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Issues and challenges of school-based sexuality education in China
LIU Wenli, LI Jiayang
2022, 43(12): 1761-1765.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.001
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In recent years, the legal status of school-based sexuality education in China is becoming more and more clearly defined, so that the content is becoming more and more comprehensive. It will be improved and optimized under the guidance and support of newly launched policies. At the initial stage of development, school-based sexuality education will face certain challenges, including the need of raising national awareness of sexuality education and establishing correct sexual values, researches and development of supporting teaching resources on school-based sexuality education, including curriculum of teaching material of sexuality education, teacher training, and teaching effectiveness assessment. This paper will analyze the challenges of school-based sexuality education in China, in order to explore the most suitable ways of implementing school-based sexuality education in China.
Current situation and constructive suggestions for basic sexuality education teachers in China
LI Yumeng, LIU Wenli
2022, 43(12): 1766-1770.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.002
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At present, there is no full-time position in basic education stage for sexuality education teachers in China. The background of teachers undertaking sexuality education is complicated, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among them, mental health education professionals seem to be more suitable for sexuality education. At the same time, the sexuality education literacy of existing teachers is imbalanced, which is highlighted by the fact that their knowledge of sexuality education is insufficient and the use of sexuality education ability needs to be improved. Furthermore, while the willingness to provide sexuality education has grown, there is still a lack of understanding about sexuality education. In addition, teachers in basic education stage face great difficulties in providing sexuality education. Teachers generally lack an appropriate training and evaluation system, their awareness of the importance of self-improvement is poor, and they lack the motivation to undertake professional development. Therefore, efforts might start from the pre-service and in-service training and social training of teachers in the basic education stage for effevtive professional development to help the growth of sexuality education teachers.
Participation and attitude towards online public opinion on gender issues among college students in Shaanxi Province
WANG Xiaowan, GUO Lingfeng, LIU Wenli
2022, 43(12): 1771-1774.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.003
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  Objective   To understand participation and attitude towards online public opinion on gender issues among college students.  Methods   Using convenient sampling, 450 valid questionnaires were collected from 9 colleges and universities in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, and self-compiled questionnaires were used to investigate general demographic information, public opinion concern and participation of gender issues, case attitudes and the impact of online public opinion of gender issues.  Results   A total of 371 participants (83.00%) paid attention to such events, and 210 (47.00%) participated in the discussion. Among the 326(72.90%) college students who were affected by such events, 62(13.90%) thought that such events had a lasting effect on self-emotion, and 54(12.10%) thought that such events had further effects on self-emotion, affect their own lives. Attention to and participation in the event(4.58±2.94), positive evaluations of victims(12.01±2.07), negative evaluations of perpetrators(5.99±1.60), and negative emotions(15.90±8.62) in female college students were significantly higher than those of males(3.85±2.67, 11.44±2.02, 6.56±1.83, 9.46±9.02)(t=2.76, 2.96, 3.48, 7.71, P < 0.05).  Conclusion   College students have a high degree of attention to social public opinion events on gender issues, with significant gender difference. Schools, media and society should pay attention to the media literacy and mental health among college students.
Analysis of curriculum standards and textbooks of high school in China from the perspective of comprehensive sexuality education
LI Ming, LI Peixuan, GUO Lingfeng, LIU Wenli
2022, 43(12): 1775-1778.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.004
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  Objective   To have the knowledge of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) content in curriculum standards and textbooks of high school education, and to provide suggestions for containing CSE content in the curriculum construction, teaching materials compilation and teaching practice in China.  Methods   The research referred to Teaching Materials Analysis Model and Interpretative Structural Model for analyzing and evaluating the curriculum standards and textbooks of high school in China from the perspective of CSE.  Results   CSE content were related with the 20 curriculum standards distinctively and appeared in the teaching objectives, contents and compilation elements of textbooks. Problems were observed in scientific accurate, age-appropriate and comprehensive contents in sexuality education textbooks. The reliability and the effectiveness of high school teaching materials, the feasibility of curriculum design and the effectiveness of curriculum construction needed to be strengthened.  Conclusion   It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the curriculum research of CSE, and the curriculum design should be decided. The gender equality content of the textbooks needs to be evaluated and strengthened, and the positive aspects of CSE need to be supplemented for the CSE teaching practice with schools as the center.
Relationship between comprehensive sexuality education competency among junior middle school students and sex education at home and school settings
ZHU Fan, ZHU Guiyin, GUO Xueer, LI Yuancheng, JIA Bibo, WANG Pei, ZHAO Tianjie, MA Yinghua
2022, 43(12): 1779-1782.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.005
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  Objective   To understand the current situation regarding sex education in home and school settings in China, and to provide a scientific basis for more effective family and school sex education.  Methods   Using a convenient sampling method, a cross-sectional survey of students from grade 7 to grade 9 in Beijing, Liaoning, Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan and Henan was carried out from September to December 2021. The questionnaire covered general demographic information, sex education at home and school, and the status of comprehensive sexuality education. Finally, 4 109 valid questionnaires were collected.  Results   A total of 760(18.50%) middle school students had not received any form of sex education, 923(22.46%) had only received sex education at school, 299(7.28%) had only received sex education at home, and 2 127 (51.76%) had received sex education at home and at school. The scores related to junior middle school students' knowledge of comprehensive sexuality education was (12.43±2.89) points, the attitude score was (47.86±5.31) points, the behavior score was (40.44±5.18) points, and the comprehensive level score was (82.02±9.01) points. Junior middle school students who received sex education at home and in school had the highest comprehensive level of sex education(P < 0.01). Junior middle school students who only received sex education at school had a higher comprehensive sexuality education knowledge level than those who only received sex education at home(P < 0.01). The level of comprehensive sexuality education behavior among junior middle school students who only received family sex education was significantly higher than among those who only received sex education at school(P < 0.01).  Conclusion   Receiving sex education in both home and school settings can effectively improve the comprehensive sexuality education competency among junior middle school students. School-based sex education should be further implemented in the future and family sex education should be encouraged.
Probability assessment of dietary aluminum exposure among primary school students in Henan Province
LI Shan, HAN Han, YE Bing, ZHOU Shengsheng, YANG Li, YUAN Pu, FU Pengyu, ZHANG Shufang
2022, 43(12): 1783-1786.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.006
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  Objective   Combining the aluminium content data of food in Henan Province with the data of children's food consumption, to evaluate probability of dietary aluminum exposure among primary school students.  Methods   Database of nine types of aluminum-containing food and their consumption among primary school students in Henan Province were established. The probability distribution of dietary aluminum exposure was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using Crystal Ball 11.1.2.4 software, and the sensitivity analysis of exposure was conducted.  Results   The average content of aluminum in fried bread stick was the highest, with the value of 150.89 mg/kg. The consumption of dietary aluminum was highest in steamed bun, with the value of 0.15 g. The average dietary aluminum exposure per kilogram of body weight was 1.99 mg per week of primary school students in Henan Province, accounting for 99.7% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The 95th percentile of aluminum exposure per kilogram of body weight per week was 6.16 mg, which was three times of that of PTWI. Nearly 13.22% of primary school students had dietary aluminum exposure higher than PTWI. Among all kinds of food, the average aluminum exposure of fried bread stick per kilogram of body weight per week was the highest 1.19 mg. Aluminum content in fried bread stick accounted the highest proportion of average dietary aluminum exposure among primary school students.  Conclusion   The average dietary aluminum exposure level of primary school students in Henan Province is close to the PTWI established by JECFA, with the high consumption population exceeds the PTWI. Measures should be taken to reduce the dietary aluminum exposure risk of primary school students.
