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Improving cardiorespiratory fitness to promote the development of executive function in adolescents
YIN Xiaojian, LI Ying
2024, 45(3): 305-308.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024084
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Executive function development is crucial for the overall development of physical and mental health, improvement of mental health literacy, and enhancement of adolescent health and well-being in the adolescent population. It is scientific and feasible to promote the development of executive function by improving the cardiorespiratory fitness of adolescents. Therefore, it is important to grasp the "cardiorespiratory fitness improvement" and actively explore ways and methods to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and thus promote the executive function of adolescents, in order to comprehensively strengthen the construction of the adolescent mental health protection mechanism and work system, and to improve the work of students' mental health in the new era.
Interpretation and mirror of the National Health Education Standards in the United States
LIU Haohui, WAN Xue, YIN Zhihua, JIANG Jiajun, LI Yunan
2024, 45(3): 309-312.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024070
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In the context of frequent public health events, effective school health education is an important measure to improve students' health literacy and public health system of China. The study examined the National Health Education Standards in the U.S., based on a literature review and comparative analysis, to provide guidance for China. Using the method of liberature riview paper interprets the curriculum of National Health Education Standards in the U.S. and provides a mirror for China. Health Education standards in the U.S. are characterized by their academic quality, standardized framework, assessment program, equity principles, and other components. A mirror for China includes promoting the construction of the standards-based health education curriculum, developing the skills-based health education curriculum system, and constructing a performance-based comprehensive evaluation system.
Executive functions of obese adolescents
LI Ying, YIN Xiaojian, MA Yuanyuan, WANG Jinxian, WU Huipan, ZHANG Yingkun, SHI Lijuan, LI Yong
2024, 45(3): 313-316.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024085
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  Objective  To explore of executive function in obese adolescents, so as to provide a reference for executive function enhancement intervention in obese adolescents.  Methods  A convenience sample of 1 227 adolescents aged 13-18 years was selected from 2 secondary schools in Taiyuan City during March-April 2023. The Flanker task, N-back task and More-odd shifting task was used to compare the different subfunctions of executive function (refreshing function, shifting function, inhibiting function) of 61 obese adolescents and 70 normal-weight adolescents. Independent samples t-tests was used for between-group comparisons and Cohen's d-tests was used to calculate between-group differences in executive function between the two groups of adolescents.  Results  Compared with the group of normal weight, time responses of the inhibitory function, the refreshing function and the shifting function in the obese group were significantly longer than those in the normal weight group (t=4.26, 4.06, 1.92, 2.26, P < 0.05); inhibitory function (0.91±0.09) and 1-back (0.73±0.24) were also significantly less correct than in the normal weight group (0.94±0.05, 0.83±0.21) (t=-2.04, -2.04, P < 0.05). Obese adolescents showed moderate adverse effect sizes in the inhibition function (d=0.746, 0.712) and the refresh function 1-back, and smaller adverse effect sizes in the refresh function 2-back and the conversion function(d=0.497, 0.398).  Conclusion  Obese adolescents have significant executive function deficits, but the degree of adverse varies across sub-functions, with inhibitory function being the core deficit component of executive function in obese adolescents.
Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in adolescents
WU Huipan, YIN Xiaojian, CHEN Fule, GUO Yaru, ZHANG Yingkun, WANG Jinxian, SHAN Ying, SHI Lijuan, MA Yuanyuan
2024, 45(3): 317-321.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024086
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in Chinese adolescents, so as to provide a reference for promoting the overall development of Chinese adolescents' physical and mental health.  Methods  From September to December 2022, a total of 5 018 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from Shanghai, Suzhou, Taiyuan, Wuyuan, Xingyi, and Urumqi were selected by stratified cluster sampling method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function. Pearson's correlation and linear hierarchical regression were performed to analyze the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive functions.  Results  Among the sample of adolescents, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was negatively correlated with the refreshing(1-back, 2-back) and conversion executive function responses (r=-0.07, -0.12, -0.12, P < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed that VO2max was negatively correlated with the reaction times of the refreshing(1-back, 2-back) and conversion functions (B=-2.99, -6.44, -1.69, P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Higher cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescents is associated with better performance in executive function. Teenagers should strengthen high-intensity cardiopulmonary endurance exercise to promote the improvement of executive function.
Intervention effects of moderate and high intensities of classroom physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function among junior grade one students in Tibetan
BI Cunjian, YIN Xiaojian, SHI Lijuan, WU Huipan, WANG Jinxian, SHAN Ying, LI Jun, WANG Meng
2024, 45(3): 322-325.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024083
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  Objective  To explore the intervention effect of different intensity of classroom physical exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function of Tibetan first-grade-students at high altitude, so as to provide reference for improving the level of cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function of Tibetan adolescents.  Methods  From September to December 2020, 184 Tibetan students from five first-grade-classes in a middle school in Lhasa, Tibet, were randomly assigned into a control group (81 students in two classes) and an intervention group (103 students in three classes). Both groups followed the same teaching programme, but the intervention group received 36 sessions of moderate-to high-intensity classroom physical activity, one session per day, Monday, Wednesday and Friday, for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function were tested by 20m round-trip running and Flanker's experimental paradigm, 2-back's experimental paradigm, and More-odd shifting experimental paradigm for inhibitory control, refreshing memory, and switching flexibility, and the results were analysed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare the results of the pre-and post-intervention periods.  Results  The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of Tibetan first grade students in the intervention group increased by 2.25 mL/(kg·min) compared with the control group after the intervention (t=-3.89, P < 0.01); the response time of the inhibitory function was reduced by 4.40 ms, that of the refreshing function by 196.06 ms, and that of the switching function by 92.72 ms in the intervention group compared with the control group (t=2.98, 4.82, 3.21, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The 12-week moderate-to high-intensity classroom physical activity intervention has different degrees of improvement effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in Tibetan adolescents.
Effects of moderate-intensity gymnastics on executive function in children aged 5 to 6 years
ZHANG Jianhua, LU Jiacheng, LIU Min, YAN Xiaofan
2024, 45(3): 326-329.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024082
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  Objective  The study aims to investigate the impact of moderate-intensity gymnastics on the development of executive function in children aged 5-6, thereby providing a theoretical foundation for exercise interventions targeting executive function.  Methods  A total of 63 preschool children, randomly seleted from 3 senior classes in a private kindergarten in Shangqiu, were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=31) and control group (n=32). Children in the intervention group participated in 60-minute-gymnastics at a moderate intensity, three times per week, for a total duration of 12 weeks. Concurrently, myzone technology was utilized to monitor exercise intensity throughout the entire intervention period. Children in the control group maintained their regular activities. Inhibitory control (Flanker task), working memory (Empty house task), and cognitive flexibility (Dots task) were assessed before and after the experiment.  Results  There was no statistically significant difference in the performance of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility tasks between the two groups of children before intervention (P > 0.05).The results of covariance analysis revealed significant differences in reaction time and accuracy across inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility between the intervention group and the control group (F=6.84, 4.50, 4.87, 6.11, 3.74, 5.06, P < 0.05). The intervention effect exhibited modest effects(d=0.17-0.74).  Conclusions  Moderate-intensity gymnastics can make modest or moderate effect on improving children's executive function. Brain imaging technology can be incorporated into future research designs to investigate the underlying mechanisms of gymnastics' impact on the brain structure and executive function in young children.
Association between sedentary behaviors with cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function among adolescents
SHANG Wenjin, YIN Xiaojian, WANG Jinxian, HONG Jun, SHI Lijuan, GUO Junfeng, WANG Tianyi, LIU Yixuan
2024, 45(3): 330-334.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024091
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between sedentary behavior with cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in adolescents, and to provide some references for sedentary behavior prevention and executive function improvement.  Methods  From September to December 2022, a total of 5 018 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years were selected by stratified random sampling method in Shanghai, Suzhou, Taiyuan, Wuyuan, Xingyi, and Urumqi to conduct physical activity survey, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function assessment. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the relationship between sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function. The mediation effect model was fitted by the bootstrap mediation procedure in the PROCESS (version 3.3) SPSS macro compiled by Haves, and the mediation effect of adolescents' cardiorespiratory fitness in the relationship between static behavior and executive function was examined using model 4 in the PROCESS SPSS macro, where Boosrap method was used to compute the mediation effect of adolescents' cardiorespiratory fitness. where the Boosrap method was used to calculate confidence intervals for the mediating effects.  Results  Adolescents' daily sedentary time was positively correlated with both the refreshing function (1-back and 2-back) and the switch function reaction time (r=0.05, 0.07, 0.05, P < 0.01). Adolescent VO2max was negatively correlated with both the refreshing function (1-back, 2-back) and the switching function (r=-0.09, -0.14, -0.11, P < 0.01). Adolescents' daily sedentary time was negatively correlated with VO2max (r=-0.04, P < 0.01); cardiorespiratory fitness mediated effect values between sedentary behavior and refreshing function (1-back and 2-back) and converted function were 0.20(95%CI=0.06-0.36), 0.43(95%CI=0.14-0.74) and 0.13 (95%CI=0.04-0.22), with mediating effect shares of 6.87%, 8.33% and 8.59%, respectively.  Conclusion  The duration of sedentary behavior in adolescents is related to executive function performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness may serve as a mediator to mediate the association between sedentary behavior and executive function in adolescents.
