of proper parent-child communication on sex(P < 0.05).Conclusion In rural areas of Sichuan, proper parent-child communication about sex-related topics was not common. It is suggested that in rural areas, parents should enhance their awareness of the knowledge and importance of children's sex education, and improve the coping methods of children's sex-related problems so as to promote the healthy growth of children's body and mind.
Abstract: Objective To describe online learning and eye strain situation of college students during the COVID-19 outbreak, to provide a scientific basis for guiding students' eye health.Methods A self-filled electronic questionnaire survey through questionnaire star was administered to college students across China. Information about online learning and eye strain of 1 046 college students during the epidemic was collected in Hefei, Anhui Province from March 16 to 20, 2020. The univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between online learning and eye strain of college students.Results The rate of eye strain during online learning was 72.1%, totally of 68.4% in 421 male students and 74.6% in 625 female students. Boys with online learning time < 6 h/d, slow internet access, difficulty in understanding online class reported higher rate of eye strain than girls(χ2=17.36, 8.72, 7.02, P < 0.05). Freshmen reported the highest rate of slow internet access occasionally and active online class(χ2=15.26, 16.11, P < 0.05), junior students reported highest rate of online learning time < 6 h/d, and easy understandable online class(χ2=15.33, 32.59, P < 0.05), medical college students reported higher rate of slow internet access, inactive online class than non-medical college students(χ2=11.79, 11.03, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio(OR) of eye strain in females was 1.40 (1.06-1.87), compared with males; the OR of eye strain were 1.43 (1.01-2.03) and 1.54 (1.10-2.15) in the groups with online learning time 6- < 8 h/d and ≥8 h/d, respectively, compared with the group with online learning time < 6 h/d, the OR of eye strain in the groups with slow internet access was 2.28 (1.25-4.14), compared with students without slow internet access, the OR of eye strain in the capable-to-understand and difficult-to-understand group were 2.54 (1.73-3.74) and 5.40 (2.70-10.80) respectively, compared with the easy-to-understand group.Conclusion Female students, online learing time ≥ 8 h/d, slow internet access, difficult to understand class content were positively related with college students eye strain. Attention should be paid to the eye health of college students to reduce the adverse effects of online learning on vision.during the COVID-19 epidemic.
Abstract: Objective To study the relationship between physical health of college students and the risk of sports injuries, and to provide a reference for sports injuries prevention.Methods The convenience sampling method was used to select 1 237 college students from grade 1 to 4 majoring liberal arts, sciences, and sports (non-sports students) in Shanghai. The three types of physical fitness test scores of form, function and quality were used to investigate the occurrence of sports injuries of students in the past year through self-report. Logistic regression analysis, multiple linear regression and two piecewise linear regression models were used.Results The incidence of sports injuries among college students was 12.5% (155). There was a non-linear relationship between physical health score and the occurrence of sports injury events. When the physical health score was less than 70, there was negatively correlated with the risk of sports injury (OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.85-0.91, P < 0.05). When the physical fitness score was greater than or equal to 70, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of sports injury between different scores (OR=0.98, 95%CI=0.95-1.02, P>0.05).Conclusion The physical health level of college students is negatively related with the risk of sports injury. It is recommended that college students have a physical fitness score of at least 70 points.