Status and associations of nutritional and dietary behaviors of school-age children in poor areas of western China
WU Yan, GAO Liwang, MA Lu, LI Chao, ZHAO Cai, LIU Min, YAN Yating, BAI Jing, ZHAO Li, WANG Youfa
2022, 43(12): 1787-1790.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.007
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  Objective   To investigate the status of nutrition and dietary behaviors and their associations in school-age children in poor areas of western China, to provide clues for sustainable improvement strategies of malnutrition among primary school students in rural revitalization.  Methods   A total of 1 887 school-age students from 3 poverty-stricken counties in Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces were investigated by physical examination and questionnaire survey during October to December in 2020. Mixed-effects model was used to analyze associations between nutritional status and dietary behaviors.  Results   The prevalence of stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity, and central obesity among 1 887 students were 1.8%, 6.6%, 27.7%, 24.5%, respectively, and the differences between two provinces were statistically significant (χ2=94.76, 46.05, 109.96, 80.50, P < 0.05). The prevalence of overweight and obesity of students in Shaanxi and Sichuan were 32.8% and 4.9%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting and wasting were 0.4% and 4.7% in Shaanxi, and 8.1% and 14.7% in Sichuan, respectively. Among 1 160 students with complete dietary data, the proportions of students who ate breakfast, eggs, and milk daily were low, and eating breakfast daily was negatively associated with overweight and obesity(OR=0.26, P < 0.05), and eating out and eating in canteen were positively associated with wasting(OR=2.51, 2.82, P < 0.05).  Conclusion   School-age children in poor areas of western China are facing double burden of malnutrition, and there are significant regional differences. Future targeted interventions should be made to improve these students' nutritional status.
Using quantified recipes in schools in the areas of the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students in 2019
REN Zhibin, XU Peipei, YANG Titi, XU Juan, GAN Qian, CAO Wei, PAN Hui, XU Ying, YIN Chunjie, ZHANG Qian
2022, 43(12): 1791-1795.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.008
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  Objective   To analyze the usage and influencing factors of quantified recipes in schools in the pilot areas of the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students (NIPRCES), and to provide references for student meal quality improvement.  Methods   In 726 national pilot counties in 22 provinces where the NIPRCES was implemented, a total of 7 808 schools were included in the analysis as the survey objects in 2019. Data, including the usage of quantified recipes in schools and related factors, were collected through questionnaires. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of the schools' use of quantified recipes.  Results   Among the national pilot counties where the NIPRCES was implemented, 66.6% of the monitored schools used quantified recipes, of which 69.7% of schools in the central region used quantified recipes, it was higher than that in the west region(65.2%) (χ2=15.13, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that factors such as the schools in the central region, county-based schools, the training frequency of canteen with 1-2 times per semester or once or more per month, regular training of nutrition knowledge, recipes provided by other departments, consideration of nutrition matching when formulating recipes, using catering software, providing local dietary allowances were positively correlated with the use of quantified recipes in schools(OR=1.31, 0.72, 1.44, 1.73, 1.75, 3.20, 2.15, 2.72, 1.17, P < 0.05).  Conclusion   The proportion of using quantified recipes of schools in the NIPRCES area was relatively low, which might be affected by factors including the regional economic level, canteen training, and recipes sources. It is recommended to strengthen the construction of professional teams and canteen training. Schools need to be encouraged to use quantified recipes and promote school catering scientifically to improve healthy growth of students.
Trends of eye-use-related behaviors of primary and middle school students in Suzhou from 2018 to 2021
DING Ziyao, HAN Di, HAI Bo, SHEN Hui, HU Jia
2022, 43(12): 1796-1800.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.009
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  Objective   To understand the trend of eye use behavior of students in Suzhou, and to provide basis for comprehensive prevention and control of myopia.  Methods   Stratified cluster random sampling was used to recruit students from grades 4 to 12 in Suzhou from 2018 to 2021. The students' general information, eye use behavior, outdoor activities and sleep status were collected through a standardized questionnaire to compare eye use behaviors of students among various groups.  Results   The detection rates of students who watched TV or used computer more than 1 h/d decreased from 2018 to 2021(χtrend2=192.25, 95.39, P < 0.05), and boys who spend more than 1 h/d on watching TV and using computer accounted for 26.4% and 19.2%, and girls accounted for 21.1% and 12.8%, respectively in 2021. The proportion of students' watching mobile electronic devices≥1 h/d decreased (χtrend2=314.85, P < 0.05), and the boys' proportion was less than girls with 29.2% and 30.3% respectively, and each grade declined except for vocational high schools. The proportion of students with average reading and writing time after school above 2 h/d had decreased except for vocational school students. In 2021, the proportions of four school periods(primary school, middle school, high school and vocational school) were 22.1%, 47.7%, 65.1% and 11.6% respectively. The proportions of students with good eye habits such as reading with desk lamp and roof lamp, watching computer screen and TV with a safe distance, using eyes at close range for less than 1 h/d and taking a rest had increased (χtrend2=34.19, 62.21, 47.25, 457.50, P < 0.05), reaching up to 72.2%, 72.3%, 78.6% and 67.8% respectively in 2021. The proportion of students spending more than 2 h/d on outdoor activities increased (27.1% in 2018 and 30.7% in 2021, χtrend2=5.17, P < 0.05), but only in primary school students, and the rates of boys were higher than girls'. There was no improvement in sleep deprivation. The girls who were lack of sleep girls were more than boys, and the proportion of senior high school was higher than that of junior middle school and primary school.  Conclusion   The eye use behaviors of primary and middle school students have improved significantly from 2018 to 2021. However, the problems including insufficient sleep and less outdoor activities still exist. Health education in students aiming at eye use behavior improvement should be strengthened.
Awareness and needs of parents regarding pediatric infectious diseases in kindergartens in Chenghua District of Chengdu
LI Xu, LAI Shengqin, LUO Diyi, LI Li
2022, 43(12): 1801-1803.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.010
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  Objective   To understand the awereness and health needs of parents in regards to infectious diseases in kindergartens in Chengdu, and to provide a reference for carrying out targeted health education on infectious diseases.  Methods   The parents of kindergarten children in Chenghua District of Chengdu was selected by convenient sampling, and a self-designed questionnaire was used.  Results   The rate of awareness among parents regarding pediatric infectious diseases was 42.0%, among which the awareness rate of "treatment measures following a dog bite" was the highest (99.6%), and "the awareness rate of infectious disease classifications in China" was the lowest (26.7%). The awareness rate was related to family role, education level, occupation and income level (χ2=10.81, 71.81, 93.78, 25.17, P < 0.05). The survey examined the demand for knowledge regarding pediatric infectious disease prevention and control, and revealed that parents primarily obtained such information from the school class group (85.5%). The most desirable way of obtaining relevant information was from information provided by professional institutions (96.6%), the infectious disease that parents most wanted to know about was the 2019 novel coronavirus (91.9%), and the most desirable time to acquire knowledge about infectious diseases depended on the seasonal arrangement of infectious diseases (67.5%).  Conclusion   The awareness rate of parents about children's infectious diseases is in the middle level, and the channels for acquiring the knowledge about infectious diseases are relatively limited. Schools can carry out targeted health education in order to raise the awareness rate of parents of preschool children about children's infectious diseases.
Relationship between 20 m shuttle run test performance and lifestyle behaviors of junior high school students
TU Xiaohong, XIE Jianming, HUANG Zhiping, GAO Zhiqiang, ZHANG Shuhua, LU Jinkui, SUN Hao
2022, 43(12): 1804-1808.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.011
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  Objective   To explore the relationship between junior high school students' lifestyles and 20 m shuttle run test (20 m SRT) performance, so as to provide a theoretical basis for promoting a healthy lifestyle among junior high school students.  Methods   From April to June 2021, a total of 2 397 junior high school students aged 12-17 years in Yushan, Wuyuan, Hengfeng and Yugan counties of Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province were selected by random cluster stratified sampling. A questionnaire survey and 20 m SRT test were conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between lifestyles and 20 m SRT scores.  Results   The passing rate of 20 m SRT for middle school students was 83.3%. Chi-square test results showed that there were statistically significant differences between gender, grade, household registration, type of schooling, father's education and the 20 m SRT scores of junior high school students (χ2=25.26, 25.04, 6.99, 7.96, 16.22, P < 0.05). Significant differences were found in 20 m SRT scores between vigorous and moderate physical activity and breakfast behavior in the last seven days (χ2=6.78, 6.29, 9.13, P < 0.05). The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for confounding factors, "no vigorous physical activity in the last seven days" was positively correlated with the lower performance of 20 m SRT (OR=1.31, 95%CI=1.03-1.67, P < 0.05). "Breakfast skipping" was positively correlated with 20 m SRT lower performance (frequent eating, OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.09-1.73, P < 0.01).  Conclusion   Vigorous physical activity and regular breakfast consumption behavior are associated with higher performance 20 m SRT of junior high school students. Schools should encourage students to develop a habit of actively exercising and consuming breakfast regularly in order to ensure the healthy development of cardiopulmonary endurance levels.