Differences in gut microbiota among primary school students with different levels of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption
ZHANG Qin, LIU Xueting, ZHANG Kexin, TIAN Ye, HE Chunlei, WANG Yidi, XU Yujie, SHAN Shufang, WANG Xiaoyu, XIONG Jingyuan, CHENG Guo, HE Fang
2024, 45(3): 335-340.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024093
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  Objective  To explore the differences in the gut microbiota of primary school students with different levels of sugar-sweetened beverage intake, so as to provide scientific evidence for better identification of health risks in children and the development of targeted health policies.  Methods  In June 2022, a total of 192 healthy primary school students from Chengdu were selected using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The sugar-sweetened beverage intake was assessed through a dietary frequency questionnaire. Based on the median daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake, primary school students were categorized into a low-intake group (n=96) and a high-intake group (n=96). The gut microbiota in fresh fecal samples from the two groups of primary school students was analyzed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, and the diversity and community structure differences in the gut microbiota were compared.  Results  Children in the low-intake group had a sugar-sweetened beverage intake of (21.3±1.6) mL/d, while the high-intake group had an intake of (269.6±37.3) mL/d. Diversity analysis results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the low-intake and the high-intake group in terms of α diversity metrics: Observed_otus index [298.50 (259.75, 342.25), 305.50 (244.25, 367.75)], Goods_coverage index [1.00 (1.00, 1.00), 1.00 (1.00, 1.00)], Chao index [304.18 (260.75, 348.78), 305.88 (245.68, 370.88)], Shannon index [5.88 (5.29, 6.45), 5.71 (4.89, 6.28)] and Simpson index [0.95 (0.91, 0.97), 0.94 (0.88, 0.97)] (Z=-0.64, -0.76, -0.54, -1.76, -1.67, P>0.05). Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was observed in β diversity between the two groups (R2=0.006, P>0.05). At the genus level, the abundance of Blautia [0.033 (0.018, 0.055)] and Fusicatenibacter [0.009 (0.005, 0.015)] were higher in the low-intake group compared to the high-intake group [0.024 (0.013, 0.041), 0.006 (0.003, 0.011)]and differences were statistically significant (Z=-2.52, -2.81, P < 0.05). LEfSe analysis highlighted intergroup differences primarily in Blautia, Fusicatenibacter and Sarcina(LDA=3.56, 3.12, 3.53, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  There is no significant difference in the diversity and overall structure of the gut microbiota in primary school students with different levels of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. However, there are species variations at the genus level. The information can serve as a scientific basis for identifying health risks in primary school students and formulating targeted health strategies.
Effects of community building environment and sports with fitness APP usage on physical exercise habits in teachers in the Yangtze River Delta Region
WU Jin, LUO Yan, ZHANG Jiuyang, LIU Kuo, YANG Yuhang, LI Liqiang, LI Weimin
2024, 45(3): 341-345.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024089
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  Objective  To explore the effects of community building environment and sports with fitness APP usage and their interactions on teachers' exercise habits in the Yangtze River Delta Region, so as to provide a scientific basis for the development of a sports and health promotion intervention program for teachers.  Methods  A total of 2 530 in-service teachers from four provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Anhui Province, were sampled in May-June 2023 by using convenient cluster random sampling method. Self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the basic information of the surveyed teachers, Physical Activity Building Environment Evaluation Questionnaire and the Sports with Fitness APP Usage Questionnaire were used to measure the teachers' subjective perception of the community building environment and the usage of sports with fitness APP, respectively. Physical Exercise Habituation Scale was used to assess the level of exercise habits. Logistic regression models were applied to analyze the effects of community building environment and sports with fitness APP usage on physical exercise, and the interaction effects were analyzed by using additive and multiplicative models.  Results  Among all the teachers surveyed, 658 of them reported good physical exercise habits (26.0%), and differences in the rate of physical activity habit formation by gender, age, years of teaching, as well as subject of teaching were statistically significant (χ2=42.94, 39.73, 35.47, 218.23, P < 0.05). Teachers with physical exercise habits had significantly higher community building environment scores and sports and fitness APP use than teachers without exercise habits (t=12.17, 16.54, P < 0.05). Adjusting for the confounders of age, gender, years of teaching experience, and subjects taught, multifactorial unconditional Logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of teachers having good physical exercise habits increased by 22% for every 1-point increase in the community building environment score on average (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.11-1.40), and the probability of teachers having good physical exercise habits increased by 16% for every 1-point increase in the sports with fitness APP score on average (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.03-1.31) (P < 0.05). Interaction analyses showed that there was an additive interaction between the effects of community building environment and sports and fitness APP use on teachers' physical exercise habits after adjustment, and the 95%CI for RERI, API and SI were 1.17-1.65, 0.12-0.46 and 1.78-3.33 (P < 0.05), respectively, and there was no multiplicative interaction (P>0.05).  Conclusions  The community building environment and the usage of sports & fitness APP show impacts in the formation of teachers' physical exercise habits in the Yangtze River Delta region, and there is an interaction effect. Enhancing the construction of smart sports centers around the community can provide a high-quality external environment for the physical exercise habits formation.
Analysis of health risk behaviors among middle school students in Beijing City from 2018 to 2022
LUO Huijuan, GAO Ruoyi, ZHAO Hai, CHEN Dongni, SUN Bingjie, GUO Xin
2024, 45(3): 346-352.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024045
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  Objective  To analyze the status of health risk behaviors among middle school students in Beijing City from 2018 to 2022, in order to provide reference for scientific and effective intervention.  Methods  Using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, data of student health and associated factors monitoring among 84 712 middle school students from 16 districts of Beijing during 2018 to 2022 were compared regarding the differences of health risk behaviors among students in different groups by Chi-quare test. And their change trends were evaluated by annual percentage change (APC).  Results  In the five surveys during 2018 to 2022, reporting rates of unhealthy diet, unintentional injury, intentional injury, substance abuse and Internet addiction (only in 2018 and 2020) behaviors were higher in boys than in girls (χ2=4.91-297.52, P < 0.05).Reporting rate of physical inactivity behavior in girls was higher than that in boys (χ2=56.49-160.88, P < 0.05). Reporting rates of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, unintentional injury (except 2021), substance abuse and Internet addiction (only in 2018 and 2019) behaviors were the highest in vocational high school, followed by general high school, and the lowest in junior middle school (χ2=23.30-1 285.98, P < 0.01). Intentional injury behavior was highest in junior high school, followed by vocational high school, and lowest in general high school (χ2=96.18-378.32, P < 0.01).Reporting rate of Internet addiction (2020-2022) behavior was highest in general high school, followed by vocational high school, and lowest in junior high school (χ2=16.93-60.11, P < 0.01). Reporting rates of unhealthy diet, intentional injury (2020 and 2022) and substance abuse (except 2018) behaviors were higher in suburban areas than in urban areas (χ2=6.70-117.56, P < 0.05). Reporting rates of physical inactivity, unintentional injury, intentional injury (2018 and 2019) and Internet addiction behaviors were higher in urban areas than in suburban areas (χ2=3.90-130.80, P < 0.05). Standardized rates of unintentional injury, intentional injury, substance abuse and Internet addiction behaviors showed a statistically significant downward trend from 2018 to 2022 (APC=-14.16, -13.43, -16.03, -8.48, t=-6.94, -4.46, -11.98, -4.36, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  During 2018-2022, unintentional injury, intentional injury, substance abuse and Internet addiction behaviors of middle school students in Beijing City have improved, and the reporting rates of unhealthy diet and physical inactivity behaviors are high and don't show a downward trend. Efforts should be made to strengthen intervention in unhealthy diet and physical inactivity behaviors among middle school students, in order to reduce the occurrence of health risk behaviors.
Analysis of high school students' health literacy level and related factors
SHI Chongyan, SHEN Hejun, CHEN Yan, XU Benru
2024, 45(3): 353-357.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024097
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  Objective  To understand the level of health literacy and influencing factors of Chinese general high school students, so as to provide scientific evidence for health promotion of high school students.  Methods  A multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to conduct an on-site survey on the health literacy status of 8 265 high school students in 31 provinces of China by using the National Health Literacy Monitoring Questionnaire from October 2018 to June 2019. SPSS 25.0 software was used to conduct one-way test and multifactor Logistic regression analysis of different demographic characteristics.  Results  The health literacy level of Chinese general high school students was 7.1%; the three dimensions of literacy were ranked in descending order as follows: basic skills (21.3%), healthy lifestyles and behaviors (20.5%), and basic knowledge and concepts of health (7.8%); and the literacy levels of the six categories of health issues, in descending order, were basic medical care (88.3%), health information (75.9%), safety and first aid (51.0%), infectious disease prevention (44.2%), scientific health concept (39.0%) and chronic disease prevention (5.5%). Multifactorial Logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, region, family residence, school type, grade level, and father's education were the factors influencing the health literacy level of Chinese high school students(OR=2.08, 0.60/0.24, 0.44, 0.71, 1.41/0.51, 1.37, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The overall health literacy level of Chinese high school students is low, ethnicity, region, family residence, school type, grade level and father's education are factors influencing the health literacy level of Chinese high school students. It is recommended that all departments at all levels focus on categorized governance to improve the health literacy level of high school students, taking into account the realities and characteristics of high school students' health literacy level.
