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Promoting childhood obesity prevention and control through social environment optimization
XU Haiquan, SUN Junmao, MA Guansheng
2021, 42(11): 1601-1604.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.001
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Obesity has become a global public health problem that affects human health and poses a huge threat to the health of children in China. More and more studies have shown that social environment including social culture, food tax, food advertising and marketing, community food environment and community-built environment exerts impact on childhood obesity. With the aim of fully developing the Healthy China and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, as well as achieving the goal of "Achieving socialist modernization by 2035", it is also necessary to strengthen the comprehensive social environment, develop a sustainable and health-supported environment for childhood obesity control and healthy growth and development for all children.
Modern physical training concepts and approachs into public physical education in colleges and universities
ZHANG Junjie, LI Huichao, GUO Chenggen, WU Jin, YE Jun, WEI Hongwen
2021, 42(11): 1605-1608, 1612.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.002
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Public physical education teaching has adopted modern concepts and approachs of physical training to highlight the importance and effectiveness of physical education in colleges and universities in China. These courses have placed an emphasis on the need to attend to the structural integrity of the human body, optimizing the basic action mode and the efficient transmission of the power chain in motion. From the perspective of curriculum education, it is helpful to update ideas surrounding the public physical education curriculum in colleges and universities to enrich the content of public physical education courses provided by these institutions and to improve the scientific nature of training, while also enhancing the physical fitness of college students and promoting lifelong sports consciousness. However, there is insufficient explanation and implementation of modern physical training concepts and approachs into the teaching and process of public sports in colleges and universities. It will be beneficial to improve its top-level design, increase policy support, provide better facilities, strengthen the construction of teachers, actively organize enjoyable physical fitness competitions, enrich the teaching content system and clear on the positioning of college physical education, in order to promote the fundamental tasks of school-based physical education and the value of school sports. This is also important to ensure a renewal of the concept of the public physical education curriculum in our country, and encourage reform of the curriculum content, teaching mode and teaching methods, while also highlighting the essential function of physical training.
Evidence-based systematic review on the association between food advertising with childhood obesity
XU Haiquan, XIAN Mengyao, SUN Junmao, the Committee of Guidelines for Childhood Obesity Prevention and Control
2021, 42(11): 1609-1612.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.003
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  Objective  To evaluate the impact of food advertising on childhood obesity by reviewing relevant literatures, and to provide evidence support for childhood obesity prevention and control strategies in China.  Methods  A systematic review method was used to search relevant literatures published to November 30, 2020 from 8 databases including CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Medline, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Science Direct. The high-quality systematic reviews published since 2016 were included directly, and those published before 2016 were rereviewed after combined with other literatures.  Results  A total of 13 articles were included for evaluation, including systematic reviews, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional studies. Children's exposure to food advertisements could increase energy intake. Television food advertising could influence children's food choices and increase the consumption of unhealthy foods such as sweets and sugary drinks. Children's exposure to unhealthy food advertisements could increase the risk of obesity.  Conclusion  Regulating the food advertisement can help reduce the risk of childhood obesity.
Evidence-based qualitative study on community food environment and childhood obesity
ZHU Yimin, ZHU Wenli, the Committee of Guidelines for Childhood Obesity Prevention and Control
2021, 42(11): 1613-1615.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.004
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  Objective  To systematically evaluate the relationship between the community food environment with overweight and obesity risk in children, and to provide evidence-based evidence for the development of guidelines and policies.  Methods  Relevant Chinese and English literatures published from 1998 to 2020 were searched in the database of CBM, CNKI, Wanfang Data, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase.  Results  A total of 8 English literatures were included in this systematic evaluation, including 3 cohort studies and 5 cross-sectional studies. The results showed that the number and type, as well as distance to food stores/restaurants in the neighborhood of family or school were associated with the weight status, waist circumference and obesity risk of children. The number of fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores was positively correlated with the risk of childhood obesity, and the number of supermarkets and free markets was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in children.  Conclusion  The community food environment might be associated with childhood obesity, which is warrented more high-quality scientific evidence.
Evidence-based systematic review on the association between sugar-sweetened beverages tax and childhood obesity
XIAN Mengyao, XU Haiquan, SUN Junmao, the Committee of Guidelines for Childhood Obesity Prevention and Control
2021, 42(11): 1616-1619.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.005
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  Objective  To evaluate the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) tax on childhood obesity by literatures reveiew, and to provide evidence support for childhood obesity prevention and control strategies in China.  Methods  A systematic review method was used to search relevant literatures published to November 30, 2020 from 8 databases including CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Medline, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and Science Direct. The high-quality system reviews published since 2016 were included directly, and those published before 2016 were rereviewed before combined with other literatures.  Results  Twelve studies including 5 systematic reviews (or Meta-analysis), 1 cohort study and 6 cross-sectional studies were included. Comprehensive analysis showed that the prevention effect on childhood obesity was small or even ineffective if the tax on SSBs lower than 5%, a certain protective effect on childhood obesity could be shown if the tax on SSBs increased to 20%. From the perspective of cost-benefit analysis, the implementation of SSBs tax showed certain net benefits.  Conclusion  SSBs tax can help reduce the risk of childhood obesity.
Evidence-based systematic review on the association between social built environment and childhood obesity
XU Haiquan, XIAN Mengyao, SUN Junmao, the Committee of Guidelines for Childhood Obesity Prevention and Control
2021, 42(11): 1620-1623.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.006
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  Objective  To evaluate the impact of community built environment and the distribution of fast food restaurants on childhood obesity, and to provide evidence support for childhood obesity prevention and control strategies in China.  Methods  A systematic review method was used to search relevant literatures published to November 30, 2020 from 8 databases including CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Science Direct. The high-quality system reviews published since 2016 were included directly, and those published before 2016 were reviewed before combined with other literatures.  Results  A total of 20 articles were included for evaluation, including systematic reviews, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional studies. High walkability near the living area could increase children's physical activity levels and reduce the risk of obesity. The fast-food sales environment increased the risk of obesity; while large supermarkets or health food sales environment could reduce the risk of obesity.  Conclusion  Improving walking suitability in residential areas and reducing the density of unhealthy fast-food sales could help decrease the risk of childhood obesity.