Epidemiological characteristics of Sapovirus virus clustered vomiting epidemic in Baoshan District in Shanghai from 2017 to 2019
FENG Taicong, HU Yongdi, MAO Jianying, XIANG Lunhui, JIANG Wenjie, ZHANG Yuejuan, SHI Chenwei, LIU Xiaofeng
2022, 43(12): 1809-1811.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.012
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  Objective   To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of cluster vomiting diarrhea outbreaks caused by Sapovirus infection in Baoshan District, Shanghai, and to provide reference for the standardized management of cluster vomiting diarrhea events in schools.  Methods   The cluster of vomiting and diarrhea outbreaks in Baoshan District from 2017 to 2019 were collected, and the basic information and scene of each cluster were summarized. Sample results were collected and descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak.  Results   From 2017 to 2019, a total of 100 cluster vomiting and diarrhea events were reported in Baoshan District, including 9 cases caused by Sapovirus, 120 cases of cluster vomiting diarrhea caused by Sapovirus, with an average incidence rate of 2.37%, including 39 laboratory-confirmed cases, the epidemic epidemic time was mainly concentrated in September to November, the places were distributed in 4 primary schools and 5 kindergartens, the main clinical manifestations were vomiting (112/120, 93.33%), abdominal pain (27/120, 22.50%), diarrhea (26/120, 21.67%), compared with Norovirus events, the positive rate, vomiting and fever ratios of Zarovirus were lower than those of Norovirus(χ2=8.32, 4.52, 14.20, P < 0.05).  Conclusion   In school cluster vomiting and diarrhea events, the positive detection rate of Sapovirus is second enteric vinus behind Norovirus, and it's recommended to formulate a prevention and control plan for Sapovirus infection diarrhea to provide a basis for the on-site treatment of school cluster vomiting diarrhea events.
Energy expenditure of stair climbing with load among male university students
QIU Ling, ZHANG Peizhen, HONG Ping
2022, 43(12): 1812-1816.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.013
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  Objective   To explore the characteristics and differences of energy expenditure of stair climbing in male university student with different BMI groups and under varying load capacity.  Methods   A total of 24 male university students aged 20 to 30 years were recruited from universities in Beijing. Participants were divided into normal weight group and overweight group according to BMI. The energy expenditure of climbing stairs and rest energy expenditure were measured by Cortex MetaMax 3B portable gas metabolic analyzer. The load for climbing stairs from 0 to 5 kg.  Results   The energy expenditure during stair climbing with a load of 5 kg in overweight group was significantly greater than without load (F=9.44, P < 0.05). Greater physical load is needed for the same energy expenditure among overweight male university students than normal weight students. The energy expenditures during stair climbing with loads of 4 kg and 5 kg in normal weight group were significantly greater than without load (F=7.47, P < 0.05). The net energy expenditures per unit weight during stairs climbing carrying 3 kg load in overweight group and 4 kg load in normal weight group were significantly higher than without load and load with 1 kg (F=3.39, 3.79, P < 0.05). When climbing up stairs with same load, the energy expenditure in both overweight and normal weight group were greater than those of stair descending.  Conclusion   Stair climbing with mderate load (3 kg) for overweight male students, and higher load (4-5 kg) for normal weight male student are needed for weight control.
Correlation between latent classes of aggressive behavior and family care with meaning in life among college students
YAN Jixia, LIU Lingxia, SHI Peipei, HUANG Guang, CAO Kunming, CHANG Hongjuan
2022, 43(12): 1817-1821.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.014
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  Objective  To explore latent classes of college students' aggressive behavior and its correlations with family care and the meaning of life among college students.  Methods  A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 5 094 students from three universities in Xinxiang City in December 2021, using Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Family APGAR Index (APGAR), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ).  Results  Aggressive behavior of college students was classifed into three potential categories: low aggressive behavior group (26.4%), moderate aggressive behavior group (48.5%), and high aggressive behavior group(25.1%). There were significant differences in latent classes of aggressive behavior among college students by gender, physical flexibility, exercise frequency, and sleep status (χ2=63.95, 169.86, 125.76, 325.24, P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the sense of life meaning and the degree of family care among the 3 potential categories of aggressive behavior (F=113.47, 231.82, P < 0.01). The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the sense of meaning of life (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.96-0.97) and family care (OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.81-0.84) were significantly associated with three classes of aggressive behavior (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Aggressive behavior among college students is associated with gender, exercise frequency, sleep status, meaning of life, family care, and physical flexibility. School, family and society should actively pay attention to students psychological characteristics and to provide corresponding support for aggressive behavior prevention and intervention.
Group-based interpersonal relationship intervention in female college students' dormitory
WANG Qing, WU Yang
2022, 43(12): 1822-1825.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.015
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  Objective  This study explores the intervention effects of communication theories on college female dormitory relationship, so as to provide a reference for improving interpersonal relationship.  Methods  In October 2020, a randomized controlled experiment was conducted to randomly assign female students from four freshman classes in a university in Jiangxi Province to the intervention group (n=38) and the control group (n=36). Participants in the intervention group received a group intervention of three sessions, with 80 minutes for each session. Their dormitory relationships (including overall dormitory relationship, non interpersonan tension, affinity, and satisfaction) were measured before and three months after the intervention.  Results  Before the intervention, quality of interpersonal relationship between the two groups was higher and there was no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). Three months after the intervention, the scores of the members in the control group on interpersonal relationship quality, affinity and satisfaction(39.78±3.38, 17.59±2.94, 11.94±1.87) were significantly lower than those in the pre-test(44.07±5.47, 18.95±1.86, 13.14±2.04) (t=2.68, 2.49, 2.71, P < 0.05). However, the scores of the intervention group on the interpersonal relationship in the dormitory and the three dimensions contained therein did not change significantly (P>0.05) compared with the pre-test. In addition, the post-test results showed that the scores of the intervention group on dormitory interpersonal relationship quality and its two dimensions (affinity and satisfaction)(44.58±5.95, 12.58±2.45, 13.26±2.01) were higher than those of the control group(39.78±3.38, 10.94±2.30, 11.94±1.87) (t=2.72, 3.09, 2.92, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Group intervention based on communication theory can improve interpersonal relationship in the dormitory of college female students at first acquaintance, and can effectively prevent interpersonal contradictions and relationship deterioration in the dormitory.
Association between mobile phone dependence and constipation of college students in Yunnan Province
HU Dongyue, CHEN Bixia, LI Hai, YANG Jifeng, ZHENG Ruili, LI Jiangli, XU Honglyu
2022, 43(12): 1826-1829.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.016
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  Objective  To explore the association between mobile phone dependence and constipation of college students in Yunnan Province, and to provide a data reference for improving and preventing constipation in college students.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted among 9 960 college students from three universities in Kunming and Dali, Yunnan Province. The Self-rating Questionnaire for Adolescent Problematic Mobile Phone Use was used to assess mobile phone dependence symptoms, and the questionnaire was conducted to collect the constipation information of college students. Data were analyzed with SPSS 23.0. Chi-square test was used to compare the reporting rates of detection in college students with different demographic characteristics. The association between mobile phone dependence and constipation was analyzed by binary Logistic regression models.  Results  The detection rate of mobile phone dependence symptoms was 30.93%, and the reporting rates of constipation was 24.46% of college students in Yunnan Province. After collcted for the demographic variables and other confounding effects, the analysis results showed that: withdrawal symptoms of mobile phone dependence(OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09-1.54), physical and mental health impacts of mobile phone dependence (OR=1.25, 95%CI=1.10-1.43) and craving of mobile phone dependence (OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.06-1.36) were associated with constipation in college students(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Mobile phone dependence may increase the risk of constipation of college students in Yunnan Province, so health education should be strengthend.