Abstract: Objective To describe the prevalence and relationship between moderate to vigorous physical activity(MVPA), screen time (ST) and depressive symptoms among middle school students in Guangzhou, and to provide a reference for adolescent depression prevention and control.Methods Using stratified cluster random sampling method, a total of 2 140 students were selected from one urban area and one suburban country for MVPA, ST and depressive symptoms investigation. Logistic regression was used to analyze relations among MVPA, ST and their combined patterns for depressive symptoms.Results A total of 89.72% students failed to meet the MVPA recommendations, girls (95.52%) were higher than boys(84.38%). Totally 67.38% of the students failed to meet the ST recommendations, boys (69.75%) were higher than girls(64.81%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 27.01%, girls (31.58%) higher than boys(22.80%). MVPA, ST failure compliance rate and depression symptoms detection rate of vocational high school and ordinary high school were higher than junior high school (χ2=6.40, 121.71, 27.37, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.19 (P=0.35) in students whose MVPA time achieving 1 h < 7 d in the last week, and was 1.93 (P < 0.01) in students with the ST>2 h/d independently, no significant interactions were observed. Students with both MVPA time 1 h < 7 d in the last week and the ST>2 h/d were more likely to report depressive symptoms(OR=2.03, P < 0.05).Conclusion Insufficient MVPA, prolonged ST and high prevalence of depressive symptoms are observed among middle school students in Guangzhou. Students with both insufficient MVPA and prolonged ST are more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms. Specific psychological care and health education regarding physical activity and screen behavior should be implemented to students with different characteristics, as well as their parents for depressive symptom prevention. Motor activity; Fixation, ocular; Time; Depression; Regression analysis; Students
Abstract: Objective To understand the basic characteristics, sexual behavior and the use of recreational new drugs of young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tianjin, and to explore the characteristics of young MSM who use recreational drugs, so as to provide reference for the policy making of HIV/AIDS prevention and control in universities.Methods From January 1, 2018, solstice to December 31, 2018, participants were recruited in the bathrooms, bars and social network sites in Tianjin by snowball sampling. The basic demographic information, sexual behavior and recreational drug use of the participants were collected through face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to analyzed the characteristic differences drug users and non-users among young MSM.Results A total of 826 young MSM were included in the study, 32 were infected with HIV, and the overall prevalence rate was 3.87%. Totally 371 (44.92%) were drug users. Rush Poppers were the most common used drug (98.65%). Of the young MSM using new drugs, 306 (82.48%) multiple drugs were used, 65 people (17.52%) only one drug has been used. Among new drug users, multiple drug users had higher HIV prevalence rate (16.92%) than single drug users (4.57%). There were statistically significant differences between drug users and non-users in age, age of first sexual behavior, household registration, sexual orientation, education level, sexual partners seeking routes, unprotected anal intercourse and HIV testing history(OR=3.70, 5.51, 0.51, 0.60, 4.64, 0.40, 0.52, 1.98, 2.29, P < 0.05).Conclusion The utilization rate of recreational drugs among young MSM in Tianjin was high. Relevant departments should strengthen the propaganda of recreational drugs and HIV prevention among college students, improve the sexual health awareness of young MSM, and establish a long-term HIV and recreational drug prevention system.
Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship between an anti-epidemic mentality and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college students during the corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of PTSD when college students experience sudden crisis events in the future.Methods An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 9 399 undergraduates from Shanxi Medical University using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the public anti-epidemic psychology self-examination scale.Results During the COVID-19 pandemic, the total PCL-C scores of college students were (22.74±7.78), and the positive rate of PTSD symptoms was 5.3%. The detection rates of symptom recurrence, avoidance/numbness symptoms and increased alertness symptoms were 27.0%, 16.6% and 8.6%, respectively. The average score of avoidance/numbness symptoms in the three symptom groups was (9.21±3.39), the two items with the highest scores were repeated recall of traumatic events (1.57±0.71) and impaired concentration (1.47±0.71). Females scored higher than males on the increased alertness dimension(6.82±2.61, 6.67±2.72) (t=-6.49, P < 0.05). In respect to PCL-C total scores and the scores of each dimension, rural areas were associated with higher scores than urban areas, and non-medical students scored higher than medical students, while the scores of those who grew up with siblings were higher than only-children (P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between an anti-epidemic mentality and total PTSD scores (r=0.51, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the place of origin, choice of college major, and anti-epidemic mentality were predictors of PTSD symptoms (P < 0.01).Conclusion Anti-epidemic mentality is associated with the occurrence of PTSD among college students.
Abstract: Objective To describe bullying victimization of middle school students in Dalian and associated factors, so as to provide scientific basis for campus bullying prevention.Methods The stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 2 540 middle school students from urban and rural areas in Dalian, who were investigated with campus bullying victimization and related factors.Results The reported rate of campus bullying victimization among middle school students in Dalian was 25.11%. The rates of physical violence (5.99%, 3.66%) and verbal violence(24.93%, 15.87%) of male students were higher than that of female students(χ2=6.56, 27.94, P < 0.05). The rates of verbal violence (22.84%, 16.25%) and emotional neglect(16.84%, 13.18%) of junior high school students were higher than those of high school students(χ2=14.21, 5.44, P < 0.05). The rates of physical violence(6.07%, 3.55%), verbal violence(24.58%, 16.05%) and emotional neglect(18.88%, 12.06%) of rural students were higher than those of urban students(χ2=7.72, 24.81, 19.64, P < 0.05). Male students, junior high school students and rural students suffered more severe campus bullying than female students, high school students and urban students(Z=3.46, 3.75, 5.89, P < 0.01). The structural equation model showed that academic performance (path coefficient -0.003) and father's education (path coefficient -0.004) have a direct negative effect on campus bullying behavior, while mother's education (indirect action coefficient -0.000 8), height(indirect action coefficient -0.000 3), father's education (indirect action coefficient -0.000 3) and weight (indirect action coefficient 0.000 2) indirect effects on campus bullying through academic performance.Conclusion The prevalence of campus bullying victimization among middle school students in Dalian is relatively high, which worths further attention to. Rural students, junior high school students and boys are more likely to suffer campus bullying. Improving academic performance might be beneficial for campus bullying prevention.