Dietary nutritional status of AIDS orphans
KELIMU Asimuguli, ABULAITI Adila, TASHI Nuernisaimu, ZHANG Yushan, ABULAITI Abida
2021, 42(11): 1624-1628.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.007
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  Objective  To understand the dietary nutritional status of AIDS orphans aged 7-12 in Urumqi, and to provide a scientific basis for promoting growth, development and health.  Methods  Using a random sampling method, a total of 309 children aged 7-12, from Urumqi were selected. The sample included 98 orphans with AIDS, 66 orphaned children not affected by AIDS, and 145 cases of non-orphaned children. A 24-hour diet review method was used to record the diet of all three groups of children who received three meals per day, energy levels and the nutrient intake of AIDS orphans and their attainment were analyzed according to the daily recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of Chinese residents.  Results  The detection rate of wasting in the AIDS orphans group was 44.9%, which was higher than that in the orphans without-AIDS group (40.9%) and the non-orphaned group (28.2%); the overweight rates of AIDS orphans and orphans without AIDS were 3.1% and 3.0%, respectively, which were both lower than those of non-orphaned children (8.3%); the average daily intake of energy and dietary nutrients in the AIDS orphans group was lower than that in the other two groups, and the intake of vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin D, folic acid, calcium, zinc, and iron was seriously insufficient, the intake of food grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, milk and dairy products, and the average daily intake of oil was lower among AIDS orphans than orphans without AIDS and non-orphaned children, additionally, except for food grains, eggs, there were significant differences between the three groups (F=3.02, 5.23, 27.86, 16.59, P < 0.05), and the daily intake of vegetables, aquatic products, eggs and milk in AIDS orphans and orphans was lower than the recommeded intake.  Conclusion  A higher rate of wasting, unbalanced nutrient intake, and poor nutritional status was found among AIDS orphans aged 7-12 in Urumqi. Therefore, there is a need to improve the dietary structure of AIDS orphans with the aim of promoting healthy development.
Association between health literacy and health-related quality of life among primary and middle school students
ZHAO Ping, QIN Zhenzhen, WANG Na, XU Fei.
2021, 42(11): 1629-1632.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.008
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  Objective  To investigate the association between health literacy (HL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among primary and middle school students in Nanjing, and to provide a reference for improving health literacy and health-related quality of life among children.  Methods  In this cross-sectional study, by using a multi-stage rondom duster sampling method, a total of 4 388 primary (4-6), junior (grades 7-9) and senior (grades 10-12) high school students were randomly selected in Nanjing during May and June of 2018. HRQoL was measured as continuous variable with the validated Chinese version of Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D-CHN); the relationship between health literacy level and HRQoL was examined using mixed-effect linear regression models and reported as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval(CI).  Results  There were 85.8% participants who obtained adequate health literacy level, while the mean score of CHU9D-CHN was (0.78±0.17) for overall participants. After control for potential confounding factors and class-level clustering effects, participants who self-reported adequate HL recorded an increased HRQoL scores of 0.08 (95%CI=0.06-0.10) units relative to those self-reporting inadequate HL. According to the stratified analysis of students' gender, school type and place of residence, the results show that after adjusting the relevant confounding factors and the aggregation of class level, compared with the students without health literacy, the score of health-related quality of life of those with health literacy increased significantly.  Conclusion  Health literacy of primary school students in Nanjing is positively related to health-related life qualities.Therefore, there is a need to promote student's health-related quality of life through health literacy.
Excessive Internet and game use among children with different household registration in Shanghai
WANG Jian, CHEN De, SONG Diwen, DONG Yueqing, DING Yuan, FU Hua
2021, 42(11): 1633-1637.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.009
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  Objective  To explore the status and related factors of excessive Internet and game use among primary and junior high school students with different household registration in Shanghai, and to provide a reference for creating healthy digital media usage family environment among children.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted among 2 324 students and their parents from 4 primary schools, 4 middle schools in Shanghai. The sociodemographic characteristics, Internet Addiction Test, Game addiction scale and Family APGAR Index were investigated.  Results  Excessive internet use rate and the excessive game use rate was 16.1% and 9.4%, respectively. Low family economic status(OR=2.07), motivation type of Internet use to maintain emotional arousal (OR=5.44) or to satisfy social function(OR=8.72), peer all the time gaming use(OR=2.21), peer gaming invitation(OR=1.85, 2.56, 2.53), family dysfunction above moderate(OR=2.62, 2.68) were positively associated with excessive internet use(P < 0.05). Lack of confidence in their studies(OR=2.11, 4.14), motivation type of Internet use to maintain emotional arousal(OR=4.82) or to satisfy social function(OR=6.09), peer often(OR=2.84) or all the time gaming use(OR=3.92), family dysfunction above moderate(OR=2.57, 2.16) were associated with excessive game use(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  There is no significant difference in the excessive Internet and game use among children with different household registration.It is suggested that should attach importance to peer influence and family function, advocate schools and families to create a good environment for children's digital media use, and promote children's healthy development.
Effects of physical activities on cognitive flexibility of Chinese children and adolescents: a Meta-analysis
XIE Chao, ZHOU Hongping, JIN Yu
2021, 42(11): 1638-1644.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.010
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  Objective  The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the impact of physical activities on cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents in China, and to provide evidence-based evidence for relevant research on improving cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents by using physical activities.  Methods  CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Springer link and Science Direct database were searched. The time span of 40 articles collected in this study was from the establishment of the database to December 31, 2020.  Results  A total of 3 262 research samples were included in 40 articles, including 1 674 in the experimental group and 1 588 in the control group. Meta-analysis showed that the total effect WMD value of literature was 121.11, Z=12.37, 95%CI=101.91-140.30 (P < 0.01); the sub group of school-age children included 32 literatures, and the combined effect WMD value was 126.05, Z=10.42, 95%CI=102.34-149.76 (P < 0.01); the sub group of adolescents included 8 literatures, the combined effect WMD value was 104.00, Z=9.72, 95%CI=83.02-124.98 (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, physical activity had a significant positive effect on the cognitive flexibility of Chinese children and adolescents. The source of heterogeneity in school-age children group was tested by meta-regression method. The results showed that the type of children t=12.77, 95%CI=28.79-39.74(P < 0.01) was the primary source of heterogeneity in Meta-analysis. The results of egger regression analysis showed that t=0.47, 95%CI=-1.48-2.37(P=0.64), and there was no publication bias.  Conclusion  Adolescence is the sensitive period for development of cognitive flexibility, and physical activities have a significant positive impact on the cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents.
Relationships among psychological stress, achievement motivation and psychological capital in college students
DING Kun, YANG Xiaojing, ZHANG Kangdi, CHENG Xin, WANG Xinqiang, HUANG Kai, HU Chengyang, LUO Hailang, ZHANG Xiujun.