Tobacco use and associated factors among high school students in Shannan City, Tibet in 2023
BIAN Madunzhu, SUO Langduobujie, DE Qing, ZONG Ji, DAN Zengluobu, BAI Malaji
2024, 45(3): 358-361.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024078
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  Objective  To understand the current situation and related factors of tobacco use among high school students in Shannan City, so as to provide reference for tobacco control strategies for high school students.  Methods  A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 10 052 high school students from 6 high schools in Shannan City, Tibetan Autonomous Region by census methods from April to July in 2023. The comparison of rates was conducted by using Chi-square test, and the influencing factors of tobacco use among high school students were analyzed using binomial classification Logistic regression.  Results  The rate of high school students in Shannan City trying cigarettes was 17.63%, and the current smoking rate was 10.07%, both of which were higher in boys than girls, and higher in urban areas than in rural areas (χgender2=1 262.35, 869.79; χarea2=35.90, 29.16, P < 0.01). The smoking rate of students with parents and good friends smoking was higher than that of students with parents and good friends not smoking(χ2=190.50, 1 741.44), and the current smoking rate showed an upward trend with age and age (χtrend2=74.87, 122.86)(P < 0.01). The tobacco dependence rate was 41.80%; 75.30% wanted to quit smoking, 83.99% had received smoking cessation assistance, but had received less professional smoking cessation assistance (13.41%). Logistic regression analysis showed that vocational high school students, senior students (second and third grade), parents' smoking (both smoking, mother smoking), and good friends smoking (some smoking, most smoking, all smoking) were positively correlated with smoking cigarettes among high school students (OR=1.51, 1.54, 2.17, 2.22, 1.69, 5.30, 13.28, 8.59, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The smoking rate of high school students in Shannan City is high and second-hand smoke exposure is common. Vocational high schools are the key to prevention and control. Effective cooperation between families, schools, and society should be strengthened to create a smoke-free environment and protect students from tobacco hazards.
Effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality education curriculum on improving hostile and benevolent sexism among university students
LU Mingqi, GUO Lingfeng, LIU Wenli
2024, 45(3): 362-366.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024080
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  Objective  To explore the effectiveness of a comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) curriculum on university students' hostile and benevolent sexism, so as to provide a reference for evaluating the effects of CSE on reducing ambivalent sexism.  Methods  From September 2018 to January 2019, 165 university students from a university in Beijing were recruited using convenience sampling for a 5-month of CSE curriculum (36 sessions, 2 sessions per week, 45 min per session), including CSE and gender studies, sexual physiology and health, gender and gender roles, gender bias, intimate relationships and gender bias, gender-based violence and gender bias, culture and gender bias, and gender and power. Students who took CSE curriculum were included in the intervention group (n=97) and students from the same university who had not taken CSE curriculum were included in the control group (n=68). Using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, both groups of university students were surveyed before and after the curriculum to analyze the effectiveness of the CSE curriculum. Chi-square test, ANOVA, cluster analysis and Kruskal Wallis test were used for statistical analysis.  Results  After the CSE curriculum, both hostile and benevolent sexism scores were lower in the intervention group (2.21±0.76, 2.36±0.68) than in the control group (2.81±0.61, 3.03±0.60) (F=17.24, 33.26), and pre-test scores were higher in the intervention group (2.64±0.67, 2.88±0.68) (F=45.62, 66.93) (P < 0.01). On both hostile and benevolent sexism, female students' scores (2.46±0.72, 2.65±0.70) were lower than male students' scores (2.86±0.59, 3.09±0.69) (F=11.02, 14.20, P < 0.01). Comparison of the curriculum effectiveness of hostile and benevolent sexism among clustered groups showed that the difference in hostile sexism scores was higher in the inconsistent type [0.63(0.25, 1.25)]than in the more consistent type [0.38(-0.16, 0.88)] and the lower consistent type [0.38(0.06, 0.63)] (H=8.71, P < 0.05); and the difference in benevolent sexism scores was higher in the more consistent type [0.75(0.53, 1.22)] than in the less consistent type [0.38(0.09, 0.88)] and inconsistent type [0.38(-0.13, 0.63)] (H=10.82, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  CSE can improve hostile and benevolent sexism in university students with sex and type differences. Attention should be paid to CSE curriculum to improve ambivalent sexism among university students with a view to fostering their awareness of gender equality.
Sleep quality among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen City
DAI Lijun, WU Qingjun, HE Lin
2024, 45(3): 367-369.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024046
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  Objective  To understand sleep quarity among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen City, so as to provide data support for sleeping quality improvement.  Methods  A survey was conducted among 8 742 children selected from two 12-year schools in Longhua District of Shenzhen City, by purposive sampling method from December 22, 2020 to January 15, 2021. The general information was investigated with the self-designed questionnaire, and sleep disturbance was investigated and evaluated with the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). And Chi-square test was applied for data analysis.  Results  About 47.61% of primary and middle school students in Shenzhen City reported sleep disturbance, 10.84% of students had moderate to severe sleep disturbance. The overall rate of sleep disturbance and moderate and to severe sleep disturbance among primary school students (48.03%, 10.04%), junior middle schools (45.89%, 11.30%), senior middle schools (52.61%, 16.83%) were found of statistically significant differences (χ2=8.89, 27.05, P < 0.05). The time to fall asleep for primary school students, junior school students and senior school students at night during the study period were 22:00-23:00 (90.35%), 22:00-23:00 (62.37%), and 23:00-01:00 (61.44%), respectively, and the time to fall asleep of the different stages students were found of statistically significant differences (χ2=1 470.17, P < 0.01). About 41.04% of students could fall asleep within 15 minutes and 50.57% could fall asleep within 15 to 30 minutes, and the differences in the latency for different stages students to fall asleep at night were of statistical significance (χ2=82.92, P < 0.01); 8.03% of primary and middle school students had a night sleep time of over 9 hours, and 45.97% had a night sleep time of 8-9 hours, and the differences in the night sleep time among different stages students were of statistical significance (χ2=1 292.86, P < 0.01).  Conclusions  The main sleep problems among primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen City are insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality. The relevant departments should emphasize the sleep health education among children and their parents, so as to improve their sleep quality.
Correlation between screen time, screen behavior type and anxiety, depression among children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province
CHEN Ting, LUO Yaling, HU Huaxiong, SONG Xiaoguang, CHEN Fuhui, FAN Yi, FANG Xiaoyan, ZHU Hui
2024, 45(3): 370-374.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024077
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  Objective  To analyze the status and correlation between screen time, screen behavior type, and anxiety, depression among children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province, so as to provide a basis for effective intervention measures.  Methods  Using the method of stratified random sampling, 8 851 primary and secondary school students in 11 districts of Jiangxi Province were investigated by questionnaire during September to December in 2020. Anxiety and depression status were investigated using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children(CES-DC), respectively. Single factor analysis using χ2-test, t-test, analysis of variance, and multivariate analysis using generalized linear models.  Results  On school days and weekends, 4.7% and 20.4% of primary and secondary school students in Jiangxi Province had a total screen time of over 2 hours per day, respectively. The weighted scores of the total screen time (primary school students: 1.88±0.68, junior middle school students: 1.96±0.71, high school students: 2.03±0.80) and time spent for playing video games (primary school students: 1.51±0.64, junior middle school students: 1.62±0.69, high school students: 1.68±0.75) daily showed an upward trend with the increase of educational stage (F=31.48, 42.13), and with significantly higher in boys (1.97±0.74, 1.66±0.72) than girls (1.93±0.72, 1.53±0.66)(t=2.48, 9.07)(P < 0.05). The average scores of state anxiety and trait anxiety were (42.20±9.05) and (40.65±9.85), which showed an upward trend with the increase of educational stage (F=168.12, 241.98), and were higher in girls than boys (t=6.63, 8.48)(P < 0.01). The average score of depression was (11.99±11.00), which was lower in elementary school students than middle school students and high school students (F=136.42), with significantly higher in girls (t=6.85)(P < 0.01). On school days, with the increase of total screen time and time spent for playing video games daily, the risk of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression among primary and secondary school students significantly increased (OR=6.70-818.98, P < 0.01). On weekends, among primary and secondary school students, the total screen time of >1-2 hours daily reduced the risk of state anxiety (OR=0.30). The risk of developing trait anxiety among students playing video games for more than 2 hours daily was 2.50 times higher than those without screen behavior (OR=2.50). The risk of developing depression with a total screen time of more than 2 hours daily was 3.15 times higher those whithout screen behavior (OR=3.15). The risk of developing depression among students playing video games >0-1, >1-2, >2 h daily was 2.14, 2.50, 4.90 times that of those without screen behaviors (OR=2.14, 2.50, 4.90), and showed an upward trend with the increase of educational stage (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Screen behaviors of primary and middle school students in Jiangxi Province are positively associated with the risk of anxiety and depression, but the total daily video time of >1-2 h on weekends was negatively associated with state anxiety. It is necessary to control the screen time as much as possible and reduce the risk of anxiety and depression.