Abstract: Objective To understand the relationship between college students with different mobile phone addiction trends and adverse psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, so as to provide references for college students' mental health intervention and prevention of mobile phone addiction.Methods From 2018 to 2019, 1 824 college students from two universities in Henan were investigated for 5 follow-up surveys of mobile phone addiction, depression, and anxiety, to understand the change trajectory of college students' mobile phone addiction and its relationship with depression and anxiety.Results The average score of mobile phone addiction among college students was (43.19±5.51) points, the detection rate of anxiety was 34.21%, and the detection rate of depression was 40.73%. In different urban and rural areas, class rankings, and sleep time, the differences in the scores of mobile phone addiction among college students were statistically significant (F=3.65, 3.79, 3.82, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with students in the mobile phone addiction group with a stable change trend, the high addiction-increased group (OR=3.21, 95%CI=2.33-4.41) and the low addiction-rapidly increased group (OR=8.39, 95%CI=5.08-13.78) had a higher risk of anxiety (P < 0.01), the high addiction-increased group (OR=3.31, 95%CI=2.39-4.51), the low addiction-rapidly increased group (OR=4.51, 95%CI=2.81-7.15) had a higher risk of depression (P < 0.01).Conclusion Colleges and universities should pay attention to the problem of mobile phone addiction among college students, especially those with a high concentration of mobile phone addiction, so as to effectively reduce the negative psychological problems of college students such as depression and anxiety.
Abstract: Objective To understand the prevalence and influencing factors of depressive of middle school students in Kaifeng City, and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of depressive symptoms among middle school students.Methods A multistage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 4 058 middle school students in Kaifeng City from September to November 2019. A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms among middle school students in Kaifeng City was 14.51%. The results of multivariable Logistic analysis showed that the risk of depressive symptoms in high school students was significantly higher than that of middle school students(OR=1.47). Call in sick, leaving school due to illness, serious injury, school bullying, fighting, domestic violence, smoking and internet addiction were positively associated with depressive symptoms(OR=1.37, 1.67, 1.91, 2.69, 1.65, 2.29, 1.47, 2.58, P < 0.05). In addition, the interaction of fighting and smoking was associated with more depressive symptoms in middle school students.Conclusion The depression of middle school students is closely related to grade, family and campus environment. Developing a positive family and school environment, preventing adverse events in daily life are necessary measures to reduce the risk of depression symptoms for students.
Abstract: Objective To explore the dynamic changes of suicidal ideation in college students, and to provide evidence for the early prevention and intervention of suicidal ideation.Methods A cluster sampling of 5 372 college students from one university in Jiangsu was selected and followed up for four years (2016—2019) using the College Students Mental Health Screening Scale.Results The detection rates of suicidal ideation among college students in the first to four (T1-T4) stages were 4.36%, 8.99%, 7.32%, and 5.90%, respectively, showing decreasing after increasing trend. Stage T2 was the turning point, and the trend of change was significantly different (P < 0.01). The detection rate of suicidal ideation of girls in T1 stage was significantly higher than that of boys (χ2=10.55, P < 0.01). In the T1-T2 stages, the rate of suicidal idea detection among boys increased faster than that of girls, and the rate of boys in T4 stage surpassed that of girls. The detection rate of suicidal ideation in T1-T4 stage of students in big cities was higher than that of students in small and medium-sized cities, towns and rural areas, and the difference in stage T4 was very significant (χ2=32.11, P < 0.01). The contingency table analysis found that the proportion of suicidal ideation at the same time in the two stages before and after was between 18.63%-35.04% (P < 0.01). There was no suicidal ideation in the previous stage, and the proportion of suicidal ideation in the latter stage was between 4.48%-7.80% (P < 0.01). There were 11 participants who had suicidal ideation in the T1-T4 stages, accounting for 0.20% of the total number, and 4.70% of the suicidal ideation number.Conclusion Colleges and universities should pay more attention to suicidal ideation prevention for vulnerable groups in important periods, and grasp the dynamic information of students through a variety of ways.