2021, 42(11): 1645-1649.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.011
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  Objective  This study explored the relationships among psychological stress, achievement motivation and psychological capital in college students to provide a reference for improving the level of psychological capital in college students.  Methods  A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 9 940 college students from ten universities in Anhui Province. The achievement motivation scale (AMS), psychological stress scale (SRQ-20) and psychological capital scale (PPQ) were applied. The moderating effect of the questionnaire was analyzed with χ2 tests, Spearman rank correlation and stratified regression.  Results  Statistical differences were found in psychological stress according to major, whether students leader, family economic status and whether students had left-behind experience (χ2=15.50, 10.25, 28.61, 25.55, P < 0.05). The rank correlation results indicated that psychological stress was negatively correlated with the pursuit of success (r=-0.27) and four dimensions of self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilence in psychological capital (r=-0.43, -0.41, -0.36, -0.45)(P < 0.05), and was positively correlated with the avoidance of failure (r=0.25, P < 0.05). The stratified regression model indicated that psychological stress in the dimensions of college students' achievement motivation (pursuit of success: β=0.02, ΔR2=0.01, P < 0.01; failure avoidance: β=0.03, ΔR2=0.01, P < 0.01) played a moderating role in the relationship between psychological capital and psychological capital.  Conclusion  Being female, senior students, low household economic status, and left-behind experience are associated with more psychological stress among college students. Psychological stress is correlated with achievement motivation and psychological capital, and has a moderating effect on the relationship between achievement motivation and psychological capital.
Association between childhood maltreatment and suicide among rural adolescents
ZHANG Yanmei, YU Yizhen, TANG Jie, KANG Chun, RONG Fajuan, YANG Haijun, YANG Min, WEI Sha.
2021, 42(11): 1650-1654.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.012
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  Objective  This study explored the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent suicide provides a scientific basis for suicide prevention strategies.  Methods  A total of 16 271 middle and high school students from rural areas in Anhui, Guangdong, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Hubei provinces were enrolled through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on participants' general information, childhood neglect, abuse, suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts in the 12 months prior to the survey. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations of childhood neglect and childhood maltreatment with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts.  Results  The number of suicide ideations, suicide plans and suicide attempts among rural adolescents were 2 453(15.1%), 1 164(7.2%) and 572(3.5%), respectively. The number of cases of childhood neglect, moderate physical abuse and severe physical abuse were 10 756(66.1%), 4 311(26.5%) and 703(4.3%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that childhood neglect and abuse were significantly associated with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts(P < 0.05). After controlling for age, gender, only children, parental education level, income, emotional management and social support, childhood neglect and abuse remained significantly correlated with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts(OR=1.62-5.14, P < 0.05); the OR(OR 95%CI) for severe physical abuse were 3.00(2.49-3.62), 3.52(2.81-4.40), 5.14(3.87-6.83) respectively.  Conclusion  Childhood neglect and abuse may increase the risk of suicide among adolescents in rural China, and effective measures should be taken to reduce childhood neglect and abuse and prevent suicide.
Evaluation of the effects of mindfulness training on sleep, anxiety and depression in college students
YUAN Xinyun, JIA Shuyi, FU Shirui, GUO Wei, PENG Yan
2021, 42(11): 1655-1659.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.013
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  Objective  To investigate the effect of online and offline mindfulness training on improving anxiety and depression and sleep quality of college students, and to provide a reference for mental health promotion among college students.  Methods  From October 2020, a total of 1 203 university students from North China University of Technology were screened with the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) using the whole group radom cluster sampling method. Totally 103 students who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into 64 online and 39 offline groups. The degree of improvement in anxiety, depression and sleep quality was assessed after the intervention.  Results  The SAS, SDS and PSQI scores of college students after the online and offline the mindfulness training intervention significantly decreased compared with score before the intervention (t=5.57, 5.31, 3.99; 4.88, 5.02, 5.88, P < 0.01). The difference in the degree of improvement in sleep quality between the two interventions, online and offline, was statistically significant (t=-2.55, P < 0.05). The less the three symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep were combined in university students, the higher the symptom remission rate of the positive mindfulness training (25% remission rate for all three symptoms together, 40% remission rate for two symptoms together and 100% remission rate for only one symptom).  Conclusion  Both online and mindfulness training can be used as an effective intervention for sleep, anxiety and depression; offline mindfulness training is more effective than online in improving sleep quality in university students; mindfulness training is more effective in relieving single symptoms.
Association between parental self-efficacy consistency and social development of children
YANG Shaomeng, YUE Hong, NIE Lili, WU Ruoyao, LIU Ying, YAN Chao, YAO Rongying
2021, 42(11): 1660-1664.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.014
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between parental self-efficacy consistency with children's social development, and to provide a reference basis for promoting children's social development.  Methods  During September to October of 2019, cluster sampling method were used to select 905 children and their parents from 2 kindergarten (senior-, mid-and junior-class) and 2 primary schools (grade one to grade three) in Bengbu. Children's social development and parental self-efficacy were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire(SDQ) and the parenting sense of competence Scale, respectively. Ordinal Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between parenting efficacy consistency with children's social development.  Results  Prevalence of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity-attention inability, peer problems, and abnormal prosocial behtavior was 8.95%, 6.30%, 18.01%, 14.03%, 7.40% and 5.41%, respectively, which were negatively associated with parental self-efficacy(P < 0.01). Consistent parenting sense of competence, children's emotion, hyperactivity-attention inability, moral behavior and prosocial behavior anomaly detection rate lowest, mother parenting self-efficacy were higher than the father, children's enotion, conduct behavior, hyperactivity-attention inability and prosocial behavior anomaly detection rate is highest, when the father parenting self-efficacy was higher than that of mothers, Children's conduct behavior and hyperativity-attention inability had the highest detection rate(Z=6.57, 7.58, 7.25, 7.06, P < 0.05). Children with higher maternal parenting self-efficacy were more likely to develop emotional, conduct behavior, hyperactivity-attention inability and prosocial behavior abnormalities, and children with higher father parenting self-efficacy were more likely to develop conduct behavior and hyperactivity-attention inability (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Parental self-efficacy and its consistency are related to child social development.It is suggested that parents should improve the parenting efficiency and the quality of companionship, optimize the family relations, and create a harmonious atmosphere.