Association between obesity type and exercise capacity in Inner Mongolian primary school students
JIN Liming, GAO Youhan, WUYUN Gerile, DELI Geer
2022, 43(12): 1830-1834.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.017
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  Objective  To analysis the relationship between obesity types and exercise capacity among Mongolian primary school students, to provide evidence supporting the formulation of strategies to promote students' physical fitness.  Methods  A total of 7 941 Mongolian students aged 7-12 years in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were selected, and data were collected from a field survey conducted by the National Physical Fitness and Health Survey in 2019. According to overweight and obesity screening of school-aged children and adolescents, and the waist-height ratio, obesity status was classified into general obesity, central obesity and complex obesity, relationships among obesity type, exercise ability and PFI.  Results  The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%, 28.2%, 16.3% and 16.5% in boys and girls 7-9 and 10-12 years of age, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls(P < 0.05). The detection rate of compound obesity in boys and girls was highest (15.6%, 9.2%; 18.4%, 8.2%), and the detection rate of compound obesity and central obesity in boys was higher than that in girls(P < 0.05). The performance in the non-obese boys and girls (on the basis of standing long jump, sit-up and 50 m×8 round-trip running in boys, and 50 m running, standing long jump, sit-up and 50 m×8 round-trip running in girls) was better than that in the obese groups(P < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the median PFI of non-obesity, general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity between boys and girls in the two groups of 7-9 and 10-12 years old (boys: H=79.23, 241.42; girls: H=61.94, 74.38, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The proportion of compound obesity among Inner Mongolian primary school students was relatively high, and the exercise capacity was relatively low. Specific measures should be taken to effectively control the occurrence and development of adolescent obesity.
Sickness absenteeism among primary and middle school students in Nanjing during 2019-2021
YANG Yue, YE Sheng, LIU Hui, LIU Li
2022, 43(12): 1835-1838.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.018
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  Objective  To understand the sickness absenteeism among primary and middle school students in Nanjing during 2019-2021, so as to provide evidence for infectious diseases prevention and control in school settings.  Methods  Data on sickness absenteeism among primary and middle school students in Nanjing during 2019-2021 were collected through the Health Surveillance System of Students in Jiangsu. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the sickness absenteeism, symptoms and pathogeny, as well as time distribution among different terms and academic years.  Results  The overall sickness absenteeism during 2019-2021 were 0.25%, 0.39% and 0.73%(χ2=392 611.44, P < 0.01). The rate of sickness absenteeism in primary school was higher than that of middle schools across 2019 to 2021 (χ2=47 783.45, 20 935.07, 13 459.63, P < 0.01). The most common symptoms of sickness absenteeism were fever and cough. The leading cause of sickness absenteeism was influenza, followed by gastrointestinal diseases. In addition, unintentional injuries were currently the fourth leading cause. The peaks of absenteeism occurred during November to December and March to April in the 2019 and 2021. Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, the second peak in the 2020 academic year occurred in June.  Conclusion  The sickness absenteeism among primary and middle school students in Nanjing showed an increasing trend, and more attention should be paid to primary school students. Prevention efforts should focus on respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in schools, especially in winter and spring. It is of great significance to strengthen sickness absenteeism surveillance for future epidemic prevention and control in schools under normal conditions.
Relationship between emotional behavior and literacy of primary school students
ZHANG Jing, ZHONG Lin, HE Hongyao, GAO Xiaoyan, ZUO Pengxiang, SONG Ranran
2022, 43(12): 1839-1842.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.019
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  Objective  To understand the relationship between emotional behavior and literacy of primary school students, and to provide evidence for improving the literacy of primary school students.  Methods  A total of 3 710 students in grade 2 to 3 from three schools in Xinjiang were selected by random cluster sampling method, and were investigated with the Literacy Scale for Primary School Students and the Strengths and Difficulties Scale.  Results  The average literacy of the second and third grade students(947.85±335.93, 1 519.45±509.88) were lower than the Shanghai literacy norm(1 414, 2 135), and the differences were statistically significant (t =-62.15, -49.84, P < 0.01). The abnormal detection rates of emotional behavior were peer communication problems (12.40%), prosocial behavior (12.02%), hyperactivity (11.59%), conduct problems (10.49%) and emotional problems (5.88%). Emotional symptoms (r=-0.19), conduct problems (r=-0.29), hyperactivity attention deficit (r=-0.27), peer communication problems(r=-0.24) were negatively correlated with literacy scores(P < 0.01). Regression analysis showed that peer interaction problems (β=-24.45), hyperactivity problems (β=-42.04) and conduct problems (β=-50.73) had negative predictive effects on literacy (R2=0.12)(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Peer interaction problems, hyperactivity problems and conduct problems are moderately related to the literacy of primary school students.In the process of teaching, teachers should combine the psychological characteristics of students, adopt the teaching strategy of combining centralized literacy with written literacy, pay attention to the cultivation of literacy ability.
Association between inflammation and immunity with child autism spectrum disorder based on CiteSpace analysis
CUI Tingkai, CHE Yifan, ZHANG Xin
2022, 43(12): 1843-1846.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.020
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  Objective  To summarize recent progress in the inflammation and immunity research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children during 2002 to 2021, and to provide future directions.  Methods  Literature review was conducted in May 2022, with the literature source of core collection of the Web of Science database. CiteSpace software was used for bibliometric analysis. A total of 4 458 literature was included.  Results  In the past decade, the number of published articles increased rapidly, from 52 to 528. American has produced the highest number of articles (n=2 016), followed by China with 407 papers published. The high-frequency words included autism spectrum disorder, children, brain, autism, spectrum disorder. The high centrality keywords included schizophrenia, central nervous system, mental regression, multiple sclerosis, autoantibody. Recent researches in ASD primarily focused on the following three aspects: core symptoms and brain mechanism, gene-environment interaction, and epidemiological research. Maternal immune activation and gut-brain axis were gradually becoming research hotspots.  Conclusion  Research on inflammation and immunity of ASD in children increased rapidly in the past 20 years. Recent research hotspots included maternal immune activation and gut brain axis mechanisms, which could be integreted in future efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming on ASD in children.
Effects of orthokeratology lens on visual quality and bacterial infection in adolescents
JIN Huixia, CHEN Xia
2022, 43(12): 1847-1850.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.021
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  Objective  To investigate the effects of orthokeratology on visual quality and incidence of bacterial infection in adolescents.  Methods  A total of 280 orthokeratology teenage patients were selected. Visual examination, OQAS-Ⅱ optical assessment and ocular flora were assessed before, 6 months and 1-year after orthokeratology wearing. Changes in visual and optical performance and ocular flora infection were compared.  Results  Compared with before wearing orthokeratography lens (0.18±0.04, 33.21±4.23, 0.72±0.12, 0.99±0.19, 1.32±0.21), parameters of adolescent patients including strayers ratio (0.21±0.05, 0, 24±0.03) and modulation transfer cutoff (37.65±5.29, 39.01±3.94) increased after wearing for 6 months and 1 year, 9% objective visual acuity(0.61±0.10, 0.53±0.26), 20% objective visual acuity (0.82±0.21, 0.78±0.15) and 100% objective visual acuity (1.10±0.13, 1.00±0.07) decreased, the differences were statistically significant (F=7.89, 6.59, 6.52, 9.47, 8.49, P < 0.05), while the objective scattering index index (0.99±0.21, 1.01±0.07, 1.23±0.31) had no significant difference before and after wearing orthokeratography lens (F=-1.56, P>0.05). Compared with before wearing, the incidence of bacterial infection significantly increased after wearing (P < 0.05). The infection rate of pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients who wore orthokeratology lens for 1 year rose to 0.36%, e. coli infection rates as high as 0.71%, staphylococcus aureus infection rates as high as 0.36%.  Conclusion  Long-term orthokeratology lens wear can effectively improve the visual quality of adolescents, but also increase the risk of bacterial infection. Timely awareness on good eye hygiene practice should be emphasized to the users.
Relationship between lifestyle habits and obesity based on latent category analysis among 12-18-year adolescents
WANG Xinping, ZHOU Yahui, HE Zhican, LI Gangqiang, WANG Lili, LYU Tingting, GUO Shuxia
2022, 43(12): 1851-1854.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.022
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  Objective  To analyze the latent category characteristics of lifestyle habits of adolescents aged 12-18 years, and to explore its relationship with obesity.  Methods  Data of 3 252 adolescents aged 12-18 years in the established China Nutrition and Health Survey were used for this study. The contents of the survey include basic situation, living habits, and body mass index. Latent category analysis was performed on 11 lifestyle habits on eating and exercise. Chi-square test was used to explore the relationship between the potential categories of lifestyle habits and obesity.  Results  All the participants were classified into 3 categories: mixed (n=1 092, 35.58%), passive (n=765, 23.52%), and healthy (n=1 395, 42.90%) groups. Body mass index showed significant differences across three categories (χ2=19.66, P < 0.01). In the BMI classification of adolescents, the healthy type has the highest proportion in the light type, overweight type and obesity type(41.61%, 47.87%, 50.00%).  Conclusion  The lifestyle habits of adolescents aged 12-18 years show obvious classification characteristics, which have different correlations with obesity. Targeted interventions should be carried out according to the characteristics of lifestyle habits under different body mass index.