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the prevalence of poor vision and eyeglass prescription, refractive examination among primary school students of grade 4-6 in Henan, so as to provide scientific basis for precise interventions for student vision health.Methods A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to investigate a total of 29 187 students of grade 4-6 from 17 cities in Henan Province. Distant vision examination and questionnaire survey were conducted.Results The overall prevalence of poor vision for grade 4-6 students in Henan was 63.6%, with girls (69.0%) higher than boys (59.0%), urban students (65.3%) higher than suburban students (62.5%)(χ2=312.6, 23.6, P < 0.01). The prevalence of severe poor vision was 28.5%.With the increase of grade, the detection rate of poor vision and severe poor vision increased(χtrend2=278.7, 775.4, P < 0.01). Totally 13.2% of pupil did not have a visual examination in the past year. The rate of wearing glasses was 27.0% for students with poor eyesight and 3.2% for students with poor monocular eyesight. Totally 46.8% of the students wearing glasses received mydriatic optometry before wearing glasses.Conclusion The problem of poor vision among students of grade 4-6 in Henan is prominent, so it is necessary to strengthen eyesight monitoring and eye health education.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the correlation between takeaway food consumption and poor sleep status of college students in Jiangxi Province, to provide a theoretical basis for poor sleep prevention and intervention among college students.Methods A total of 2 610 college students were selected from a university in Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province by cluster stratified random sampling in May of 2018. The frequency and type of takeaway food consumption, sleep quality and drowsiness were investigated.Results The detection rate of takeaway food consumption behavior(≥4 times in a week) for college students was 74.8%. The detection rates of poor sleep quality and drowsiness were 17.0% and 18.3%, respectively. The difference of sleep quality was statistically significant with sex, college, different self-rated family conditions, study burden, physical activity level, depression and daily smoking (χ2=4.33, 8.67, 23.14, 39.03, 12.89, 313.37, 15.23, P < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences between drowsiness and college, grade, learning burden, physical activity and depression (χ2=12.81, 6.57, 20.61, 8.42, 228.06, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that takeaway consumption (≥4 times in a week) had statistical significance with poor sleep quality and drowsiness (P < 0.05).Conclusion College students' takeaway consumption (≥4 times in a week) of rice noodles, malatang, fragrant pot hot pot increase the risk of poor sleep. It is suggested that schools should strengthen nutrition and health education for college students.
Abstract: Objective To explore the longitudinal association of the levels of plasma irisin among children with changes in obesity related parameters and newly-onset obesity, and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior(SB) have regulatory effects, to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of childhood obesity work.Methods Cluster random sampling method was used to select 521 children from five schools in Guangzhou in 2017 at baseline and were followed up in 2019. A based on baseline PA and SB, children who meet the following criterion were selected: moderate-vigorous intensity PA≥60 min/d or < 150 min/week; and gender-, age-specific SB≥P75 or SB < P25. Plasma irisin concentration was measured in all the selected children. Multiple linear regression and Logistic regression were conducted to analyze the association.Results The two-year cumulative incidence of obesity, overweight and obesity, and central obesity was 2.82%, 6.57%, and 6.81%, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between plasma irisin levels and changes in obesity-related parameters, newly-onset overweight obesity or central obesity among children (P>0.05). After stratified by PA, the irisin concentration in the low PA group was positively associated with weight change (B=0.229, P=0.03). After stratified by SB, the irisin concentration in the low SB group was positively associated with the height change (B=0.210, P < 0.05). In addition, PA level and SB level both had a moderating effect on the association between plasma irisin levels and the weight change (PPA=0.01, PSB=0.05).Conclusion PA and SB show moderating effect on plasma irisin concentration and weight gain. No association of irisin concentration with newly-onset overweight or obesity among children has been found.
Abstract: Objective To understand the status of gender role development of sixth grade students, and to provide cross-cultural theoretical basis for strengthening gender role of students in gender sensitive period.Methods Cluster sampling and random cluster sampling method were used to select primary school students from Indiana US and China for gender role study. There are 202 valid questionnaires for American primary school students and 554 for Chinese primary school students. The overall situation of gender role of Chinese primary school students and demographic-specific characteristics was analyzed, and was compared with counterparts in the US.Results The overall gender role of Chinese primary school students was typically developed, with 41.2% androgyny, 13.4% masculine, 11.2% feminine, and undifferentiated, 34.3%. Gender role develops faster in girl(29.2%) than that of boys(39.4%)(χ2=4.13, P < 0.05). The proportion of androgyny of Chinese students was significantly higher than that of the US(26.2%) (χ2=8.86, P < 0.01), and the proportion of feminization in the US(17.3%) was significantly higher than that of China (χ2=4.34, P < 0.05).Conclusion The development of gender role among contemporary primary school students is greatly improved, although boys' gender role needs more guidance than girls. The development of gender role among Chinese primary school students is better than that of the US, which enhances our cultural competence in the future.