Visual attention span and intervention effect of acttion video game in children with developmental dyslexia
LIU Fangfang, ZUO Pengxiang, TANG Shuting, GAO Xiaoyan, HE Hongyao
2021, 42(11): 1665-1669.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.015
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  Objective  To characterize visual attention span in children with developmental dyslexia in Xinjiang and to explore the effects of action video game training on visual attention span, and to provide a reference for improving the visual attention span of children with dyslexia.  Methods  Students from grade 3 to 5 in primary schools of Xinjiang were selected by using random clustering sampling method from July to November 2020, a total of 120 developmental dyslexia group (Group-DD), chronological age matched group (Group-CA) and reading level matched group (Group-RL) were selected and compared with visual attention spans, action video games were used to conduct intervention training for DD children, variance analysis was used to study the variation of visual attention span.  Results  The accuracy and discrimination index of Group-DD (0.68±0.10, 1.21±0.87) were lower than those of Group-CA (0.77±0.99, 1.80±0.83) and Group-RL (0.71±0.11, 1.50±0.75) (F=21.26, 15.19, P < 0.05);there was no significant difference in reaction time among the three groups(P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the accuracy of visual attention span (0.63±0.12, 0.71±0.11, 0.70±0.10), response time (760.51±185.83, 782.74±149.20, 857.27±155.44), and discrimination (0.84±0.81, 1.51±0.19, 1.29±0.10) among children of different grades (F=6.37, 3.81, 3.16, P < 0.05). After 12 hours of action video game training, the accuracy and discrimination of Group-DD intervention group (0.74±0.10, 1.53±0.88) were higher than those of Group-DD control group (0.68±0.14, 1.06±0.97)(P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between Group-DD intervention group and Group-RL (0.76±0.12, 1.73±0.71) (P>0.05), but there was statistical difference between Group-DD intervention group and Group-CA (0.81±0.94, 2.17±0.79) (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Children with dyslexia have deficits in visual attention span, with grade difference. Action video game intervention can improve visual attention span ability of developmental dyslexia children to some extent.
Associations between sleep duration and negative emotions among junior college students
LIU Jing, HE Jiajia, JIN Zhengge, LI Shuqin, JIANG Zhicheng, LI Ruoyu, WAN Yuhui
2021, 42(11): 1670-1673, 1678.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.016
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  Objective  To explore the associations between sleep duration and negative emotions among junior college students, and to provide reference for mental health promotion among college students.  Methods  Cluster sampling method were used to select 2 524 freshmen from a college in Huainan, Anhui Province. Questionnaires were used to investigate general demographic characteristics, sleep timing, negative emotions and other information. The restricted cubic spline and multivariate Logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and negative emotion among junior college students.  Results  The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, stress-associated symptoms were 19.41%(490), 28.2%(713), 9.9%(250) respectively.The prevalence of negative emotions was higher among boys(24.3%, 34.0%, 19.1%) than girls(18.7%, 27.4%, 8.5%). The differences between groups were statistically significant(P < 0.01). After adjusting for confounding factors, sleep duration and negative emotions showed a non-linear dose-response relationship. Compared with the reference group (8-<9 h), sleep duration < 7 h was significantly associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms and stress symptoms, and < 8 h was associated with an increased risk of anxiety symptoms. The additional sleep time on weekends ≥5 h was associated with negative emotions compared with the reference group(< 1 h) (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Short sleep duration and extra weekend sleep are associated with negative emotions. Reasonable sleep schedule among junior college students might be helpful for the prevention and control of negative emotions.
Current status and influencing factors of scoliosis of children in Shijiazhuang
CHEN Yujuan, LI Li, YANG Huiling, HU Wenwen, JIA Fuchi, ZHAI Fengming
2021, 42(11): 1674-1678.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.017
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  Objective  To learn the current status of scoliosis of children and its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment.  Methods  A total of 1 500 students selected from 4 kindergartens and 3 primary schools in Shijiazhuang were tested by static posture assessment and Adams flexion test to get the values, and self-designed questionnaire was designed to investigate the related factors.  Results  Totally 78 students were found with scoliosis, accounting for 5.47%. Among them, 17 boys (2.31% in boys) and 61 girls (8.85% in girls) were found with scoliosis, and the differences were of statistical significance (P < 0.01). And the main risk factors of scoliosis in children included holding too much, less crawling, poor sitting and standing posture, lack of vitamin D and calcium, long-term unilateral exertion sports, insufficient exercise time, improper height of table and chair, as well as being girl(OR=1.58, 0.58, 2.22, 2.13, 3.02, 2.18, 2.14, 2.86, 3.04, 2.59, 1.16, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The detection rate of scoliosis in children is very high, the education department and parents should pay more attention for prevention, scientific rearing Methods can effectively reduce the incidence of scoliosis in children.
Relationship between abuse experience with suicidal ideation and behavior of junior middle school students in Chongqing
WEI Min, TANG Yonglong, LI Shiying, FU Mingcheng, GAN Nina, XIE Fanglu, LUO Ya
2021, 42(11): 1679-1683, 1687.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.018
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between abuse experience with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of junior middle school students, and to provide a reference for suicide prevention of junior middle school students.  Methods  Cluster sampling method were used to selct 10 289 junior middle school students from 25 districts and counties of Chongqing were included in the analysis of this study from July to September in 2020. And Questionnaire on Abuse in Childhood and Mental Health Scale for Middle School Students were applied to collect the data about demographic information, suicide ideation and behavior.  Results  The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among junior middle school students were 20.93% and 10.83%, respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression model found that after controlling for demographic variables and mental health, emotional abuse (OR=2.07) and emotional neglect (OR=2.03) showed higher correlations with suicidal ideation than the other three types of childhood abuse(ORphysical neglect=1.19, ORphysical abuse=1.60, ORsexual abuse=1.37, P < 0.05); and sexual abuse (OR=2.29) and physical neglect (OR=1.87) showed higher associations with suicide attempt than the other three types of abuse(ORemotional abuse=1.63, ORemotional neglect=1.59, ORphysical abuse=1.50, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  All five types of child abuse were independent risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and emotional neglect and emotional abuse had a greater effect on suicidal ideation, sexual abuse and physical neglect had a greater effect on suicide attempts.
Association between physical activity and sedentary behavior with the risk of overweight and obesity in primary school students
WANG Junmin, GONG Tengyun
2021, 42(11): 1683-1687.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.019
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  Objective  To investigate the association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior with the risk of overweight/obesity in children, and to provide a reference for health life style of primary school students.  Methods  From November to December 2018, a cross-sectional survey of 949 school children aged 9-12 years in Guangdong Province was conducted. Children were classified as normal weight or overweight/obesity based on body mass index(BMI). Participants were advised to wear a wristwatch-type Gene Active accelerometer for 24 hours to record MVPA and sedentary time. Children's screen time (ST) was provided by parents. Poisson regression was used to analyze the independent associations between MVPA, sedentary time, screen time and overweight/obesity risk.  Results  About 20.8%(197) of the children were overweight/obesity. The percentage of children who met the MVPA recommendation was 22.1%(210), and the amount of sedentary time (excluding sleep) during the school day was 60.8%(577), or as high as 8.5 hours per day. Only 12.3%(117) of children have less than two hours of screen time per day. Compared with Q4, pupils with MVPA of Q1 had a 4.38 higher risk of overweight/obesity compared with normal pupils (P < 0.01), no similar associations were observed for sedentary time. Compared with pupils who met the recommended MVPA, pupils with lower MVPA had an increased risk of overweight/obesity by 2.54 times(95%CI=1.59-3.77). Pupils with more than 2 hours per day had an increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1.87 times(95%CI=1.21-3.02) compared with pupils with less than 2 hours per day.  Conclusion  The risk of overweight/obesity decreases with the increase of MVPA. The proportion of students meeting the MVPA recommendation is relatively low, the proportion exceeding screen time recommendation is high.