Relationship between characteristics of school bullying of left-behind children and its relationship with parent-child separation
LIN Yanmin, ZOU Yehui, YANG Xiaolong, WANG Siji
2022, 43(12): 1855-1859.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.023
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  Objective  To analyze the relationship between school bullying and parent-child separation of left-behind children, and to provide a theoretical basis for preventing and controlling school bullying of left-behind children.  Methods  A total of 4 945 children aged 7 to 18 in Shangrao City were selected by stratified cluster random sampling to complete the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire(C-SBEQ), and the differences of school bullying between left-behind and non-left-behind children were compared. The parent-child separation data of 1 791 left-behind children was obtained by self-designed questionnaire, and the influence of parent-child separation characteristics on school bullying of left-behind children was analyzed by binary Logistic regression.  Results  The rates of school bullying, bully victimization and perpetration of left-behind children were 21.3%, 18.3% and 3.0% respectively, which were higher than those of non-left-behind children(15.4%, 12.7%, 2.7%). And there were statistical significance in the detection rates of school bullying among left-behind children in different schooling stages(χ2=9.82, P < 0.05), the detection rates ranked as follows: 21.4% in primary school, 18.9% in junior high school and 14.7% in senior high school. The rate of bullying perpetration among left-behind children was significantly higher in boys (4.8%) than in girls (1.0%)(χ2=14.69, P < 0.05). The rate bully victimization among former left-behind children (children with left-behind experience) in the younger than 7 years group (20.3%) was higher than that in the older than 7 years group(13.4%)(χ2=4.79, P=0.03). There was no significant differences in the detection rate of bullying perpetration among the left behind children with different parent-child separation experiences (P>0.05). Control schooling stages, Logistic regression analysis showed that taking former school-age left-behind children as reference, bully victimization risk of former pre-school left-behind children was 1.64 times(OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.04-2.59, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  School bullying of left-behind children is more severce than that of non-left-behind children. Early occurrence of parent-child separation is associated with higher risk of bullying victimization among left-behind children.
Prevalence of ametropia among primary and middle school students in Kaiyuan
QIN Yu, YIN Xing, ZHENG Yajie, LI Xue, LIANG Gang
2022, 43(12): 1860-1863.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.024
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  Objective  To explore the prevalence of ametropia in primary and middle school students in Kaiyuan, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, to provide a scientific reference for local prevention and control of juvenile myopia.  Methods  In September 2021, 38 534 students from 76 primary and secondary schools in Kaiyuan, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, were selected. The students underwent vision inspection and computer optometry examination. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of myopia across gender grade, ethnic group and residence.  Results  The prevalence of myopia in primary and secondary schools students was 40.0%, the prevalence of hyperopia was 17.7%, and that of astigmatism was 21.2%. The prevalence of poor vision was 50.7%, and the total rate of wearing glasses was 17.2%. The prevalence of myopia among girls (45.7%) was higher than that among boys (34.5%)(χ2=520.68). The prevalence of myopia among students was higher in urban areas (50.1%) than rural areas (28.4%)(χ2=1 882.13). The prevalence of myopia in grades 1-9 increased with school grade(χtrend2=7 151.41). Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of myopia(χ2=1 299.26), hyperopia (χ2=164.13) and astigmatism (χ2=1 091.37) among ethnic groups(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism in primary and middle school students in Kaiyuan, increases with school grade, and the prevalence of myopia varies among ethnic groups. For juvenile myopia prevention and control, attention should be paid to the effects of urban and rural differences, gender differences, and ethnic differences, in a scientific, effective and comprehensive manner.
Association between pubertal timing and social adaptation in junior school students in Henan Province
LIU Yanyan, HOU Zhenhu
2022, 43(12): 1864-1868.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.025
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  Objective  To explore the association between pubertal timing and social adaptability in junior school students, and to provide guidance for adolescent psychological education and behavioral interventions.  Methods  From September to December 2021, 3 591 junior school students were selected from four cities in Henan Province through stratified cluster sampling. The data were obtained with questionnaires of the Youth Development Scale and Social Adaptation Scale.  Results  The scores of psychological advantage, mental energy, interpersonal adaptation, psychological elasticity and social adaptation were significantly higher in boys than girls(t=2.03, 5.64, 2.48, 3.65, 4.01, P < 0.05). One-way ANOVA indicated that the scores of social adaptation in the delayed group were significantly higher than those in the moderate group, and those in the moderate group were significantly higher than those in the advanced group(P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that, as compared with the moderate group, the group with early puberty showed negative correlations with psychological advantages, mental energy, interpersonal adaptation, psychological resilience and total social adaptation score(β=-0.30, -0.31, -0.31, -0.32, -0.35, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Pubertal timing among junior school students is closely associated with social adaptation. Early puberty negatively influences social adaptability. Schools are recommended to take scientific measures to strengthen psychological assistance for students who enter puberty early and to improve their social adaptability.
Analysis of the changing trend and influencing factors of vital capacity of children and adolescents aged 7-13 years in Yinchuan from 2010 to 2019
LIU Youhong, CAO Juan, LI Jing, CHEN Qi, MA Xiaoyan, ZHAO Haiping
2022, 43(12): 1869-1872.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.026
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  Objective  To understand and analyze the level and trend of lung function of children and adolescents in Yinchuan, Ningxia from 2010 to 2019, and to explore the influencing factors of vital capacity.  Methods  Children and adolescents aged 7-13 years were randomly selected from Xingqing District, Jinfeng District and Xixia District of Yinchuan. Based on the data of vital capacity from three surveys in 2010, 2014 and 2019, the trends of changes across residence, ages and sex in 2010-2019 were analyzed, and the influencing factors were explored.  Results  From 2010 to 2019, the vital capacity of children and adolescents aged 7-13 years in urban and rural Yinchuan showed an upward trend(F=194.48, 382.47, P<0.01), with an increasing amount of 410.89 and 554.46 mL, respectively. In 2014, the vital capacity of urban students was higher than that of rural students, but it was lower than rural students in 2019. After stratified by age and sex, its trend was consistent with that of urban and rural areas, but students in all age groups in urban areas declined in 2014-2019. Height, weight, 50 m running, the phenomenon of "crowding out" or "Not attending" physical education and health class in school, the feeling of taking physical education and health class when exercising, the average time spent on exercises between classes every day, whether using pedometer, wearable equipment or exercise APP, travel time to school every day, the recognition on sports, were associated with vital capacity in children and adolescents (β=-185.70, -54.94, P<0.05).  Conclusion  In recent years, the vital capacity of 7-13-year-old children and adolescents in Yinchuan has shown an increasing trend. Physical fitness indicators and physical activity are influencing factors of lung capacity in children and adolescents. In the future, health management for students should be strengthened and students' awareness of physical exercise should be improved.
Analysis on the status and related factors of physical quality among primary and middle school students in Henan Province
YANG Mengli, XU Xueqin, MA Xiaomei, LOU Xiaomin, WANG Jinjin, YAN Guoli, WANG Yan, LIU Dechen
2022, 43(12): 1873-1875.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.027
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  Objective  To analyze the present situation and associated factors of physical fitness and overweight and obesity among primary and middle school students in Henan Province, and so as to explore the related factors and to provide reference for improving students' physical fitness.  Methods  The data of students' physical health survey in Henan Province in 2019 were used to analyze the PFI and BMI of students aged 7-18. The Chi-square test was used to compare difference in overweight and obesity prevalence by gender and residence. Analysis of variance was used to compare PFI differences among students of different age groups. Multi-variable Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of physical fitness.  Results  A large proportion of students' PFI was between -5 and 5.0- < 5 group(46.8%), followed by -5- < 0 group(44.0%), and ≥5 group. The detection rates of overweight and obesity were higher in boys (16.8%, 12.3%) than in girls (12.8%, 7.6%), and in cities (16.1%, 11.8%) than in rural areas (13.3%, 7.9%)(χ2=124.78, 245.43; 62.52, 166.23, P < 0.01). PFI was negatively correlated with BMI(r=-0.23, P < 0.01). Age (OR=1.01), urban and rural (rural's OR=1.21), gender (female's OR=1.11), overweight (OR=1.94), obesity (OR=4.85) were the influencing factors of physical fitness(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Age, residence, gender, overweight and obesity are the related factors of physical fitness. Controlling overweight and obesity can effectively improve students' physical fitness.
Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks and influencing factors in schools in Liaoning Province, 2011-2021
FANG Ziyue, DIAO Wenli, SONG Yunqi, XIE Tao
2022, 43(12): 1876-1880.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.028
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  Objective  To understand the epidemiological characteristics of school foodborne disease outbreaks in Liaoning Province, and to provide scientific basis for effective prevention and control of school foodborne disease outbreaks in the future.  Methods  An epidemiological study was conducted on the school foodborne disease outbreaks reported by the National Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System in Liaoning Province from 2011 to 2021. The influencing factors of school foodborne disease outbreaks were analyzed by binary Logistic regression.  Results  From 2011 to 2021, a total of 29 school foodborne outbreaks were reported in Liaoning Province, with accumulative cases of 1 003, 218 hospitalized cases and no death cases. The number of outbreaks and cases were the highest in 2020(7 cases, 320).The incidence of the disease showed a bimodal distribution throughout the year, with the peak in March and December, and the number of outbreaks in schools in March was the largest(8 cases, 27.59%). Primary and secondary schools reported the largest number of incidents, cases and hospitalizations(12 cases, 555, 97). The mean interval of outbreak reporting was longest in junior college (32.01 h), while the mean duration of outbreak was longest in university (52.33 h). Most of cases (536, 53.44%) had vomiting symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus toxin, Bacillus cereus toxin and Norovirus caused more incidents(3 cases for each one). In addition to the unknown causes, improper processing and cross contamination were the main causes(6 cases for each one). Headache index was positively correlated with outbreak size in schools (OR=9.78). Clinical symptoms fever and exposure duration event indexes were positively correlated with the reporting time interval of school outbreak events (OR=7.08, 22.40)(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  It is necessary to strengthen the management and supervision of school catering institutions in winter and spring, optimize the reporting process, and effectively reduce the scale of outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools.
Prevalence and associated factor of obesity in children aged 3-6 years in Hebei Province
QIN Jianjie, ZHANG Xuan, BI Xin, ZHENG Xutong
2022, 43(12): 1881-1884.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.029
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  Objective  To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and related factors of obesity in children aged 3-6 years old in Hebei Province, and to provide a reference for childhood obesity prevention and control strategies.  Methods  A total of 6 034 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected from 11 cities in Hebei Province for physical examination and questionnaire survey.  Results  The prevalence of obesity in 3-6-year-old boys and girls in Hebei Province were 23.00% and 17.48%, which differed significantly (χ2=28.51, P < 0.01); The prevalence of obesity was higher in rural areas and children with ethnic minorities (20.06%, 21.68%) than that of urban are and Han children (19.97%, 20.09%), with no significant differences (χ2=0.01, 0.78, P > 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that boys(OR=1.45), birth weight no less than 4 000 g (OR=2.80), high-fat food consumption at least 3 times a week (OR=1.64), carbonated drinks consumption at least 3 times a week (OR=4.71), insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption (OR=1.22), physical activities less than 2 hours per day (OR=1.82), maternal obesity (OR=2.0), and lack of physical exercise of fathers (OR=1.95) were significantly associated with higher risk for obesity among young children in Hebei Province (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The prevalence of obesity among children aged 3-6 years in Hebei Province is at a high level at present. Many factors contribute to this epidemic such as genetics, poor diet and living habits. Promotion of healthy eating and lifestyle, as well as dissemination of reliable knowledge about childhood obesity are greatly needed.
Epidemiological characteristics of overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students in Taizhou from 2013 to 2020
ZHOU Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Xiang, JIANG Ye, JIN Yiyuan, WANG Zirui, LU Xin
2022, 43(12): 1885-1888.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.030
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  Objective  To analysis the epidemiological characteristics of overweight and obesity among middle school students in Taizhou from 2013 to 2020, to provide support for prevention and control efforts.  Methods  Through stratified sampling, one primary school, one junior middle school and one senior high school were randomly selected from nine counties (cities and districts) in Taizhou, and continuous monitoring was conducted in all participants Height, weight and other variables were assessed and body mass index was calculated. The epidemic characteristics were analyzed according to the detection rate, fixed base ratio, sequential growth ratio and average growth rate.  Results  From 2013 to 2020, the overall overweight rate among primary and middle school students in Taizhou was 14.5%(36 592/252 583), and the obesity rate was 11.2%(28 256/252 583). The rates of overweight and obesity increased, with average annual growth rates of 1.9% and 5.5%, respectively; thus, the rate of obesity increased more rapidly. The obesity rate was higher among boys (13.2%) than girls (9.0%)(χ2=1 119.57, P < 0.01), and the average annual growth rate was higher among girls than boys (6.1%, 5.2%, respectively). The rate of overweight among boys (17.6%) was higher than that among girls (10.9%)(χ2=2 307.35, P < 0.01). The average annual growth rate of overweight in girls was 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively. The obesity rate among primary school students (17.5%) was higher than that among middle school (9.7%) and high school (4.9%) students(χ2=7 291.33, P < 0.01). The average annual growth rate in students in middle school was fastest, followed by those in high and primary schools (6.5%, 3.9% and 2.6%, respectively). The rate of overweight in primary school students (15.8%) was higher than that in middle school students (15.3%), and both were higher than that in high school students(12.2%)(χ2=521.06, P < 0.01). The average annual growth rate was also fastest in students in middle school, followed by high and primary schools (2.4%, 2.2% and 0.6%, respectively).  Conclusion  The detection rate of overweight and obesity among primary and middle school students in Taizhou is high and increasing rapidly, indicating high pressure on prevention and control. Boys and primary school students are the key target groups for prevention and control. Comprehensive prevention and control strategies should be adopted specifically.
Abnormal spinal curvature in primary and secondary school students aged 10-14 years in Inner Mongolia in 2021
ZHAO Jing, GAO Sheng, YANG Tian, ZHAO Jufang, LI Guofeng, BA Teer, ZHANG Xiuhong
2022, 43(12): 1889-1892.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.031
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  Objective  To understand prevalence and influencing factors of abnormal spinal curvature in primary and secondary school students aged 10-14 years in Inner Mongolia, and to provide reference for relevant measures.  Methods  A total of 92 094 primary and secondary school students aged 10-14 years were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling, and were investigated with questionnaire.  Results  A total of 1 957 participants (2.13%) with abnormal spinal curvature were detected, including 1 768(90.34%) with scoliosis. Significant differences in the detection rate of abnormal spinal curvature were observed among students with different myopia status and posture of sitting and standing (χ2=23.82, 9.84, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that different ethnic groups, monitoring points, age and area were main factors for risk of spinal curvature abnormalities in primary and secondary school students aged 10-14 years; good nutritional status, left-right rotation of class seats, seat height adjustment according to height were associated with lower rate of spinal curvature abnormalities (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Various measures should be taken simultaneously to reduce the prevalence of abnormal spinal curvature in primary and middle school students aged 10-14 years.
Foodborne disease outbreaks analysis of children aged 0 to 6 years in Guizhou Province from 2011 to 2021
ZHANG Li, ZHOU Yajuan, ZHU Shu, TIAN Jigui, LI Jun, GUO Hua
2022, 43(12): 1893-1896.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.032
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  Objective  To describe and statistically analyze the monitoring results of foodborne disease outbreaks in children aged 0-6 years in Guizhou Province from 2011 to 2021, and to provide support for the prevention and control of foodborne diseases in children in the future.  Methods  The epidemiological characteristics of foodborne disease outbreaks in children aged 0-6 years in the monitoring system from 2011 to 2021 were analyzed. Chi-square test analysis was performed with the incidence rate as the dependent variable and the pathogenic factors, residence and other factors as independent variables.  Results  A total of 618 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported in children aged 0-6 years, accounting for 21.29% of the total foodborne disease outbreaks reported. There were 1 169 cases, 833 hospitalizations and 18 deaths, with a mortality rate of 1.54%. The reported incidents were concentrated in summer and autumn, with a peak of 159 reported incidents in May; the largest number of incidents was reported in Zunyi and Tongren, with 169 and 98 incidents respectively. Mainly rural families misuse caused by food-borne diseases; poisonous mushrooms and their toxins, poisonous plants and their toxins and unknown causes are the main pathogenic factor; there were significant differences in the incidence among different years, places of residence and pathogenic factors (χ2=3 444.44, 577.82, 1 935.15, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The foodborne disease outbreaks in children aged 0-6 years account for a large proportion in the total foodborne disease outbreaks in Guizhou Province, and the mortality rate is high. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of foodborne diseases in children, and rural families are the focus of prevention and control.