Abstract: Objective To explore the performances of HbA1c when identifying elevated blood glucose among pre-pubertal children, and to provide scientific basis for early screening biomarkers of abnormal blood glucose in children.Methods A total of 1 208 prepubertal children aged 7 to 10 years old in Xiamen were sampled with the cluster sampling method. Fasting venous blood was drawn to measure the level of HbA1c and FPG. According to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, participants were divided into normal group, HbA1c abnormal group, FPG abnormal group and combined abnormal group. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between HbA1c and FPG. The cutoffs of HbA1c were calculated when FPG was 5.6 mmol/L. Receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to judge the performances of HbA1c while screening abnormal blood glucose.Results With HbA1c, FPG and the combined indicators as the screening criteria, the prevalence of high blood glucose were 2.2%, 4.0%, and 5.8%, respectively. The partial correlation coefficient of FPG and HbA1c was 0.15(P < 0.01), and the correlation coefficient in girls(r=0.22) and non-overweight group(r=0.16) were higher. The cutoff of HbA1c was 5.15% if FPG was 5.6 mmol/L. Taking the combined indicator as the reference standard, the AUC of FPG was 0.84 (95%CI=0.79-0.90) and the AUC of HbA1c was 0.69(95%CI=0.63-0.74).Conclusion There is a low correlation between HbA1c and FPG in pre-pubertal children. The performance of HbA1c is different from FPG when used as the indicator to screen children with abnormal blood glucose. It is recommended to use the combined indicator of HbA1c and FPG to screen abnormal blood glucose in prepubertal children.
Abstract: Objective To analyze blood lead levels of children aged 0-14 in Anqing City during 2015 to 2018, to provide basic data for child poisoning prevention and control.Methods Using questionnaire surveys, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess blood lead, age, height, weight, personal habits, environmental factors and other relevant information, to analyze associated factors of elevated blood lead levels.Results From 2015 to 2018, among the 4 406, 4 177, 3 833 and 3 381 children aged 0-14 in the pediatric outpatient, 662, 326, 225, and 56 cases were found with elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs), with the detection rate of 15.02%, 7.80%, 5.87%, and 1.66%, respectively. Detection rate in boys (16.54%, 7.31%, 6.18% and 1.88%) was similar with that of girls (16.04%, 8.51%, 5.42% and 1.33%) (χ2=2.47, 2.00, 0.99, 1.53, P>0.05). Children in any age groups of 0-14 years might have EBLLs, highest in 14-year-old group in the year of 2015 and 2017. Personal behaviors associated with EBLLs included less meat and dairy products consumption, high frequent exposure to soil dust. In contrast, children who wash their hands before meals and wash toys ≥1 time/week were less likely to suffer from EBLLs (χ2=13.58, 8.91, 7.63, 9.22, P < 0.05). Environmental factors associated with EBLLs included were less than 50 m between the main road with residency, family members smoke, and parents engaged in construction, welding, automobile maintenance and other industries are more likely to have EBLLs, and the difference is statistically significant (χ2=4.92, 10.63, 22.95, P < 0.05).Conclusion The detection rate of EBLLs in Anqing City from 2015 to 2018 depressed by year. Washing hands before meals and cleaning toys frequently could reduce the risk of EBLLs.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the trends of weight, blood pressure and serum uric acid levels in college graduates during 2016-2020, so as to provide the evidence for chronic diseases prevention and control in university students.