Prospective effect of dietary intake of fat on menarche among girls
GAO Wanke, DUAN Ruonan, LI Jing, CHEN Yue, XING Dong, XIONG Jingyuan, ZHAO Li, CHENG Guo
2021, 42(11): 1688-1691.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.020
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  Objective  To explore the prospective effect of dietary intake of total fat and fatty acids on menarcheal timing among girls, and to provide a theoretical basis for preventing the early puberty development of Chinese children.  Methods  Using the data from 1997-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 1 240 girls aged 6-13 with menarche information, baseline dietary survey data and at least one follow-up assessment were selected. Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the prospective effect of dietary intake of total fat and fatty acids before menarche on age at menarche.  Results  The mean baseline age of the participants was (8.3±1.8). After adjustment for year of birth, residence, household income, dietary energy intake and body mass index Z-score at baseline, girls in the highest quartile of intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) had a 30% and 34% higher probability of experiencing menarche at an earlier age than those in the lowest quartile [HR(HR 95%CI)=1.30 (1.01~1.68), 1.34(1.05~1.70)]. After adjusting for the confounders, there were no correlations between the intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and the onset of menarche [HR(HR 95%CI)=1.24(0.98~1.58), 1.25(0.97~1.62)](P>0.05).  Conclusion  Higher dietary intake of total fat and PUFA before menarche may lead to earlier age at menarche and no correlation between intake of SFA and MUFA before menarche with age at menarche is found among Chinese girls.
Meta-analysis of effectiveness of high intensity interval training on cognitive executive function of adolescents
HU Yanru, WU Tingting, TAN Yijie, ZENG Cuilan, SHI Dijian
2021, 42(11): 1692-1697.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.021
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  Objective  To summarize the effective of high intensity interval training on cognitive executive function among adolescents through Meta-analysis, and to provide reference for medical rehabilitation and physical education practice.  Methods  Literature search was conducted for Chinese and English keywords "High-Intensity Interval Training", "Cognition", "Cognition Function", "Executive Function" and "Executive Controls" regarding the effect of high intensity interval training on cognitive executive function among adolescents published prior to September 20, 2020 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of science, Embase, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Wanfang database and the VIP database. Stata 14 software and Revman 5.3 software were used for Meta-analysis, fixed-effect or random-effect model was used to combine the Results based on the heterogeneity.  Results  The response time of Stroop test immediately after acute high intensity interval training significantly decreased (SMD=0.70, 95%CI=0.28-1.11, z=3.29, P < 0.01); there was no significant change in response time of Stroop test 30 min after training (SMD=0.23, 95%CI=-0.14-0.60, z=1.23, P>0.05); the correct rate of Stroop test immediately after acute high intensity interval training increased significantly (SMD=0.26, 95%CI=0.03-0.50, z=2.21, P < 0.05); there was no significant change in correct rate of Stroop test 30 min after training (SMD=-1.38, 95%CI=-4.28-1.52, z=0.93, P>0.05). After long-term high intensity interval training, the response time of Stroop and TMT test were significantly shortened (SMD=0.38, 95%CI=0.07-0.70, z=2.41, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Acute and long-term high intensity interval training can effectively improve cognitive executive function among adolescents, but the long term effect of acute training is unclear.
Research of the core items of Physical Literacy Guidelines for Children and Adolescents
LI Hongjuan, ZHANG Yimin, WANG Ronghui, GUI Chunyan, ZHANG Zhaohua, ZHANG Liu, ZHOU Cailiang, ZHANG Liuwei
2021, 42(11): 1698-1702.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022
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  Objective  Physical literacy is the breakthrough point and fundamental goal to achieve the integration of sports and education, sports and public health and expand the function of physical education. Studying the children and adolescents' physical literacy is a common responsibility for children and adolescents' health, sports and health education workers. This article was based on the latest research evidence and expert opinions in China, aiming to develop the core items of physical literacy guidelines for Chinese children and adolescents.  Methods  This article systematically combed the dimensions and index system of children and adolescents' physical literacy through systematic literature review. After five rounds of Delphi methods, the core items were extracted.  Results  The core items included four interrelated dimensions of body, emotion, behavior, and cognition, which were specifically composed of four components: physical ability, emotional experience, physical activity-related behaviors, and knowledge understanding and application ability.  Conclusion  Children and adolescents are the key periods, sensitive periods, and window periods to cultivate physical literacy. The core items can provide framework recommendations for further refining guidelines. More empirical studies should be carried out in the future, in order to accumulate enough evidences and further to improve Physical Literacy guidelines, better to guide physical literacy promotion.
Characteristics of percentile value changes in body composition of children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 in Beijing
CHEN Manman, MA Ying, SU Binbin, LI Yanhui, GAO Di, CHEN Li, MA Tao, DONG Yanhui, MA Jun
2021, 42(11): 1703-1707.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.023
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  Objective  To analyze the trend of percentile changes in body composition among children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 by gender and age, and to provide a scientific basis for reference value.  Methods  A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 1 585 children and adolescents from September to December 2020. Use the GAMLSS to estimate the P25, P50 and P75 percentile value of gender, age-specific body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass (FFM).  Results  In different age groups, body fat percentage of boys with normal nutritional status peaked at around 10-year-old, among them, body fat percentage of 10-year-old P25, P50and P75 were 22.2%, 26.1% and 30.1%, respectively. Body fat percentage of obese boys was at a high level. Among girls, body fat percentage under different nutritional status did not change. With the increase of age, fat mass index plateaued slightly in normal and overweight boys. However, in obese boys, with the increase of age, FMI gradually increased with the increase of percentile, while the value of FMI gradually decreased in girls. Whether in boys or girls, with the increase of age, fat-free mass index shows an increasing trend, and boys increase faster.  Conclusion  Under different nutritional status, there are differences in the percentile value of body fat percentage, fat mass index and fat-free mass by gender and age, which can provide a scientific basis for reference value of body composition in children and adolescents.