Practice and suggestions on intelligent management of Nutrition Improvement Plan for Rural Compulsory Education Students
ZHENG Yonghong, ZHANG Xiaoman, HUANG Fang
2022, 43(12): 1897-1900.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.033
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The research group explored and practiced intelligent management objectively by studying the constraints and factors limiting the effectiveness of sustainable development in the implemented nutrition improvement programs. Youxi and other pilot counties in Fujian Province were selected for comprehensive reform to investigate sustainable models for intelligent management of nutrition improvement in the new period. The experiences gained through sound institutional staff and management mechanisms, put forward to vigorously promote the application of "Internet +" technology to implement intelligent supervision, ensure food and capital security, improve the use of capital efficiency, suggestions for intelligent management of nutrition improvement programs in the new era, such as food waste control.
Research progress on the relationship between generational feeding behavior and childhood overweight and obesity
ZHAI Xiangying, ZHOU Nan
2022, 43(12): 1901-1905.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.034
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Childhood overweight and obesity has become a serious public health problem. Family, as the primary environment in which children grow up, is closely related to their overweight and obesity. With the continuous development of social economy, grandparents gradually participate in family feeding, and play an imortant role in family feeding. The oresent paper systematically reviews grandparents' feeding awareness, feeding behaviors, feeding styles and feeding environment choices, in order to provide a reference for improving intergenerational feeding and reducing the incidence of overweight and obesity in children.
Sexuality education in kindergartens in China based on the perspective of comprehensive sexuality education
CHEN Jiayue, GUO Lingfeng, LIU Wenli
2022, 43(12): 1906-1910.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.035
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Comprehensive sexuality education is a curriculum-based teaching process that explores the cognitive, emotional, physical and social aspects of sexuality and equips children and adolescents with certain knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to ensure their health, well-being and dignity. Three to six years of age is an important stage for children's sexual development. Kindergarten is an important place for children to receive sexuality education. Based on the perspective of comprehensive sexuality education, sexuality education practice in kindergartens in China was analyzed, and the findings revealed the following: the policy that supports sexuality education practice in kindergartens is not comprehensive, sexuality education in kindergartens lacks teaching guidelines, kindergartens are facing a shortage of sexuality education teachers, sexuality education in kindergartens lacks the necessary family support. Based on these existing difficulties and challenges, this paper puts forward suggestions for promoting the development of sexuality education in kindergartens in consideration of the following four aspects: improving policies, formulating localized sexuality education guidelines, carrying out teacher training and strengthening publicity.
Research progress and future directions of adolescent health literacy evaluation tools
WANG Zhou, GAO Tingye, ZHOU Jie, LI Guangjian, KONG Yaping, FAN Guihong, BIAN Qian, ZHANG Xing, ZHAO Shijun
2022, 43(12): 1911-1914.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.036
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Abstract:
Health literacy is closely related to the response to public health emergencies. This paper begins with health literacy evaluation tools in adults, then focuses on recent progress made in health literacy evaluation tools in adolescents from the perspective of public health emergencies. The development of adolescent health literacy evaluation tools, health education and health literacy from the perspective of public health emergencies should be greatly enhanced, helping adolescents to better respond to public health emergencies and maintain their physical and mental health.
Research progress on sports interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder
GENG Hui, FU Tao
2022, 43(12): 1915-1920.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.12.037
Abstract(200) HTML(20) PDF(32)
Abstract:
The annual increase in the prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has raised public concern about the health of this population, which in turn underscores the need of developing effective treatments. In addition to routine rehabilitation, physical activity is an effective intervention for children with ASD. Through systematic review of the literature on physical education interventions on children with ASD, this article revealed that such interventions had positive effects on core symptoms, motor skills, executive functioning, emotions, perception and other functions related to these symptoms in children with ASD, which could provide theoretical support and new ideas for sports rehabilitation research aimed at children with ASD.
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Release report of the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health
Department of Physical Health and Arts Education Ministry of Education
2021, 42(9): 1281-1282.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.001
[Abstract](1240) [FullText HTML](538) [PDF 282KB](390)
摘要:
根据国务院1987年同意建立的全国学生体质与健康调研制度, 2019年, 教育部等部署开展了第八次全国学生体质与健康调研工作。发现中国学生体质与健康状况总体有所改善, 并提出了促进学生体质与健康水平提高的主要因素, 针对本次调研发现的问题提出以下相关安排: 全面加强和改进学校体育工作、落实学校卫生与健康教育政策要求、持续综合防控儿童青少年近视、实施全国健康学校建设计划。
The Effect of increased intensity of physical exercises on mental health and resilience among college students
HU Qiquan
2019, 40(1): 83-85.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2019.01.022
[Abstract](267) [PDF 308KB](11)
摘要:
探讨不同强度体育锻炼对提升高校学生心理健康和心理韧性的效果,为大学生体育教学改革提供相关研究资料.方法 按照整群抽样的原则,选取武汉职业技术学院1 546名大一学生作为研究对象,利用SCL-90自评量表和青少年心理韧性量表进行调查.将学生按班级分为对照1,2,3组和观察组,其中对照1组390名,按照常规体育课程进行锻炼;对照2组385名,给予小运动强度锻炼;对照3组387名,给予大强度体育锻炼;观察组384名,给予中等强度锻炼.结果 干预后,观察组大学生SCL-90量表中躯体化、强迫、人际敏感、抑郁、焦虑、偏执得分明显优于对照1组、2组以及3组(F值分别为3.57,3.33,4.27,5.28,3.82,4.29,P值均<0.01);心理韧性调查表得分观察组明显优于对照1,2组,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).观察组学生认为体育锻炼可对社交、身心健康、精神解脱以及自我磨炼等产生良好的影响,与其余组别学生得分差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).结论 中等强度的体育锻炼可有效提升高校学生心理健康和心理韧性,值得关注.
Environmental factors and myopia: prospects for prevention
ZHANG Xin
2018, 39(1): 6-8,12.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.01.002
[Abstract](396) [PDF 387KB](26)
摘要:
我国儿童青少年的近视发病率居高不下,并呈低龄化的趋势,流行形势非常严峻,其中环境因素是近视病因研究的热点.本文对国内外儿童青少年近距离用眼、户外活动、睡眠时长、照明条件、饮食习惯等与近视发生的关系进行文献研究和分析,提出了针对社会、学校、家庭、学生和特殊个体不同角度的干预策略,以最大限度地保护儿童青少年的视力.
All-around strengthening actions to prevent myopia and promote vision health among children and adolescents in China
FAN Zemin, LIU Lijing
2018, 39(8): 1121-1123,1131.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.08.001
[Abstract](370) [PDF 382KB](29)
摘要:
党中央、国务院对青少年健康特别是视力健康高度重视,教育部门和学校切实把儿童青少年视力健康管理提上重要议程.该文阐明了当前我国儿童青少年近视防控和视力健康管理工作面临的形势,以及儿童青少年近视形成的主要原因.介绍了近年来教育部推动儿童青少年近视防控和视力健康管理开展的主要工作.并在此基础上提出下一步全面加强儿童青少年近视防控工作的重点任务,充分发挥卫生健康部门专业优势和教育部门的组织优势,从而更加有效地达到改善儿童青少年视力不良状况的目的.