Functional near infrared imaging of college students on speech fluency tasks in traumatized
ZHENG Minxiao, ZHU Dongmei, WEI Qiang, XIANG Nian, QIU Min, XIAO Qiang, LI Xiaonan, ZHANG Yan
2024, 45(3): 375-378.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024068
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  Objective  The study aims to explore the neural mechanism of cognitive differences in college students with posttraumatic stress disorder under verbal fluency task based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), so as to provide neuroimaging support for the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD).  Methods  Posttaumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Combat(PCL-C) was used to screen the subjects, including 21 students in PTSD group (PCL-C≥38) and 30 students in control group from September to Novenber in 2020. A 53-channel near-infrared spectroscopy device was used to collect cerebral blood oxygen signals under the verbal fluency task, and correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and independent sample t test were performed on the results.  Results  The difference in the total average score of PCL-C Scale between PTSD group and the control group(46.38±6.96, 25.57±6.09) was statistically significant (t=11.33, P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that Avg-HbO in left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe was negatively correlated with PCL-C Score (r=-0.37, P < 0.05). Mann-Whitney U test showed that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (Ch6), the Avg-HbO change in PTSD group [0.19(-0.09, 0.86)mmol/(L ·mm)] was significantly lower than the control group [0.79(0.37, 1.47)mmol/(L ·mm)] (Z=2.16, P < 0.05), which was statistically significant.  Conclusions  The degree of PTSD was negatively correlated with the index of oxygenated hemoglobin in the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe, and the oxygenated hemoglobin content in the PTSD group was lower than that in the normal group. In the future, fNIRS may be used to collect blood oxygen signals from the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe in cognitive tasks to provide imaging evidence for the identification of PTSD.
Effects of happy physical education on physical education learning burnout, body shape and mental health of college students
LIU Tong, JIANG Jingke
2024, 45(3): 379-383.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024096
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  Objective  To explore the effects of happy physical education based on constructivism on physical education learning burnout, body shape and mental health of college students, so as to provide a reference for the reform of physical education teaching in universities.  Methods  By using cluster sampling method, students from two teaching classes of the 2022 physical badminton elective course were enrolled as the research objects at Shanghai Institute of Commerce and Foreign Languages from September to December 2022. They were randomly divided into experimental group (n=38) and control group (n=40) by drawing lots. The control group received routine physical education teaching for 16 weeks, with 2 class hours weekly and 45 minutes per class hour. While the experimental group was given happy physical education based on constructivism, with a teaching process of building a framework, independent exploration, collaborative learning, and effect evaluation. The idea was to integrate Happy Sports into badminton technology and tactical training courses, emphasizing the fun of sports activities, and drawing on various forms of sports games when designing sports activities. Two groups of students were tested for body shape, surveyed with the Physical Education Learning Burnout Scale and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The scores of Physical Education Learning Burnout Scale, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, body fat rate and SCL-90 were compared between the two groups by t-test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact probability test.  Results  At the end of the semester, BMI [(21.58±1.59, 22.30±1.46)kg/m2], waist-to-hip ratio (0.75±0.08, 0.79±0.07) and body fat rate [(19.77±2.50)%, (21.02±2.46)%] in experimental group were lower than those in control group (t=-2.09, -2.35, -2.23, P < 0.05). The scores of depression (15.10±3.92, 17.24±4.18), improper behaviors (13.60±3.05, 15.48±3.52) and low sense of achievement (5.52±1.36, 6.54±1.42) and total score of Physical Education Learning Burnout Scale (34.22±7.55, 39.26±7.86) in experimental group were lower than those in control group (t=-2.33, -2.52, -3.24, -2.89, P < 0.05). The scores of somatization (16.27±3.75, 18.57±4.12), interpersonal sensitivity (14.30±4.57, 16.85±4.21), depression (17.02±3.89, 19.36±4.28) and anxiety (12.68±3.96, 15.32±3.87), and total scores of SCL-90 (127.87±22.54, 140.54±25.83) in experimental group were lower than those in control group (t=-2.57, -2.57, -2.52, -3.00, -2.30, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The happy physical education mode based on constructivism can alleviate learning burnout, improve mental health and optimize body shape of college students. Appropriate reforms should be made to the teaching mode of physical education in universities to promote the physical and mental health development of college students.
Relationship between ruminative thinking, life events and learning value doubt among junior high school students
XU Jing, FAN Chunlei, WANG Ligang, TAO Ting, GAO Wenbin
2024, 45(3): 384-387.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024081
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  Objective  To explore the mediating effect of rumination between life events and learning value doubt among junior high school students, so as to provide reference for the psychological health education of junior high school students.  Methods  From March to July 2023, a total of 930 junior high school students from Guangdong, Jiangsu and Hebei were selected by a combination of convenient sampling methods. Participants completed the Scales of Value of Learning (SVL), Ruminative Response scale (RRS) and Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC). The t-test and ANOVA were used for inter-group comparisons and Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis and bootstrap method was used for mediating effect test.  Results  The life events of junior middle school students were positively correlated with learning value doubt (r=0.18), rumination (r=0.65) and its three dimensions (brooding, reflective pondering, and symptom-focused rumination) (r=0.60, 0.59, 0.66). Learning value doubt was positively correlated with rumination (r=0.15) and its three dimensions (r=0.07, 0.13, 0.19) (P < 0.05).The symptom-focused rumination (effect size=0.09, 95%CI=0.06-0.11) and brooding (effect size=-0.07, 95%CI=-0.09--0.04) dimensions partially mediated the relationship between life events and learning value doubt. In the two influential pathways, symptom-focused rumination exerts a stronger impact, and the difference was statistically significant (effect size=0.15, 95%CI=0.11-0.20, excluding 0) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Life events experienced by junior high school students can positively predict learning value doubt through symptom-focused rumination, and negatively predict learning value doubt through brooding. Active attention should be paid to the mental health status of junior high school students, intervene promptly when they experience life events, reduce symptom-based rumination, and improve their learning enthusiasm.
Association of agression and angry expression category perception under social exclusion among male students in reform school
YANG Xiao, WANG Hong, NIAN Jingqing, FU Liping, LUO Yu
2024, 45(3): 388-393.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024073
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between aggression and category perception of angry expression in reform school students under social exclusion, so as to provide reference for the reform school students mental health promotion.  Methods  In May 2023, 144 students were randomly selected from a reform school in Guizhou Province, and were divided into high and low aggression groups(77 and 67 students) by Aggression Questionnaire. Cyberball game was used to induce social exclusion and acceptance, subjects were divided into high aggressive exclusion group (n=42), high aggressive acceptance group (n=35), low aggressive exclusion group (n=37) and low aggressive acceptance group (n=30). All the participants completed the discrimination and identification tasks of category perception paradigm, and the relationship between aggression and category perception of angry expression of reform school students under social exclusion was analyzed by using category turning point, identification curve and analysis of variance.  Results  The total score of aggression(97.34±8.00) and four dimensions (physical aggression: 29.75±4.61, verbal aggression: 17.19±2.58, anger: 22.29±3.66, hostility: 28.10±3.54) in the high aggression group were higher than those in the low aggression group(74.10±9.02, 21.09±4.98, 14.30±2.66, 17.16±3.83, 21.55±3.88), and the differences were statistically significant (t=16.38, 10.85, 6.62, 8.20, 10.59, P < 0.01). For identifying the turning point of the fear-anger continuum, the social exclusion group(2.58±0.07)was significantly smaller than the social acceptance group(2.79±0.07)(F=4.85, η2=0.07, P < 0.05), and the social exclusion group had a tendency to shift the category boundary to the fear side. For identifying the slope at the angry-happiness continuum category boundary curve, the high aggression group (0.63±0.03) was significantly higher than the low aggression group (0.53±0.03)(F=5.38, η2=0.08, P < 0.05). In the fear-anger continuum, the high-aggression group[(694.86±78.29)ms] reacted more quickly than the low-aggression group[(660.70±79.86)ms](F=5.08, η2=0.05, P < 0.05) In the angry-happiness continuum, there was no statistical significance of social exclusion and aggression(P>0.05).  Conclusions  The suggests that social exclusion can lead to hostility attribution bias in individuals, while aggression can make individuals more sensitive to angry expression. The mechanisms by which social exclusion and aggression affect expression category perception are independent rather than interactive. The society should give tolerance and acceptance to reform school students, reduce exclusion and discrimination, and the reform education department should correct the aggressive behavior of reform school students and promote their mental health.