Static balance and control strategy in preschool children
HUANG Chunxiang, HAO Zengming, WANG Jian
2021, 42(11): 1708-1711, 1716.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024
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  Objective  To explore the age-related increases and characteristics of static stance balance and control strategies of 3-6 years old preschool children, and to provide a reference for the research of children's physique and the practice of physical education.  Methods  Using a 2×2×3 (proprioceptive×visual×age) three-factor experimental design, standing balance was tested among 105 preschool children aged 3-6 years who were subjected to static for 15 s under four standing postures from January to March 2018. Quantitatively examine the static stance balance ability based on changes in the center of pressure (COP), and quantitatively examine the posture control strategy based on COP frequency domain analysis and nonlinear analysis.  Results  Among children aged 3-, 4- and 5-6 years old under the condition of open eyes/hard ground AP_ MV and ML_ MV were 18.05, 16.00, 13.40; 13.55, 11.03, 10.12 mm/s respectively; Under the condition of closed eyes/hard ground, children in three age groupsAP_ MV and ML_ MV were 21.01, 19.60, 15.10; 12.20, 10.20, 10.00 mm/s respectively among three age groups of children. The Results showed that the sloshing amplitude and average sloshing velocity decrease significantly with age(P < 0.01). Under the conditions of open/hard ground and closed/hard ground, the high frequency band in the left-right direction and the low frequency band in the anterior-posterior direction increased significantly with age (P < 0.01). Under the condition of open eyes/hard ground, three age groups of AP_ MF and AP_ HF among three age groups of children were 29.00, 28.61, 27.20; 7.45, 7.44 6.01, respectively, indicating that the middle and high frequency bands (P < 0.01) in the anterior posterior direction decreased significantly with age. ML_FD of children aged 3-, 4- and 5-6 years old under the condition of open eyes/hard ground and closed eyes/hard ground was 1.43, 1.44, 1.52; 1.49, 1.48, 1.56/mm, AP_ FD was 1.58, 1.56, 1.52; 1.56, 1.63, 1.61; AP_MSE was 6.81, 6.90, 5.61; 7.25, 7.41, 6.60, respectively. The Results show that the fractal dimension in the left-right direction increases significantly with age, while the fractal dimension and multi-scale entropy in the front back direction decrease significantly(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The static stance balance ability of 3-6 years old preschool children shows non-linear changes with age, the static posture balance ability of 5-6 years old preschool children is significantly better than that of 3-5 years old, and the balance control strategies of 5-6 years old preschool children is different from that of 3-5 years old.
Trends of overweight and prevalence among Ningxia Han ethnic students during 2000-2019
ZHANG Hui, ZHAO Haiping, HUANG Zirui, ZHANG Shujing, PAN Tingting, NIU Xiaoli
2021, 42(11): 1712-1716.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.025
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  Objective  To investigate the trend of overweight and obesity among Han students aged 7-18 in Ningxia from the year of 2000 to 2019, and to provide scientific basis for obesity prevention and control among children and adolescents.  Methods  Based on the five waves of "National Student Physical Fitness and Health Survey" in Ningxia region during 2000 to 2019, body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and other data of Han students aged 7-18 years were included was used for trend analysis.  Results  In 2019, the detection rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 in Ningxia were 13.34% (1 181/8 855) and 9.19% (814/8 855), respectively. The increase rate of overweight and obesity in boys from 2000 to 2019 was 11.68% and 10.07% (χ2=27.60, P < 0.01). The rate of overweight and obesity in female students from 2000 to 2019 was 6.95% and 5.77% (χ2=33.82, P < 0.01). Urban boys had the highest rates of overweight and obesity, which were 11.38% and 10.45%. The growth rate of overweight and obesity in rural boys was higher than that in urban boys after 2010 (χ2=13.90, 17.09, P < 0.05), and the growth rate of obesity in rural girls was higher than that in urban girls after 2014 (χ2=9.94, 33.39, P < 0.05). Overweight and obesity prevalence showed positive associations with the economic status in both urban and rural areas (χ2=35.19, 35.35, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  From 2000 to 2019, the prevalence of overweight and obesity and body mass index among children and adolescents in Ningxia increased consistently, with more rigirous in rural areas. Specific strategies and measures for overweight and obesity prevention in children and adolescents are in urgent need, to reduce potential social and economic burden.
Effectiveness of basketball exercise on body composition among obese junior middle school students
SONG Zhongliang, JI Hongjing, PENG Chong, TONG Weicheng, SUN Guilong
2021, 42(11): 1717-1719, 1723.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.026
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  Objective  To investigate effectiveness of different intensities of basketball exercise on body compositions among obese junior middle school students, and to provide theoretical support for healthy weight loss among obese children and adolescents.  Methods  From September to November 2020, a typical sampling method was used to select 48 obese junior middle school students were recruited from Wuhan Optical Valley Experimental Middle School according to body mass index(BMI), all the students were divided into high, moderate and low-intensity basketball training group, as well as the control group, the 45 min per times basketball exercise intervention was administered three times per week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not received no intervention, body composition was assessed before and after intervention.  Results  After 12 weeks of low-intensity basketball exercise, the percentage of body fat of obese junior high school students after intervention was significantly higher than that before intervention (t=3.52, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other indexes body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, skeletal musclebetween before and after intervention (t=2.31, 1.98, 1.26, -1.65, P > 0.05). For moderate-intensity basketball exercise group obdy weight, BMI, percentage of body fat and waist circumference showed statistical changes before and after intervention(t=3.44, 3.76, 6.56, 2.45, P < 0.05). For high-intensity basketball exercise group, all body composition indicators showed significant changes(t=4.14, 5.18, 11.26, 5.89, -2.56, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Twelve weeks of basketball exercise can effectively improve body composition of obese junior middle school students, with higher the intensity of exercise, the better the effectiveness. Exercise movement techniques; Basketball; Obesity; Intervention studies; Students
Influence of life satisfaction and parental rearing style on accidental injury of rural primary and middle school students
FENG Linhong, LI Haidong, CHEN Zhengji, GAO Jianping, LIU Wei
2021, 42(11): 1720-1723.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.027
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  Objective  To analyze the impact of life satisfaction and parental rearing methods on accidental injuries of primary and secondary school students in rural areas, and to provide a therotical reference for injury prevention and intervention among primary and secondary school students in rural areas.  Methods  A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 045 rural primary and middle school students in Luliang County, Yunnan Province, questionnaire survey regarding injury, MSLSS and EMBU was administered.  Results  The incidence of accidental injury among rural primary and middle school students was 16.19%, and the rate of boys (19.51%) were higher than that of girls (12.26%) (χ2=19.69, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis found that women, low injury risk behavior scores, and high life satisfaction scores were associated with less accidental injuries(OR=0.62, 0.98, 0.81), while day-to-day school and father's overprotection were associated with more for accidental injuries(OR=1.50, 1.04, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Parents should pay more attention to children's safety education while creating a good living environment for their children, but they should pay attention to their own education methods to reduce accidental injuries.