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect the data of physical examination of new graduates of Peking University during 2016-2020. It analyzed the differences in the BMI, blood pressure, serum uric acid, prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension, and hyperuricemia.Results For males, the prevalences of overweight/obesity, hypertension of 2016-2020 and hyperuricemia of 2018-2020 varied significantly (χ2=52.94, 37.63, 55.53, P < 0.01), but not significant difference of overweight/obesity, hypertension among the four groups of 2016-2019 (χ2=6.45, 1.05, P>0.05). The highest prevalences of overweight (29.25%), obesity (11.37%), hypertension (12.60%) and hyperuricemia (43.84%) were observed in the group of 2020. For females, the prevalence of hypertension of 2016-2020 and hyperuricemia of 2018-2020 were significantly different (χ2=14.14, 14.59, P < 0.01), but not significant difference of hypertension of 2016-2019(χ2=0.34, P>0.05). The highest prevalences of hypertension (2.35%) and hyperuricemia (13.86%) were both found in the group of 2020.Conclusion High prevalence of hypertension and hyperuricemia in college graduates of 2020 suggest unhealthy lifestyle probably has adverse impact on health consequences in young adult students.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the interaction of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) on the aggregation of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVRFs) among children and adolescents in Yinchuan City, China, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention of CVRFs and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents.Methods A total of 1 822 children and adolescents aged 12 to 18 years in Yinchuan City were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, physical examination, body composition assessment and laboratory tests, through a cluster sampling method from 2017 to 2020. Binary Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between FM, FFM and the aggregation of CVRFs, and their interaction was analyzed.Results After adjusting for sex and age, the risk of having CVRFs aggregation ≥1 in high FM and low FFM group and high FM and high FFM group was 2.01(95%CI=1.46-2.77) and 3.64(95%CI=2.66-4.98) times higher than that in low FM and low FFM group, and the risk of having CVRFs aggregation ≥2 was 1.67(95%CI=1.06-2.63) and 4.20 (95%CI=2.76-6.38) times, respectively(P < 0.05). There was a multiplicative interaction between FM and FFM, which increased the risk of CVRFs aggregration ≥1 and ≥2. The adjusted OR and 95%CI were 1.58(1.04-2.40) and 1.95(1.12-3.42), respectively(P < 0.05).Conclusion The results indicated the additive and multiplicative interactions between high levels of fat mass and fat free mass on the aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors, which increased the risk of aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the effects of ambient air pollution on the school-age children's diseases, symptoms and school absence, and to provide a reference for preventing the harmful effect of air pollution on students.Methods Health questionnaires surveys were conducted among 792 students of the fourth grade in a primary school in Hangzhou, and the incidence of diseases and symptoms were continuously monitored every day during the winter of 2014-2017. The generalized additive model based on Poisson regression was used to analyze the health effects caused by single pollution. The multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the comprehensive effects of family, living environment and air pollution on student health.Results Totally 415 students(52.4%) had a history of diseases and 265 students(33.5%) had a history of allergy. During the investigation, the average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 were (81.0±2.8) (122.2±3.9) (17.9±0.6) and (68.9±1.4)μg/m3. Strongest associations were found for lag 3 day of exposure among PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 on illness and absence. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were associated with 1.02(95%CI=1.01-1.02), 1.04(95%CI=1.03-1.06) and 1.03(95%CI=1.02-1.04) increases in daily illness rates. SO2 lag for 5 days had the most significant effect on students' health. Father's education was the protective factor for illness (OR=0.83) and symptoms(OR=0.84). The risk factors for symptoms included furniture replacement within one year(OR=1.78), pet feeding(OR=1.94), respiratory infections within one year(OR=1.82), allergies rhinitis(OR=2.24), family history with coronary heart disease/hypertension(OR=1.46), indoor activity time (OR=1.02) and atmospheric PM10 concentration(OR=1.09)(P < 0.05).Conclusion The increase of air pollution concentration has an impact on the illness, symptoms and absence from school, and there is a lag effect. Father's education is a protective factor for the health of students. Indoor pollution and outdoor air pollution can lead to the occurrence of illness and symptoms.