Associations of family functioning and parental styles with anxiety symptoms among high-grade primary school students
HUANG Cuihong, GUO Liling, GUO Lan, GUO Yangfeng
2024, 45(3): 394-397.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024079
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among high-grade primary school students in Guangzhou and their correlation with family functioning and parental parenting styles, so as to provide theoretical basis and guidance for family-based interventions for children's anxiety symptoms.  Methods  From June to September 2022, a multi-stage cluster random sampling method was employed to select 5 396 students from grades 4 to 6 in 13 primary schools in Guangzhou. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale for Children, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Short Version were used for the survey. Inter group comparison was analysed by t-test or analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the effects of family function and parental parenting styles on anxiety symptoms in primary school students.  Results  The average score for anxiety symptoms among high-grade primary school students in Guangzhou was (11.63±10.88). In terms of parenting styles, mothers scored higher than fathers in the dimensions of "care" (25.63±4.92) and "control" (5.08±2.58) compared to fathers (24.74±5.50, 5.00±2.51) (t=15.80, 4.21, P < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the scores of parents on the dimension of "encouragement of independence"(12.98±4.06, 13.05±3.95)(t=-1.77, P>0.05). After adjusting for general demographic characteristics, the results of linear regression analysis showed that primary school students family functioning (B=0.47) and parental "control" (B=0.67, 0.75) were positively associated with anxiety symptoms scores (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, parental "care" (B=-0.53, -0.55) and "encouragement of independence" (B=-0.62, -0.68) were negatively associated with anxiety symptom scores (P < 0.01). These associations remained statistically significant even after further adjusting for family functioning (P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Family functioning, parenting styles are closely associated with anxiety symptoms among high-grade primary school students. Positive family functioning and parenting styles may mitigate childhood anxiety symptoms, whereas excessive parental control may increase the risk of childhood anxiety symptoms.
Expression levels of serum biomarkers in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder
DU Jiya, XU Haixia, BA Teer
2024, 45(3): 398-401.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024069
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  Objective  To investigate the expression levels of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder(GAD), so as to provide reference for the early diagnosis and evaluation of GAD in adolescents.  Methods  From March 2020 to February 2023, 97 first-episode adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder aged 13-18 years were selected in the study. According to the score of generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) on admission, they were divided into mild-moderate GAD group (58 cases) and severe GAD group (39 cases). At the same time, 90 healthy adolescents who participated in routine physical examination in the same period were selected as the control group. Variance analysis was conducted for comparison among serum NSE, IL-1β and BDNF level. LSD-t was applied for further comparison, and the bivariate Pearson linear correlation analysis was carried out for the relationship among serum NSE, IL-1β and BDNF level.  Results  The differences among 3 groups of subjects on NSE and IL-1β, and BDNF were of statistical significance(F=10.73, 12.80, 20.67, P < 0.01), and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the control group, serum NSE level was(8.70±1.35) μg/L, IL-1β was (18.42±5.43) pg/mL, both were the lowest. The levels of NSE and IL-1β in severe GAD group were(14.21±3.25) μg/L, (26.04±5.39)pg/mL, which were the highest. The serum BDNF level in control group was (27.16±4.42) ng/mL, which was the highest; and the severe GAD group was (10.46±3.27) ng/mL, which was the lowest. The bivariate Pearson linear correlation analysis showed that the serum NSE and IL-1β levels in GAD group were negatively correlated with the serum BDNF level (r=-0.49, -0.57); the serum NSE level was positively correlated with the IL-1β level (r=0.40) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The serum levels of NSE and IL-1β are abnormally increased in adolescents with GAD, and the serum levels of BDNF are significantly decreased. The serum levels of NSE, IL-1β and BDNF can be used as detection markers for adolescent GAD, which is helpful for early diagnosis and disease evaluation.
Relationship among screen time, depressive symptoms and sleep parameters among college students
ZHAO Pei, SHI Huanxia, WANG Lianzhen
2024, 45(3): 402-405.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024090
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between daytime or nighttime screen time, sleep duration, bedtime, sleep quality and depressive symptoms, so as to provide reference for preventing depression symptoms in college students.  Methods  A total of 1 259 college students in one university in Beijing were recruited by using a cluster random sampling method for online and offline questionnaire surveys in October 2022 and April to May 2023. The sleeping quality, depression symptoms and screen time of participants were measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI), Chinese Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-C) and Screen Time Questionnaire. Logistic ordered regression and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the correlation among screen time, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms.  Results  The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.9%. There was no significant correlation between daytime screen time and depressive symptoms for a week after controlling for night screen time in a week, gender and age (OR=1.00, 95%CI=1.00~1.01, P>0.05). There was a significant correlation between night screen time and depressive symptoms for a week (OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03~1.06, P < 0.01) after controlling for daytime screen time in a week, gender and age. However, after controlling for the weekday sleep duration, weekend bedtime, and sleep quality step by step, there was no significant correlation between the night screen time for a week and the depressive symptoms (OR=1.01, 95%CI=0.99~1.02, P>0.05). After adjusting for gender and age, multiple linear regression analysis found that the duration of one week's night vision screen had statistical significance in predicting weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep time and sleep quality (β=-0.29, 0.45, 0.26, P < 0.05). There were positive correlation between the duration of sleep on study days, the duration of sleep on rest days, and the quality of sleep with depressive symptoms(OR=1.27, 1.39, 1.45, P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Excessive night screen time has a greater impact on sleep problems and depressive symptoms. Reducing nighttime video and improving sleep habits are potential intervention goals for reducing depression symptoms in college students.
Relationship between physical activity levels and depressive symptoms in college students: a cohort study
XU Yongjin, HUANG Cong, XU Yaping, YANG Guang
2024, 45(3): 406-410.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024075
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  Objective  To explore the association between physical activity levels and depressive symptoms among college students, so as to provide evidence for promoting physical and mental health of college students.  Methods  Using a cohort study design, a baseline survey of 1 415 college students in Shenyang Normal University in 2017 followed for three years from 2018 to 2020. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the physical activity levels and depressive symptoms of college students. According to the level of physical activity at baseline (MET ·h/week), participants were divided into three groups [T1 (≤36.4), T2 (>36.4-89.3) and T3 (>89.3)]. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline physical activity levels and the incidence of depressive symptoms during the school years.  Results  In the 3-year follow-up (2018-2020), 852 (60.2%) participants exhibited depressive symptoms. The numbers of individuals with depressive symptoms in the T1, T2, and T3 groups were 324, 268, and 260, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that college students who participated in higher levels of physical activity decreased the risk of depressive symptoms by 34.2% [T2: OR(95%CI) = 0.658 (0.500-0.866)] and 38.9% [T3:OR(95%CI)=0.611(0.465-0.804)] compared with T1 group after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, health-related factors, and baseline depressive symptoms as covariates. The sex-stratified analysis showed a negative correlation between physical activity levels and the incidence of depressive symptoms in female college students. Compared with T1 group, higher levels of physical activity reduced the incidence of depressive symptoms by 39.6% [T2: OR(95%CI)=0.604(0.445-0.820)] and 37.7% [T3: OR(95%CI)=0.623(0.459-0.846)], respectively (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant correlation between physical activity levels and depressive symptoms in male college students (P>0.05).  Conclusions  There is an inverse relationship between physical activity levels and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that schools should reduce the risk of depressive symptoms by promoting physical activity levels among college students.
Relationship between depressive symptoms, negative life events, and resilience in primary and secondary school teachers
WANG Pei, ZHU Fan, JIA Bibo, ZHU Guiyin, ZHAO Tianjie, QI Tiantian, HU Yifei, MA Yinghua
2024, 45(3): 411-413.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024092
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between depressive symptoms, negative life events and resilience among primary and secondary school teachers, so as to provide a reference for mental health promotion in school teachers.  Methods  During November to December 2022, a questionnaire survey was conducted using convenient cluster sampling method to select 11 332 in-service teachers from 38 schools in 8 provinces (cities) including Beijing, Guangdong, Anhui, Hubei, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items, a self-developed 21-item Adverse Life Events questionnaire, and a 10-item Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale were used to assess depressive symptoms, experiences of negative life events, and resilience levels of the teachers, respectively. The relationship between depressive symptoms, negative life events and psychological resilience were analyzed by multiple linear regression and stratified regression.  Results  The detection rate of depressive symptoms among primary and secondary school teachers was 14.0%. Negative life events of primary and secondary school teachers were positively correlated with depressive symptoms (r=0.35), while psychological resilience was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (r=-0.45) (P<0.05). After adjusting for possible covariates including gender and marital status, negative life events were positively correlated with depressive symptoms (β=0.22, P<0.01). Resilience played a moderating role in the association of negative life events with depressive symptoms among primary and secondary school teachers (B=-0.15, P<0.01).  Conclusions  Negative life events experiences are associated with higher level of depressive symptoms among school teachers. However, resilience might mitigate the negative effects of negative life events on depressive symptoms, playing a protective role in teachers' mental health.