Analysis of prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province
CHEN Ting, FAN Yi, SONG Xiaoguang, FANG Xiaoyan, ZHU Hui, CHENG Huijian
2021, 42(11): 1724-1727.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.028
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  Objective  To investigate prevalence and influencing factors of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province, and to provide the basis for strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity.  Methods  Using stratified random cluster sampling, a total of 77 780 primary and middle school students in 11 districts of Jiangxi Province were investigated with physical examination and questionnaire during March to November in 2019.  Results  The detection rates of overweight and obesity of children and adolescents in Jiangxi province were 20.5% and 8.4%, respectively. Which decreased with the increase of the learning stage(χ2=178.65, 389.86), with significantly higher in boys and urban areas (χ2=1 061.06, 504.21;56.17, 34.14)(P < 0.01).In different economic areas, the detection rates of overweight and obesity in moderate economic area(23.3%, 9.7%) were the highest, followed by high economic area (21.1%, 8.7%) and low economic area(18.2%, 7.2%), and the differences were statistically significant(χ2=266.29, 143.90, P < 0.01).The results of multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that in terms of social demography, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province were associated with economic area, residence, learning stage and gender; in terms of dietary behavior, overweight of children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province was associated with consumption frequency of sugary drinks, sweets, fresh fruits and vegetables, and the influencing factors of obesity were consumption frequency of sweets and fresh fruits(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The situation of overweight and obesity of children and adolescents in Jiangxi Province is sorrisome, and comprehensive prevention and control should be carried out with the joint efforts of society, school and family. Child; Adolescent; Overweight; Obesity; Epidemiologic factors
Analysis of adenoid hypertrophy and secretory otitis media in primary and middle school students in Suzhou
FANG Qin, TAO Duoduo
2021, 42(11): 1728-1731, 1735.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.029
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  Objective  To analyze the incidence of adenoid hypertrophy and risk factors for secretory otitis media among primary and middle school students aged 7-16 years in Suzhou, and to provide a reference for its clinical disagnosis, treatment and prognosis.  Methods  The primary and secondary school students aged from 7 to 16 in Suzhou from January 2015 to December 2019 were selected by using cluster stratified sampling, adenoid hypertrophy cases were screened and diagnosed by MR, the epidemiology of adenoid hypertrophy and related risk factors of complicated secretory otitis media were analyzed among participants.  Results  Among 327 cases of adenoid hypertrophy were screened, with a prevalence rate of 10.95%. From 2015 to 2019, the prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy among primary and middle school students increased by year. The prevalence rate in 2019 was 10.95% higher than 9.20% in 2015 and 9.95% in 2016. The prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy in boys was 12.29%, which was higher than 9.48% in girls(χ2=6.04, P < 0.05). The prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy between 7-10 years old was 15.08% and higher than 6.36%(χ2=57.93, P < 0.05) for primary and middle school students aged 11-16. Among the 327 primary and middle school students with adenoid hypertrophy, a total of 20 had secretory otitis media, and the combined rate was 6.12%. The age of the combined secretory otitis media group was younger than that of the non-combined group, the severity of adenoid hypertrophy was higher than that of the non-combined group, and serum IL-4, TNF-α, IgA, IgG, and IgM were higher than those of the non-combined group (P < 0.05). Adenoid hypertrophy complicated with secretory otitis media was associated with age, severity, IL-4, IgG, and IgM (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The prevalence of adenoid hypertrophy among primary and secondary school students aged 7-16 years in Suzhou is relatively high, which is related to gender, age, time of onset and season. Secretory otitis media in adenoids hypertrophy children and adolescents should attract sufficient attention from the whole society.
School health personnel in primary and secondary schools in China
ZHAO Tianjie, ZHU Guangrong, HU Zhen, YAO Haizhou, WANG Haixue, MA Jun, DONG Yanhui
2021, 42(11): 1732-1735.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.030
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  Objective  To understand the current status of the team structure of health personnel in primary and secondary schools, and to provide suggestions and references for strengthening and optimizing school health workforce.  Methods  A nationwide stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to select provinces for investigation in stratification from 2015-2016, a total of 16 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, 26 survey sites, 10 027 primary and secondary schools, 9 536 questionnaires of health personnel were collected.  Results  Among the 9 536 school health staffs, there were various types of positions, and different types of schools had different position types construction. Elementary schools had the most part-time health care teachers, accounting for 77.6%, while full-time school doctors only accounting 10.0%; high schools had the most full-time school doctors, accounting for 65.7%, and part-time health care teachers only accounting for 15.1%. There were various employment channels, with the most transfer jobs in schools, accounting for 70.7%. The series of professional titles were diverse, with the teaching profession accounting for 67.4%. Most of school health teachers had junior and intermediate professional titles, accounting for 42.6%, respectively. Proportion of medium, medium-low, and low level of salary accounted for 39.3%, 27.9% and 21.1% respectively.  Conclusion  The educational background and age distribution of school health personnel is reasonable, but the proportions of medical background and full-time school doctors are relatively low. School health personnel have various job types, professional titles, salary level, and limited space of career development. Top-level design from the policy level, and clearly defined improve the structure of school health personnel to meet the needs of high-quality development of school health work in the new era.
Analysis of teaching environment of primary and middle schools in Zhengzhou City from 2014 to 2018
GAO Lihua, CHEN Yanzhe, QUE Hanya, XING Yiyuan, ZHU Huili, WANG Liru
2021, 42(11): 1736-1739.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.031
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  Objective  To understand the changing trend of the teaching environment of the elementary and secondary schools in Zhengzhou, and to provide data for further improving the teaching environment of the elementary and secondary schools.  Methods  A survey of teaching facilities and teaching aids in 534 secondary and primary schools in Zhengzhou was conducted from 2014 to 2018 by using a stratified random sampling method.  Results  Teaching facilities: the qualified rate of the railings in the outer corridor of the teaching building was 88.8% (474), the qualified rate of classroom lighting was 79.6% (425), the qualified rate of the light desk distance was 82.8% (442), and the qualified rate of black plate lights 86.1% (460), the qualified rate of each year was statistically significant (χ2=9.97, 23.74, 80.10, 53.33, P < 0.05); the qualified rate of classroom area per capita was 52.8% (282), the qualified rate of the outer corridor width of the teaching building was 64.0% (342), the qualified rate of each year showed no statistical difference(χ2=7.38, 8.71, P > 0.05). Teaching ancillary facilities: the proportion of centralized water supply was 65.0% (347), toilet with hand washing facilities was 81.6% (436), these two indicators showed an increasing trend, hand washing facilities in campus was 70.6% (377), showed a decreasing trend, the rate of each year differed significantly(χ2=88.62, 42.71, 123.53, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The overall situation of teaching environment in Zhengzhou primary and secondary schools is relatively good, the qualified rate of most indicators of teaching facilities increased from 2014 to 2018. However, there are still some indicators to be strengthened.