Abstract: Objective This study aimed to find out the myopia rate and related ocular biological parameters of grade 1-3 students in Peixian, Xuzhou City, and to establish a cohort observation population, so as to provide baseline reference for control strategies for myopia and reduce the myopia rate.Methods A total of 1 952 students from two nine-year schools in Peixian were selected by stratified cluster sampling in June 2020. Visual examination was administered by trained personnel using uniformly equipped instruments, including uncorrected visual acuity, diopter, intraocular pressure, axial length.Results The overall myopia rate of students from grade one to grade three in two schools in Peixian was 21.77%, and the myopia rate of girls (23.81%) was significantly higher than that of boys (20.16%). With the growth of age and grade, the myopia rate increased continuously, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=134.10, 144.30, P < 0.05). The myopia rate of 6-year-old group was 8.87%. The axial length of the left and right eyes of the myopic group was significantly higher than that of the non-myopic group (t= 411.95, 366.85, P < 0.01), the intraocular pressure and mean corneal curvature of the left eye of the myopic group were higher than those of the non-myopic group (t=5.91, 10.22, P < 0.05).Conclusion The baseline survey results show that the myopia rate of grade 1-3 in Peixian of Xuzhou City is low, but myopia has occurred in the 6-year-old group. With the growth of age and grade, the myopia rate continues to rise. So it is urgent to explore effective and feasible myopia prevention and control measures. Myopia; Cohort studies; Prevalence; Students
Abstract: Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HIV/AIDS infected students in Shandong Province, to provide a basis for the prevention and control of AIDS transmission in the student population.Methods All 863 HIV/AIDS students cases during 2010-2019 were collected in Shandong Province. Epidemiological characteristics was described and the trends in the 10 years since 2010 was analyzed.Results These 863 HIV/AIDS students were mainly transmitted through homosexual sex (763 cases, 88.41%), and the samples were mainly from voluntary consultation testing (433 cases, 50.17%). From 2010 to 2019, the proportion of student cases in the total number of cases showed an increasing trend (χtrend2=30.21, P < 0.01). Among them, the proportion of homosexual transmission cases increased year by year (χtrend2=6.35, P=0.01), the proportion of cases aged 18-22 years increased year by year (χtrend2=6.10, P=0.01), the proportion of cases with college degree or above increased year by year (χtrend2=4.26, P=0.04). At present, voluntary consultation testing were the main source.There was no significant difference between the years of sample sources (χtrend2=2.97, P=0.09). Conclusion The report number of students in Shandong Province are on the rise in recent years, especially those infected by same-sex transmission, mainly with high education background, which calls for targeted strategies and intervention measures.
Abstract: Objective To compare myopia prevalence among primary school students in Suqian before and after COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide a reference for prevention and scientific propaganda of myopia.Methods Mass sampling was conducted for pupils from 39 primary schools in Suqian during 2019-2020 for ophthalmic examination, including measurement of uncorrected visial acuity and noncycloplegic refractometry. The data of 76 823 and 76 039 students aged 6 to 12 years were statistically analyzed, and the differences of myopia prevalence in two years were compared under different demographic characteristics.Results The myopic rate before and after the epidemic was 30.2% and 36.9%, respectively.The two examinations all obtained that the myopic rate increased with age, the myopic rate of girls (32.3%, 40.0%) was higher than that of boys(28.3%, 34.2%), and the myopic rate of urban students(34.3%, 41.5%) was higher than that of rural students(26.5%, 32.2%). The myopic rate increased significantly at all ages, with students aged 9 to 11 accounted for the most(by 8.6 to 10.7 percentage point), the myopic rate by genders and areas increased significantly, among which female and urban students increased the most(7.7, 7.2 percentage point).Conclusion After the epidemic, the myopic rate was 1.2 times that of 2019. The myopic rate increased significantly under different demographic characteristics.The myopic situation was not optimistic.
Abstract: Objective To understand the toxicological indexes and indexes factors of drinking water in rural schools in Yunnan Province during 2017-2020, so as to provide scientific basis for ensuring drinking water safety, and targeted intervention in rural schools.Methods The end water of 456, 399, 391, 387 rural primary and secondary school drinking water supply projects in 129 counties in Yunnan Province was collected from 2017 to 2020, 11 toxicological indexes were analyzed and evaluated.Results The overall compliance rate of drinking water toxicological indexes in rural primary and secondary schools in Yunnan Province was 99.32%; The top three indexes exceeding the standard were nitrate nitrogen(0.31%), chloroform (0.15%) and cadmium(0.09%). The difference of compliance rate by year was statistically significant(χ2=11.04, P < 0.05); No difference in compliance rate was found between dry and wet seasons(χ2=0.05, P>0.05); The rate of the surface water meeting the standard was higher than that of the groundwater(χ2=9.62, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the compliance rate between the treated and untreated projects(χ2=1.55, P>0.05); The daily water supply scale was less than 500 m3, and the rate of reaching the standard was lower than that of daily water supply is greater than 500 m3(χ2=4.27, P < 0.05).Conclusion The overall percentage of the toxicological indexes in drinking water exceeding the standard in rural primary and secondary schools in Yunnan Province is low. Nitrate nitrogen, chloroform and cadmium should be considered as the prioritirized pollutants of drinking water in rural schools of Yunnan Province.