Association between obesity and dyslipidemia among rural primary and middle school students in Students Nutrition Improvement Program Areas of Zhejiang Province
ZHAO Dong, HUANG Lichun, SU Danting, GU Wei, HAN Dan, ZHANG Ronghua
2024, 45(3): 414-418.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024098
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  Objective  The study aimed to analyze the association between different types of obesity and dyslipidemia among rural primary and middle school students in Zhejiang Province, so as to inform strategies for prevention and control of childhood obesity and hyperlipidemia.  Methods  As part of Nutrition Improvement Programme for Rural Compulsory Education Students, 1 244 participants were selected by stratified cluster random sampling in 5 counties of Zhejiang Province during September to December 2021. Physical examination, detection of blood lipid and questionnaire survey were conducted. The Chi-square test and Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between different types of obesity and dyslipidemia.  Results  The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and hyperlipidemia were 15.11%, 12.46%, 17.60%, and 21.78%. Obesity and abdominal obesity were correlated to high risk of high triglycerides (OR=3.97, 95%CI=2.54-6.20; OR=4.45, 95%CI=2.95-6.72)(P < 0.05). Compared with the non overweight and obese group with normal waist circumference, the overweight and obesity group were correlated to high risk of high cholesterol (OR=2.53, 95%CI=1.45-4.42, P < 0.05). Abdominal overweight or obese group had the highest risk for dyslipidemia and triglycerides (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.33-2.48; OR=3.64, 95%CI=2.45-5.43) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and hyperlipidemia are relatively high in rural primary and middle school students of Nutrition Improvement Programme for Rural Compulsory Education Students in Zhejiang Province. Abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for hyperlipidemia. Waist circumference should be the focus of considerable attention.
Latent tuberculosis infection status among freshmen in boarding middle schools in Longgang District of Shenzhen City
ZHAO Xiaoshuang, TAN Jianxia, LIU Jingyuan, LI Minlu, ZHENG Tiehong, HUANG Donghong
2024, 45(3): 419-422.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024094
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  Objective  To analyze the current status of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among freshmen in boarding middle schools in Longgang District, Shenzhen, so as to provide reference for formulating tuberculosis prevention and control strategies in the next stage.  Methods  Data for tuberculosis health examination conducted among primary and secondary school students in Longgang District of Shenzhen in September 2022 to May 2023 were utilized to analyze the latent tuberculosis infection rate, and to explore the differences in latent tuberculosis infection rate among different grades, school nature, school categories and school levels.  Results  The latent tuberculosis infection rate among freshmen in boarding secondary schools in Longgang District, Shenzhen in 2022 was 2.45%. The infection rate among full middle school (6.45%) and high school (3.37%) were higher than that in boarding junior high school (0.28%), nine-year education school (0) and twelve-year education school (1.00%)(P < 0.01). Moreover, the infection rate of high school freshmen (2.68%) was higher than that of bording junior high school (0.33%), and the rate of public schools (2.87%) and municipal schools (3.24%) were higher than those of private schools (1.78%) and distric-level schools (2.13%) respectively, with statistical significance observed for all differences(χ2=43.58, 25.15, 22.69, P < 0.01).  Conclusions  The latent tuberculosis infection rate among new boarding secondary students is relatively low in Longgang District of Shenzhen. However, the infection rate is higher in high school, public and municipal school. School should fully guarantee sports participation of students, enhance students' awareness of tuberculosis through health knowledge lectures, and reduce the incidence of tuberculosis among students.
Analysis of factors influencing elevated blood pressure and overweight/obesity and their comorbidities among Tibetan middle school students in Lhasa City
LIAN Qiguo, CI Renyangzong, WANG Yanhui, ZHAO Junmei, LU Yuxin, LI Na, ZHAO Wenhu, DENG Liping, LIU Zhihao
2024, 45(3): 423-426.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024076
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  Objective  To explore the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and overweight/obesity and their comorbidities among Tibetan middle school students in Lhasa, and to analyze their association with lifestyle and other factors, so as to provide a basis for the intervention measures targeting elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity among middle school students in high altitude area.  Methods  Using a stratified cluster random sampling method in September 2021, a total of 1 488 Tibetan junior and high students from Lhasa City were investigated with blood pressure measurement, physical examination and questionnaire survey. The influencing factors of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity and their comorbidities association were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression.  Results  The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and their comorbidities were 17.8%, 17.4%, 5.0% respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age(OR=0.81), residence, body mass inex(BMI) and gender were the influencing factors of elevated blood pressure; and the risks of elevated blood pressure in female students were higher than male students (OR=1.89), suburban students were higher than urban students (OR=8.06), overweight and obesity groups were higher than normal groups (OR=2.55, 2.87) (P < 0.05). Adjusting for confounding factors such as gender, residence and school, and BMI (only for elevated blood pressure), daily screen time ≥2 h was positively correlated with elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and its comorbidities (OR=1.56, 1.59, 2.51) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity are relatively high in Lhasa. Longer screen time is a common factor affecting with elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and comorbidities among Tibetan students. Measures should be taken intervene in the lifestyle of Tibetan students, in order to reduce elevated blood pressure and overweight/obesity.
Outbreak investigation of a campus bacterial dysentery by water source pollution in Lhasa City
RAO Juan, CI Rendeji, SUO Langdeji, CI Renyangzong
2024, 45(3): 427-430.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024087
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Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate risk factors and the nature of the outbreak of bacillary dysentery in Lhasa City, so as to customize targeted prevention and control measures.  Methods  Using on-site epidemiological investigation, the suspected, probable and confirmed cases of bacillary dysentery in one school and one kindergarten in Lhasa City from June 26 to July 1, 2022 were collected, and additional cases were identified through interview from school staffs and family members, reviewing morning examination records and tracking records of school illness-related absence. A case-control study was conducted to investigate suspicious meals and drinking raw water, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect Shigella line nucleic acid fragment in the patients' feces, anal swabs, retained food, and terminal water.  Results  A total of 55 cases were found in two schools, with the prevalence rate of 15.41% in total and 16.71% in students (n=53), 7.5% in staff (n=2). The epidemic curve was suggestive of a point source exposure. The prevalence rate among students who walk to school and students who live in the school showed no difference (16.10%, 17.09%)(χ2=0.05, P>0.05), and the prevalence rate was higher among elementary school students than kindergarten students (19.83%, 6.67%)(χ2=7.13, P < 0.05). Case-control comparisons showed a direct association between drinking raw water and morbidity in the case and control groups during June 24-26 (OR=4.01, 95%CI=1.75-9.19, P < 0.05). A total of 23 fecal Shigella nucleic acid positives were detected from the two schools, two from the end water in front of the cafeteria door, and two from sludge in the sewage pipe around the wellhead.  Conclusions  The outbreak of bacillary dysentery is caused by the contamination of the pipe network water. Health administrative departments should improve the supervision and management of drinking water health safety, and schools should strengthen the management of water supply facilities for effectively prevent of waterborne infectious disease outbreaks.