Increased efforts to myopia prevention and control among children and adolescents in China
FAN Zemin, LIU Lijing, WANG Haitao
2018, 39(11): 1605-1608,1612.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.11.002
[Abstract](265) [PDF 476KB](20)
摘要:
为切实加强新时代儿童青少年近视防控工作,教育部、国家卫生健康委员会等八部门于近日颁布实施《综合防控儿童青少年近视实施方案》(以下简称《实施方案》),将防控儿童青少年近视上升为国家战略.该文阐述了《实施方案》的出台背景、政策亮点和重要部署,以及教育部等八部门、各省份和地方教育系统对《实施方案》的贯彻落实情况.提出下一步综合防控儿童青少年近视的重点任务为以问题导向和目标导向为指引,狠抓工作落实,强化考核刚性约束,完善“政府主导、部门协同、专家指导、科研支撑、学校参与、家庭支持、社会共治”的综合防控体系.
Mental health changes among college students and its relation with perceived social support
ZHANG Minting, ZHAO Jiubo, ZHANG Xiaoyuan, ZHAO Jingbo, YANG Xueling, CHEN Jie
2018, 39(2): 232-235.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.02.022
[Abstract](329) [PDF 386KB](9)
摘要:
探索大学生心理健康状况的动态发展规律及领悟社会支持的影响,为制定更有针对性的保护大学生心理健康的措施提供参考.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,使用大学生人格问卷(University Personality Inventory,UPI)和领悟社会支持量表(Perceived Social Support Scale,PSSS)对广州某高校2014年入学的2 301名大学生进行追踪研究.2次施测的时间分别是2014年9月23日和2016年9月25日.结果 大三时学生的UPI得分(9.18±8.49)低于大一(10.11±7.87)(t=29.90,P<0.01).大三时学生严重心理问题的人数比例比大一上升1.0百分点,一般心理问题的人数比例下降1.7百分点,心理健康的人数比例上升0.7百分点(x2=377.59,P<0.01).女生UPI得分(10.09±8.32)高于男生(8.81±7.91)(t=17.13,P<0.01).领悟社会支持水平越高,UPI得分越低(F=149.65,P<0.01).大一时学生UPI为A类(严重心理问题)且低领悟社会支持的大三UPI得分最高,大一UPI为C类(心理健康)且高领悟社会支持的大三UPI得分最低;高领悟社会支持条件下,大一UPI A/B(一般心理问题)/C类的学生大三UPI得分均低于低领悟社会支持条件下的学生.结论 大学生入校后,心理健康状况呈2个动态两极化的趋势发展.领悟社会支持能力对大学生心理健康动态发展具有持续性的调节作用.
Epidemiologic characteristics of Norovirus outbreak in schools and kindergardens in China during 2014-2018
LIAN Yiyao, LUO Hongmei, RAN Lu, LUO Li, WANG Liping, LI Zhongjie
2019, 40(3): 406-410.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2019.03.025
[Abstract](262) [PDF 416KB](15)
摘要:
了解中国学校和托幼机构诺如病毒聚集和暴发疫情的流行病学特征,为科学开展诺如疫情防控提供依据.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,统计2014-2018年全国学校和托幼机构诺如病毒聚集和暴发疫情,分析比较罹患率、疫情持续时间、报告及时性等指标.结果 2014-2018年中国学校和托幼机构共报告诺如病毒疫情832起,疫情数整体呈现上升趋势,年平均增长率为58%,累计报告发病人数40 445例,无死亡病例.诺如病毒疫情主要发生在小学(42%),其次为托幼机构和中学(均占24%)、大学(6%)及其他学校(4%).每年3-5月和11-12月疫情高发,江苏和广东(均占22%)报告疫情数最多.疫情传播途径主要为人传人(72%),食源性传播(4%)和水源性传播(3%)引起的疫情较少;疫情持续时间与疫情报告及时性(r=0.63,P<0.05)、单起疫情发病人数(r=0.51,P<0.05)呈正相关.结论 诺如病毒疫情主要发生在小学,传播途径多为人传人;学校和托幼机构应规范呕吐物消毒处理;对聚集和暴发疫情早发现、早报告、早处置能有效控制诺如病毒疫情蔓延.
Expert interpretation on appropriate technical guidelines for prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents
TAO Fangbiao
2020, 41(2): 166-168,172.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2020.02.002
[Abstract](437) [PDF 186KB](9)
摘要:
儿童青少年近视防控是一项系统工程,需要政府主导、全社会共同努力.为扎实推进近视防控工作,普及近视防控的适宜技术,国家卫生健康委员会颁布实施了《儿童青少年近视防控适宜技术指南》(简称《指南》).本文围绕《指南》的背景、意义和主要内容等方面进行解读,以提高公共卫生专业工作者和关注儿童青少年近视防控工作相关人员对《指南》内容的理解.
Relationship between bullying and suicide-related behaviors among middle school students
TANG Hanmei, YANG Lixia, FU Shujian, ZHANG Liming, FU Yanyan, CHEN Xiaolong, HU Wang, HE Heng, LI Huanhuan, HUANG Peng
2018, 39(1): 60-63.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.01.018
[Abstract](347) [PDF 366KB](10)
摘要:
探索中学生校园欺凌和自杀相关行为的关系,为中学生校园伤害的防控提供依据.方法 方便抽取南昌市和抚州市3所中学共7 129名中学生作为被试,使用Olweus欺负问卷、青少年健康危险行为问卷中自杀相关条目进行问卷调查.结果 中学生校园欺凌行为报告率为21.5%,其中仅被欺凌者为13.7%,仅欺凌者为2.7%,欺凌—被欺凌者为5.1%,均为男生高于女生(P值均<0.01).中学生自杀意念、自杀计划和自杀未遂3种自杀相关行为的报告率分别为23.9%,10.6%和3.0%.控制相关混杂因素后,校园被欺凌、欺凌、欺凌—被欺凌均增加中学生自杀意念、自杀计划、自杀未遂的发生风险(OR值为2.21~3.20,P值均<0.01).结论 中学生校园欺凌是自杀相关行为的重要影响因素,减少校园欺凌可能对自杀相关行为的防控具有重要意义.
Development and evaluation on reliability and validity of Adolescent Non-suicidal Self-injury Assessment Questionnaire
WAN Yuhui, LIU Wan, HAO Jiahu, TAO Fangbiao
2018, 39(2): 170-173.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.02.005
[Abstract](462) [PDF 354KB](39)
摘要:
编制适合我国使用的青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷,并对其信效度进行评价,为更好地了解我国青少年非自杀性自杀行为提供工具.方法 自行编制青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷.采用分层整群抽样方法,选取沈阳、郑州、南昌和深圳部分在校初、高中学生,共15 096人进行问卷调查.通过同质信度、分半信度、结构效度等评价问卷的信效度.选取合肥市某中学94名学生使用自残功能性评估问卷(Functional Assessment of Self-mutilation,FASM)作为校标问卷进行调查,考察问卷的效标关联效度.结果 青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷分为行为问卷(12个条目)和功能问卷(19个条目)2部分.行为问卷的Cronbachα系数为0.921,分半信度为0.851,重测信度为0.843,累计方差贡献率为64.914%,与校标问卷FASM行为维度得分的相关系数r=0.833(P<0.01).功能问卷总分的Cronbach α系数为0.905,分半信度为0.786,重测信度为0.805,累计方差贡献率为53.871%,与校标问卷FASM功能维度得分的相关系数r=0.859(P<0.01).结论 青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷具有较好的信效度,可作为我国青少年非自杀性自伤行为和功能的评定工具.
Correlation between behavioral problems and nutrient intake in school-age children
CHENG Yu, SUN Yaowu, CHAO Hong
2018, 39(6): 832-835.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.06.009
[Abstract](695) [PDF 362KB](201)
Abstract:
Release report of the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health
Department of Physical Health and Arts Education Ministry of Education
2021, 42(9): 1281-1282.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.001
[Abstract](1240) [FullText HTML](538) [PDF 282KB](538)
Abstract:
In 2019 the Ministry of Education and other departments launched the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health in accordance with the National Student Physique and Health Survey System approved by the State Council in 1987.The general improvement student physical and health in China has been made and the primary factors enhaneing students' physical fitness and health have been put forward.In terms of the findings in this survey the following relevant arrangements are proposed comprehensively strengthening and improving school physical education implementing school health and health education policy requirements continuing comprehensive prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents and implementing the national plan for the construction of healthy schools.

Found in 1980 Monthly

Competent Authorities: National Health Commission

Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association

ISSN1000-9817

CN34-1092/R

Awards