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the characteristics of young students inquiry to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics, and to provide reference for AIDS prevention and control effectiveness of local schools.Methods A total of 1 223 students aged 7-28 years were collected and characterized through HIV Testing Consulting Information Management System in Shangcheng VCT clinics during 2016-2020. The epidemic characteristics were analyzed by cross-sectional studies.Results Young students accounted for 25.21%(1 223/4 852) of the total counseling population in VCT clinics from 2016 to 2020. The main reason for counseling was non-high-risk (28.29%, 346 cases), followed by MSM (26.41%, 323 cases) and non-commercial non-fixed heterosexual behavior(25.92%, 317 cases). The counseling proportion of non-commercial non-fixed heterosexual behavior and commercial heterosexual sex behavior declined with time(χtrend2=-6.04, -3.59, P < 0.01). The average of HIV positive detection rate among young students was 3.03%(37 cases), which increased with time(χtrend2=2.45, P < 0.01).Conclusion Sex education and HIV/AIDS knowledge education are necessary in primary and secondary schools. Targeted strategies are in great need in terms of MSM behavior intervention.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the changes of environmental sanitation, health knowledge and behavior of students and diarrhea in rural schools in Henan and Sichuan Provinces from 2016 to 2018, and to provide data for improving environmental sanitation, health literacy, as well as reducing diarrhea and other infectious diseases among rural students. Methods Based on the "Community Approach to Total Sanitation (CATS)", a total of 13 rural primary schools were selected in 2016 and 2018 respectively, including 8 in Henan and 5 in Sichuan. One class of fourth-grade students was selected from each school. Totally 450 students were surveyed in 2016 and 2018, respectively. The drinking water, environmental hygiene, students' personal hygiene and behavior, and the incidence of diarrhea in recent 3 months were investigated by interview, observation, inquiry and questionnaire. Results Between 2016 and 2018, the number of schools providing safe drinking water for students increased from 6 to 8, the number of schools with proper hand washing facilities increased from 9 to 12, the number of schools with hand washing facilities equipped with soap or hand sanitizer increased from 2 to 9, and the number of schools with sanitary toilet type increased from 9 to 12. The awareness rate of students' total health knowledge increased from 58.74% (793/1 350) to 64.96% (877/1 350), the formation rate of students' total health behavior increased from 67.78% (1 220/1 800) to 75.28% (1 355/1 800), the proportion of diarrhea in recent 3 months decreased from 36.89% (166/450) to 21.11% (95/450), the differences were statistically significant(χ2=11.08, 24.86, 27.20, P < 0.05). Conclusion The basic environmental sanitation facilities of rural schools in Henan and Sichuan has improved substantially, together with increased students' health knowledge and hygiene behavior, and decreased incidence of students' diarrhea.
Abstract: Nowadays, sports APPs are gradually diversifying based on the rapid development of the Internet and artificial intelligence. Various sports apps are active in the public's field of vision. This article reviewed the research progress of college students'used of sports APP on their training habits. The result found that proper use of sports APP could promote college students' sports behavior and sports habits. The use of such apps could help college students improve their body shape physical function, but it was difficult to maintain the effect after the end of the athletic behavior. It is recommended that schools use APPs to form teacher and student sports communication communities and conduct different types of sports challenges. At the same time, the government enacts college and personal reward systems to encourage sport participation among students, thereby increasing the intention to continue using sports APPs. More longitudinal follow-up researches are expected to evaluate effectiveness of different sports APPs on sport habit formulation.
Abstract: The left-behind experience has profound impact on mental health of college students. Factors that affect mental health of college students with LBEs include: left-behind timing, gender, residence, personality, ability of regulating emotions, coping styles, social support, parenting styles negative life events and so on. In order to optimize mental health of college students with LBEs, college mental health education needs to pay attention to the mental health education of college students with LBEs and male left-behind college students, pay attention to the improvement of the level of security and subjective well-being of college students with LBEs, promotion of personality, emotion regulation and coping styles, and estabishment a kind social support system for college students with LBEs.
Abstract: There are four typical potential protective and risk factors in the context of campus bullying: social support, role choice of bystander, moral disengagement, and ethnic/racial differences. Adolescent victims of bullying can improve their mental health by obtaining different social support to maintain their sense of self-worth. The role selection of bystander should consider both the psychological factors of social information processing theory and the situational evaluation factors of transactional model of appraisal and coping. Moral disengagement is the cognitive distortion mechanism that leads to individual bullying behavior. Ethnic/Racial differences seem to have less impact on bullying in Chinese schools. Future research should consider the influence of frequency and intensity of bullying and being bullied, attach importance to the collection and analysis of multi-party data, interpret the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in conjunction, explore the construction of an integrated model of the impact of multiple factors on bullying, and further verify and explore the possible causal relationship in the situation of campus bullying.
Found in 1980 Monthly
Competent Authorities: National Health Commission
Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association