Evaluation of the hygiene status of teaching environment in primary and secondary schools in Beijing City from 2016 to 2020
ZHAO Jinhui, QIN Ran, WANG Wenxin, XU Huiyu, GAO Ruoyi, GUO Xin
2024, 45(3): 431-436.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024095
Abstract(49) HTML(24) PDF(20)
Abstract:
  Objective  To understand the trend of changes of hygiene status in the teaching environment among primary and secondary schools in Beijing City during 2016-2020, so as to provide basis for further improving the teaching environment and campus hygiene conditions in primary and secondary schools.  Methods  A proportional systematic sampling method covered over 50% of schools selected annually in Beijing from 2016 to 2019, and 34% were selected in 2020. Two representative classrooms were selected from each selected school for testing based on their structure and other factors, with 6 196 classrooms supervised, from 2016 to 2020, 1 330, 1 312, 1 384, 1 322, 848 classrooms were monitored for each year.  Results  From 2016 to 2020, the overall lighting qualification rate of classrooms (lighting coefficient 72.8%, window to floor area ratio 41.8%, rear wall reflectance ratio 42.2%, blackboard reflection ratio 37.4%), the overall qualification rate of average blackboard illumination and uniformity (50.6%, 34.9%), and the overall qualification rate of desk and chair allocation (58.6%) were all below 80%. The overall qualification rate of per capita classroom area (87.5%), blackboard size (83.2%), average desk illumination (80.1%), average desk illumination and uniformity (82.9%), the distance between lamp and desk (99.1%), carbon dioxide (86.6%), temperature (84.9%), and noise (96.6%) were all above 80%. The following indicators, blackboard size, the distance between lamp and desk, average blackboard illumination, lighting coefficient, blackboard reflectance, rear wall reflectance, carbon dioxide, temperature, and noise (χ2=78.38, 9.71, 11.76, 320.59, 37.63, 58.45, 236.45, 1 347.56, 101.97), had statistically significance between years. Among those indicators, the qualified rates of blackboard size, blackboard reflectance, lighting coefficient, and noise had been increasing year by year (χtrend2=69.98, 15.82, 240.02, 5.77) (P < 0.05). The qualified rates of per capita classroom area, window to floor area ratio, and blackboard reflection ratio in primary schools (81.6%, 39.8%, 36.3%) were all lower than those in secondary schools (94.9%, 44.5%, 40.3%) (χ2=246.32, 12.03, 10.51, P < 0.05). The qualified rates of blackboard size, average blackboard illumination, average blackboard illumination and uniformity, and desk and chair allocation (89.3%, 55.6%, 36.0%, and 60.2%) were all higher than those in secondary schools (75.4%, 44.1%, 33.3%, and 56.5%) (χ2=209.33, 78.41, 4.44, 8.22) (P < 0.05). The qualified rates of average desk illumination and uniformity, average blackboard illumination, rear wall reflectance ratio, desk and chair allocation, carbon dioxide, temperature, and noise indicators in urban area (82.9%, 84.1%, 51.9%, 45.0%, 60.9%, 91.2%, 89.5%, 97.8%) were all higher than those in suburban area (77.3%, 81.7%, 49.2%, 39.5%, 56.3%, 82.3%, 80.4%, 95.5%) (χ2=31.16, 6.28, 4.36, 16.40, 13.39, 105.29, 98.23, 24.66, P < 0.05). The qualified rates of the distance between lamp and desk, lighting coefficient, window to floor area ratio, blackboard size, blackboard reflection ratio, average blackboard illumination and uniformity, and per capita classroom area in urban areas (98.8%, 65.2%, 34.3%, 76.7%, 35.9%, 30.1%, 84.6%) were all lower than those in suburban areas (99.4%, 81.4%, 49.8%, 89.7%, 40.2%, 39.6%, 90.3%) (χ2=6.80, 171.67, 132.43, 188.46, 12.45, 60.28, 44.82) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The main problems in the teaching environment of schools in Beijing are classroom lighting, as well as desk and chair allocation. The findings suggest technical rationality and operability of relevant standard should be considered when under revision, and standard training and supervision management should be strengthened, with the aim of teaching environment improvement.
Factors influencing the development of executive function in adolescents
LI Yong, YIN Xiaojian, WU Huipan, MA Yuanyuan, SHI Lijuan, WANG Jinxian, SHAN Ying, ZHANG Yingkun
2024, 45(3): 437-442.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024088
Abstract(52) HTML(25) PDF(16)
Abstract:
Executive function is an advanced cognitive process aimed at the flexible coordination, optimization, and control of the cognitive processes of task solving in order to accomplish a specific task, ensuring that the individual produces effective behaviors, including inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Given the sensitivities and specificities that characterize an individual's physical and mental development during adolescence, this period is critical for the development of executive function in adolescents. In the paper, the influencing factors of adolescents' executive function development are systematically described from three dimensions, namely, biology, environment and lifestyle; by analyzing the mechanisms and differences in the effects of different influencing factors, this editorial provides a scientific basis for adolescents' executive function improvement and intervention.
Research progress on lifestyle-related dry eye in children and adolescents
LUO Yuzhu, TAO Shuman
2024, 45(3): 443-447.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024071
Abstract(60) HTML(25) PDF(12)
Abstract:
Dry eye is a multifactorial ocular surface disease characterized by tear film homeostasis imbalance, which usually causes eye discomfort and visual impairment. With the change of environment and lifestyle, the incidence of dry eye in children and adolescents has risen steadily. Epidemiological studies have confirmed that the incidence of dry eye is closely related to unhealthy lifestyle. Prevention should be given great priority to in avoiding lifestyle-related dry eye. The review summarizes the definition, epidemiology, risk factors and preventive measures of lifestyle-related dry eye, so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lifestyle related dry eye in children and adolescents.
Progress in research on health-literate schools
QIAN Jinwei, TONG Yingge, WEI Yeling, LU Yihui, HU Yuying, XIN Mengyu, CHENG Wenqian, PAN Xiang, NI Ke
2024, 45(3): 448-451.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024074
Abstract(55) HTML(22) PDF(15)
Abstract:
Health-literate schools (HeLit-Schools) play a significant role in fostering students' health literacy. The paper elucidates the background and conceptual connotations of HeLit-Schools, and analyzes how HeLit-Schools effectively integrate and enhance the health literacy of schools in three aspects: philosophy and core drivers, strategy and method implementation, as well as evaluation mechanisms and standard setting. Furthermore, the paper explores the implications of foreign HeLit-Schools research and practice for China under the context of "Healthy China" construction, as well as the key strategies for Chinese schools in the implementation of HeLit-Schools, aiming to provide a new perspective and theoretical support for Chinese schools to practice the "Healthy China initiative" and strengthen school construction from the perspective of health literacy.
Research progress on the impact of recreational soccer on physical and mental health among children and adolescents
ZHOU Jianwei
2024, 45(3): 452-456.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024044
Abstract(52) HTML(28) PDF(11)
Abstract:
Children and adolescents spend most of their time in school, and good recreational soccer (RS) is beneficial to the healthy physical and mental development of children and adolescents. The review mainly discusses the effects of RS on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, such as body composition, physical fitness, cardiovascular function, bone mass and muscle function, cognition and social interaction, so as to provide a theoretical basis for building school RS environment that is conducive to the health of children and adolescents.
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Release report of the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health
Department of Physical Health and Arts Education Ministry of Education
2021, 42(9): 1281-1282.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.001
[Abstract](7943) [FullText HTML](1648) [PDF 282KB](1692)
摘要:
根据国务院1987年同意建立的全国学生体质与健康调研制度, 2019年, 教育部等部署开展了第八次全国学生体质与健康调研工作。发现中国学生体质与健康状况总体有所改善, 并提出了促进学生体质与健康水平提高的主要因素, 针对本次调研发现的问题提出以下相关安排: 全面加强和改进学校体育工作、落实学校卫生与健康教育政策要求、持续综合防控儿童青少年近视、实施全国健康学校建设计划。
Development and evaluation on reliability and validity of Adolescent Non-suicidal Self-injury Assessment Questionnaire
WAN Yuhui, LIU Wan, HAO Jiahu, TAO Fangbiao
2018, 39(2): 170-173.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.02.005
[Abstract](1501) [PDF 354KB](132)
摘要:
编制适合我国使用的青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷,并对其信效度进行评价,为更好地了解我国青少年非自杀性自杀行为提供工具.方法 自行编制青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷.采用分层整群抽样方法,选取沈阳、郑州、南昌和深圳部分在校初、高中学生,共15 096人进行问卷调查.通过同质信度、分半信度、结构效度等评价问卷的信效度.选取合肥市某中学94名学生使用自残功能性评估问卷(Functional Assessment of Self-mutilation,FASM)作为校标问卷进行调查,考察问卷的效标关联效度.结果 青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷分为行为问卷(12个条目)和功能问卷(19个条目)2部分.行为问卷的Cronbachα系数为0.921,分半信度为0.851,重测信度为0.843,累计方差贡献率为64.914%,与校标问卷FASM行为维度得分的相关系数r=0.833(P<0.01).功能问卷总分的Cronbach α系数为0.905,分半信度为0.786,重测信度为0.805,累计方差贡献率为53.871%,与校标问卷FASM功能维度得分的相关系数r=0.859(P<0.01).结论 青少年非自杀性自伤行为评定问卷具有较好的信效度,可作为我国青少年非自杀性自伤行为和功能的评定工具.
The Effect of increased intensity of physical exercises on mental health and resilience among college students
HU Qiquan
2019, 40(1): 83-85.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2019.01.022
[Abstract](509) [PDF 308KB](22)
摘要:
探讨不同强度体育锻炼对提升高校学生心理健康和心理韧性的效果,为大学生体育教学改革提供相关研究资料.方法 按照整群抽样的原则,选取武汉职业技术学院1 546名大一学生作为研究对象,利用SCL-90自评量表和青少年心理韧性量表进行调查.将学生按班级分为对照1,2,3组和观察组,其中对照1组390名,按照常规体育课程进行锻炼;对照2组385名,给予小运动强度锻炼;对照3组387名,给予大强度体育锻炼;观察组384名,给予中等强度锻炼.结果 干预后,观察组大学生SCL-90量表中躯体化、强迫、人际敏感、抑郁、焦虑、偏执得分明显优于对照1组、2组以及3组(F值分别为3.57,3.33,4.27,5.28,3.82,4.29,P值均<0.01);心理韧性调查表得分观察组明显优于对照1,2组,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).观察组学生认为体育锻炼可对社交、身心健康、精神解脱以及自我磨炼等产生良好的影响,与其余组别学生得分差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).结论 中等强度的体育锻炼可有效提升高校学生心理健康和心理韧性,值得关注.