Effect modification of overweight and obesity on the relationship between short-term PM2.5 exposure and vital capacity in children and adolescents
MA Tao, HUO Jiakang, WU Lijuan, LI Weiming, LIU Xiangtong, WEN Bo, CHEN Li, DONG Yanhui, GUO Xiuhua, MA Jun
2021, 42(11): 1740-1743.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.032
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  Objective  To analyze the relationship between short-term exposure of PM2.5 and the vital capacity of children and adolescents and the modification effect of overweight and obesity, and to provide a scientific reference for appropriate outdoor activities and strengthening prevention of air pollution.  Methods  A total of 1 036 273 students who qualified in the annual health examination data of primary and secondary school students in a city from 2017 to 2018 were selected; the meteorological factors and air quality of the study area were obtained by inverse distance weighted interpolation method; the generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate the individual lag effect and average lag effect of PM2.5 short-term exposure on lung capacity with in 7 days, and to analyze the modification effect of overweight and obesity on the relationship between short-term PM2.5 exposure and vital capacity in children and adolescents.  Results  From September 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018, the average PM2.5 concentration in this city was 66.36 μg/m3, the detection rate of overweight and obesity was 33.38%, and the average lung capacity was (2 286.72±956.77)mL. The single lag effect of PM2.5 on vital capacity was the biggest when lag6, the average daily PM2.5 concentration increased by 10 μg/m3 and the decrease of vital capacity of children and adolescents by 2.81(95%CI=2.60-3.03)mL. The average lag effect of PM2.5 on lung capacity was the largest when lag07, the average concentration of PM2.5 sliding was significantly correlated with the decrease of lung capacity of children and adolescents by 5.82(95%CI=5.37-6.27)mL every 10 μg/m3 increase. The prevalence of PM2.5 short-term exposure to pulmonary capacity decreased in overweight and obese children and adolescents was higher (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The short-term exposure of PM2.5 has a significant negative correlation with the lung capacity of children and adolescents, and there is a lag effect. The decrease of the vital capacity of overweight and obese children and adolescents after PM2.5 short-term exposure is more significant.
Effectiveness of systematic sex education for adolescent students from the perspective of sexual mental health
CAO Yunfei, CHEN Rong, ZHENG Lulu, ZHANG Yu, GOU Ping
2021, 42(11): 1744-1746, 1750.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.033
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  Objective  To conduct a comparative study on the specific effects of systematic sex education on adolescent students in terms of sexual cognition, sexual values, and sexual adaptation, and to provide the support for conducting a comprehensive education in middle schools.  Methods  A whole-group sampling method was used to select 3 369 middle and high school students from six general and vocational middle schools in Sichuan Province, which were divided into systematic sex education schools and non-systematic sex education schools, and a comparative study was conducted using the Adolescent Mental Health Scale.  Results  The results showed that the adolescent students who received systematic sex education were significantly different from those who did not receive systematic sex education in terms of sex-related cognition (7.18±6.24, 5.65±7.40), sexual values(7.60±1.17, 7.30±1.24), and sexual adjustment (11.49±1.29, 11.10±1.41). All differed significantly (t=5.95, 6.80, 7.57, P < 0.01). The students who received systematic education in junior middle school were higher than those who received non-systematic education in sex-related cognition, sexual values and sexual adaptation (P < 0.01). However, in senior high school, the differences in systematic education are only shown in sexual values control and self-adaptation in sexual adjustment (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in sex-related cognition, sexual values and sexual adjustment between male and female students who received systematic education and non-systematic education (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Systematic sex education is more beneficial to the psychosexual health of adolescent students than non-systematic sex education in schools.
Epidemiological characteristics and intervention strategies of overweight and obesity among Chinese school-age children
GUO Ziyu, FENG Zhehao, WANG Wenxin, XIA Tingsong, SUN Jian, XIAN Min
2021, 42(11): 1747-1750.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.034
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in China has entered a new phase of pandemic, with substantial regional differences. There are diverse and complex determinants for overweight and obesity in school-age children, it is necessary to take targeted measures towards children of different ages and regions, comprehensively consider the effects of physiological, social, household and behavioral factors and simultaneously strengthen connections between schools, medical institutions and families, so as to actively respond to the severe situation of childhood obesity epidemic.
Research progress of adolescent cyberbullying
LI Yonghan, CHANG Junjie, YUAN Mengyuan, SU Puyu
2021, 42(11): 1751-1756.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.035
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Adolescent cyberbullying refers to adolescents who are subjected to offensive and violent behavior in social network environments through electronic technologies. Due to the anonymity of the Internet and the rapidity of transmission, cyberbullying has a serious and far-reaching impact on the physical and mental health of teenagers. With the development of information technology, various forms of cyberbullying have emerged, and the formation mechanism and influencing factors of cyberbullying are diverse and complex. This article systematically reviews the research progress in cyberbullying by evaluating the epidemic characteristics, influencing factors, and related theoretical models that are relevant to adolescents, so as to provide a referential framework to build a public health system that can prevent cyberbullying in families, schools, and society.
Research progress on grief of bereaved children
YI Yonghong, YU Genzhen, DING Lingli
2021, 42(11): 1757-1760.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.036
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Abstract:
Bereavement during childhood is the stressful life event that children may experience in their growing up, while most bereaved children will eventually adapt, some may be severely affected, with potential risks to their healthy physical and mental development, it also has potential risks to the healthy development of children's body and mind.This article reviews the characteristics and associated factors with grief in bereavement children, and summarizes the main intervention approaches for bereavement children's grief, aiming to provide a reference for further research on bereavement children's grief in different age groups and to explore effective intervention models.
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Correlation between behavioral problems and nutrient intake in school-age children
CHENG Yu, SUN Yaowu, CHAO Hong
2018, 39(6): 832-835.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2018.06.009
[Abstract](130) [PDF 362KB](36)
Abstract:
Release report of the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health
Department of Physical Health and Arts Education Ministry of Education
2021, 42(9): 1281-1282.   doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.001
[Abstract](223) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 282KB](70)
Abstract:
In 2019 the Ministry of Education and other departments launched the Eighth National Survey on Student Physical Fitness and Health in accordance with the National Student Physique and Health Survey System approved by the State Council in 1987.The general improvement student physical and health in China has been made and the primary factors enhaneing students' physical fitness and health have been put forward.In terms of the findings in this survey the following relevant arrangements are proposed comprehensively strengthening and improving school physical education implementing school health and health education policy requirements continuing comprehensive prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents and implementing the national plan for the construction of healthy schools.

Found in 1980 Monthly

Competent Authorities: National Health Commission

Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association

ISSN1000-9817

CN34-1092/R

Awards