Expert interpretation on appropriate technical guidelines for prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents
TAO Fangbiao
2020, 41(2): 166-168,172.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2020.02.002
[Abstract](812) [PDF 186KB](47)
摘要:
儿童青少年近视防控是一项系统工程,需要政府主导、全社会共同努力.为扎实推进近视防控工作,普及近视防控的适宜技术,国家卫生健康委员会颁布实施了《儿童青少年近视防控适宜技术指南》(简称《指南》).本文围绕《指南》的背景、意义和主要内容等方面进行解读,以提高公共卫生专业工作者和关注儿童青少年近视防控工作相关人员对《指南》内容的理解.
Increased efforts to myopia prevention and control among children and adolescents in China
FAN Zemin, LIU Lijing, WANG Haitao
2018, 39(11): 1605-1608,1612.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.11.002
[Abstract](510) [PDF 476KB](32)
摘要:
为切实加强新时代儿童青少年近视防控工作,教育部、国家卫生健康委员会等八部门于近日颁布实施《综合防控儿童青少年近视实施方案》(以下简称《实施方案》),将防控儿童青少年近视上升为国家战略.该文阐述了《实施方案》的出台背景、政策亮点和重要部署,以及教育部等八部门、各省份和地方教育系统对《实施方案》的贯彻落实情况.提出下一步综合防控儿童青少年近视的重点任务为以问题导向和目标导向为指引,狠抓工作落实,强化考核刚性约束,完善“政府主导、部门协同、专家指导、科研支撑、学校参与、家庭支持、社会共治”的综合防控体系.
Environmental factors and myopia: prospects for prevention
ZHANG Xin
2018, 39(1): 6-8,12.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.01.002
[Abstract](624) [PDF 387KB](37)
摘要:
我国儿童青少年的近视发病率居高不下,并呈低龄化的趋势,流行形势非常严峻,其中环境因素是近视病因研究的热点.本文对国内外儿童青少年近距离用眼、户外活动、睡眠时长、照明条件、饮食习惯等与近视发生的关系进行文献研究和分析,提出了针对社会、学校、家庭、学生和特殊个体不同角度的干预策略,以最大限度地保护儿童青少年的视力.
Mental health changes among college students and its relation with perceived social support
ZHANG Minting, ZHAO Jiubo, ZHANG Xiaoyuan, ZHAO Jingbo, YANG Xueling, CHEN Jie
2018, 39(2): 232-235.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.02.022
[Abstract](597) [PDF 386KB](19)
摘要:
探索大学生心理健康状况的动态发展规律及领悟社会支持的影响,为制定更有针对性的保护大学生心理健康的措施提供参考.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,使用大学生人格问卷(University Personality Inventory,UPI)和领悟社会支持量表(Perceived Social Support Scale,PSSS)对广州某高校2014年入学的2 301名大学生进行追踪研究.2次施测的时间分别是2014年9月23日和2016年9月25日.结果 大三时学生的UPI得分(9.18±8.49)低于大一(10.11±7.87)(t=29.90,P<0.01).大三时学生严重心理问题的人数比例比大一上升1.0百分点,一般心理问题的人数比例下降1.7百分点,心理健康的人数比例上升0.7百分点(x2=377.59,P<0.01).女生UPI得分(10.09±8.32)高于男生(8.81±7.91)(t=17.13,P<0.01).领悟社会支持水平越高,UPI得分越低(F=149.65,P<0.01).大一时学生UPI为A类(严重心理问题)且低领悟社会支持的大三UPI得分最高,大一UPI为C类(心理健康)且高领悟社会支持的大三UPI得分最低;高领悟社会支持条件下,大一UPI A/B(一般心理问题)/C类的学生大三UPI得分均低于低领悟社会支持条件下的学生.结论 大学生入校后,心理健康状况呈2个动态两极化的趋势发展.领悟社会支持能力对大学生心理健康动态发展具有持续性的调节作用.
All-around strengthening actions to prevent myopia and promote vision health among children and adolescents in China
FAN Zemin, LIU Lijing
2018, 39(8): 1121-1123,1131.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.08.001
[Abstract](589) [PDF 382KB](42)
摘要:
党中央、国务院对青少年健康特别是视力健康高度重视,教育部门和学校切实把儿童青少年视力健康管理提上重要议程.该文阐明了当前我国儿童青少年近视防控和视力健康管理工作面临的形势,以及儿童青少年近视形成的主要原因.介绍了近年来教育部推动儿童青少年近视防控和视力健康管理开展的主要工作.并在此基础上提出下一步全面加强儿童青少年近视防控工作的重点任务,充分发挥卫生健康部门专业优势和教育部门的组织优势,从而更加有效地达到改善儿童青少年视力不良状况的目的.
Epidemiologic characteristics of Norovirus outbreak in schools and kindergardens in China during 2014-2018
LIAN Yiyao, LUO Hongmei, RAN Lu, LUO Li, WANG Liping, LI Zhongjie
2019, 40(3): 406-410.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2019.03.025
[Abstract](521) [PDF 416KB](29)
摘要:
了解中国学校和托幼机构诺如病毒聚集和暴发疫情的流行病学特征,为科学开展诺如疫情防控提供依据.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,统计2014-2018年全国学校和托幼机构诺如病毒聚集和暴发疫情,分析比较罹患率、疫情持续时间、报告及时性等指标.结果 2014-2018年中国学校和托幼机构共报告诺如病毒疫情832起,疫情数整体呈现上升趋势,年平均增长率为58%,累计报告发病人数40 445例,无死亡病例.诺如病毒疫情主要发生在小学(42%),其次为托幼机构和中学(均占24%)、大学(6%)及其他学校(4%).每年3-5月和11-12月疫情高发,江苏和广东(均占22%)报告疫情数最多.疫情传播途径主要为人传人(72%),食源性传播(4%)和水源性传播(3%)引起的疫情较少;疫情持续时间与疫情报告及时性(r=0.63,P<0.05)、单起疫情发病人数(r=0.51,P<0.05)呈正相关.结论 诺如病毒疫情主要发生在小学,传播途径多为人传人;学校和托幼机构应规范呕吐物消毒处理;对聚集和暴发疫情早发现、早报告、早处置能有效控制诺如病毒疫情蔓延.
Effects of child gymnastics on gross moor development
ZHA Ping, SHEN Qiqi, REN Yuanchun
2018, 39(2): 197-199.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.02.012
[Abstract](400) [PDF 313KB](8)
摘要:
探讨幼儿体操对粗大动作发展的影响,为幼儿体育教育和身体活动提供理论依据.方法 随机抽取北京某公立幼儿园5~6岁幼儿40名为研究对象,随机均分为对照组和实验组,实验组进行幼儿体操训练(60 min/次,2次/周,共12周),采用粗大动作发展测试(Test of Gross Motor Development,TGMD-2)作为评价工具,对受试者进行位移性动作和物控性动作测试,评价粗大动作发展水平.结果 幼儿体操运动干预前,对照组(10.12±2.97)和实验组(8.97±2.72)粗大动作得分差异无统计学意义(F=0.933,P>0.05);幼儿体操运动干预后,对照组(12.69±3.08)和实验组(15.32±3.11)较干预前粗大动作得分均提高(t值分别为-2.346,-2.021,P值均<0.05),且实验组粗大动作发展水平高于对照组(F=4.476,P<0.05).结论 体操运动可提升5~6岁幼儿位移和物控动作得分,促进粗大动作发展.建议在幼儿动作发展关键期选用合适的体操内容干预,为幼儿身体素质发展奠定良好基础.
Release report of the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health
Department of Physical Health and Arts Education Ministry of Education
2021, 42(9): 1281-1282.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.001
[Abstract](7943) [FullText HTML](1648) [PDF 282KB](1648)
Abstract:
In 2019 the Ministry of Education and other departments launched the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health in accordance with the National Student Physique and Health Survey System approved by the State Council in 1987.The general improvement student physical and health in China has been made and the primary factors enhaneing students' physical fitness and health have been put forward.In terms of the findings in this survey the following relevant arrangements are proposed comprehensively strengthening and improving school physical education implementing school health and health education policy requirements continuing comprehensive prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents and implementing the national plan for the construction of healthy schools.
Correlation between behavioral problems and nutrient intake in school-age children
CHENG Yu, SUN Yaowu, CHAO Hong
2018, 39(6): 832-835.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.06.009
[Abstract](927) [PDF 362KB](235)
Abstract:

Found in 1980 Monthly

Competent Authorities: National Health Commission

Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association

ISSN1000-9817

CN34-1092/R

Awards