Current Articles

2024, Volume 45,  Issue 2

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Focus on the dietary behaviors and mental health among multi-ethnic adolescents
XU Honglü, TAO Fangbiao
2024, 45(2): 153-156. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024047
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Unhealthy eating behaviors among adolescents are common, and psychological behavior problems are prominent. The paper examines the status and associations underlying unhealthy eating behaviors and psychological behavior problems in adolescents from border multi-ethnic areas, and further discusses the importance of research in border area involving multi-ethnic adolescents, and highlights its significance in the context of constructing healthy schools in border areas, so as to provide a basis for promoting effectively healthy school environments in border areas of China.
Development and implications of physical fitness assessment for children and adolescents in Japan
YANG Yuhang, WU Jin, WEI Shengmeng, LI Weimin
2024, 45(2): 157-161. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024030
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  Objective  To help children and adolescents grow up healthily, using literature, comparative analysis and other research methods, the historical development of Japan's physical fitness assessment system for children and adolescents are analyzed for the content structure of the latest version of its physical fitness assessment system (Sports adaptability assessment Ⅱ). On the basis of this analysis, some practical suggestions are proposed for improving the National Physical Fitness Standards for Students in China, such as adding a physical fitness assessment system for preschoolers, grouping the test subjects by age and setting common test indicators for males and females. Thus, the improved National Student Physical Fitness Standard is more aligned with the physical and mental growth patterns of Chinese children and adolescents.
Decision tree model of depressive symptoms among first-grade students from multi-ethnic middle schools in Yunnan Province
YANG Jiaxing, LI Xiaoxiao, YANG Jizong, YANG Chaoyuan, ZHANG Ming, FU Yun, YANG Wanjuan, WANG Jixue, XU Honglü
2024, 45(2): 162-167. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024048
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  Objective  To understand the occurrence and predictive factors of depressive symptoms among multi-ethnic middle school students in Yunnan Province, so as to provide a referential framework for schools to carry out targeted mental health education.  Methods  From October to December 2022, 8 500 first-grade students from 23 middle schools were selected from 11 minority areas in Yunnan Province by cluster random sampling method. Demographic information and data relating to the students' lifestyles were collected by questionnaire, and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Chi-square test was performed to compare differences in the detection rate of depressive symptoms among first-grade middle school students for univariate analysis. A decision tree model of depressive symptoms in middle school students was established by using the Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID).  Results  The detection rate of depressive symptoms among first-grade students from multi-ethnic middle schools in Yunnan Province was 28.26%. The decision tree model of depressive symptoms was academic stress (χ2=469.08) at the first level, breakfast behaviors (low/moderate academic stress: χ2=155.49; severe academic stress: χ2=105.24) at the second level, and the number of close friends (low/moderate academic stress and consuming breakfast 0-2 days weekly: χ2=23.15; low/moderate academic stress and consuming breakfast 3-4 days weekly: χ2=14.99; severe academic stress and consuming breakfast 0-2 days weekly: χ2=29.26; severe academic stress and consuming breakfast 3-4 days weekly: χ2=20.15), ethnicity (χ2=78.22) and drinking (χ2=50.36) at the third level (P<0.01).  Conclusions  The study identifies academic stress, breakfast behaviors, number of close friends, drinking and ethnicity as predictive factors of depressive symptoms among multi-ethnic middle school students in Yunnan Province. Schools should develop targeted strategies for preventing and managing depressive symptoms in middle school students, so as to reduce their occurrence.
Association between latent classes of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among first-grade students from multi-ethnic middle schools in Yunnan Province
XU Honglü, WANG Jixue, YANG Jizong, YANG Wanjuan, ZHANG Ming, FU Yun, DUAN Yajuan, CHANG Litao
2024, 45(2): 168-172. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024049
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  Objective  To determine the latent class of dietary patterns and their association with depressive symptoms among first-grade students from multi-ethnic middle schools in Yunnan Province, so as to provide a reference basis for promoting mental health among border middle school students.  Methods  A cluster random sampling involving 8 500 first-grade middle school students from 11 counties in Yunnan Province was conducted by a questionnaire survey between October to December 2022. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to assess the depressive symptoms and the Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to collect eating behavior data. The latent profile analysis model was used to fit the latent class of dietary patterns among students. The association between the dietary pattern latent class and depressive symptoms was analyzed by Logistic regression.  Results  The depressive symptom detection rate among first-grade middle school students was 28.3%. Prevalence of depressive symptom in girls (30.9%) was higher than boys (25.5%) with a statistically significant difference (χ2=29.83, P<0.01). The dietary patterns among first-grade middle school students were classified into four latent classes, as follows: class 1 (low consumption of all dietary components), class 2 (high consumption of fruit, milk and dairy products), class 3 (high consumption of vegetables and meat, and low consumption of processed foods) and class 4 (low consumption of milk, dairy products and eggs, and high consumption of processed foods). After adjusting for confounding variables, the class 3 dietary pattern was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.52-0.74) and the class 4 dietary pattern was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.05-1.57) (P<0.05), compared with the class 1 dietary pattern.  Conclusions  Multi-ethnic first-grade middle school students in Yunnan Province follow various dietary patterns. Unhealthy dietary patterns increase the risk of depressive symptoms. The dietary patterns of multi-ethnic middle school students in Yunnan Province should be adjusted to promote the establishment of healthy dietary patterns and reduce the risk of depression symptoms in middle school students.
Association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption with insomnia and depressive symptoms among first-grade middle school students from Yunnan Province
LI Jiangli, YANG Chaoyuan, ZHANG Ming, FU Yun, YANG Wanjuan, YANG Jizong, WANG Jixue, HU Mengdie, LU Qiuan, XU Honglü
2024, 45(2): 173-177. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024050
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  Objective  To investigate the association of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with insomnia and depressive symptoms among first-grade middle school students from Yunnan Province, so as to provide evidence to guide interventions for the treatment of these symptoms in this population.  Methods  From October to December 2022, 8 500 first-grade middle school students from 11 counties in Yunnan Province were selected by cluster random sampling. Depressive symptoms, SSB consumption, and insomnia symptoms among students were evaluated by the Child Depression Scale (CDI), dietary frequency questionnaire, and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). A Logistic regression model was employed to analyze the relationship between SSB consumption, insomnia, depressive symptoms, and their interaction effects among students.  Results  The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 28.3%, and having insomnia symptoms (OR=6.07, 95%CI=5.46-6.75), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.08-1.34), tea (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.02-1.25), energy drinks (OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.23-1.50), and other beverages (OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.19-1.45) were positively correlated with depressive symptoms among first-grade middle school students (P<0.05). Carbonated beverages (additive effect: OR=2.96, 95%CI=2.72-3.22, multiplicative effect: OR=4.75, 95%CI=4.25-5.32), fruit drinks (additive effect: OR=2.61, 95%CI=2.40-2.82; multiplicative effect: OR=4.43, 95%CI=3.94-4.97), tea (additive effect: OR=2.70, 95%CI=2.47-2.89; multiplicative effect: OR=4.34, 95%CI=3.86-4.89), energy drinks (additive effect: OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.61-3.05; multiplicative effect: OR=4.48, 95%CI=3.92-5.12), sweetened milk (additive effect: OR=2.73, 95%CI=2.06-2.96; multiplicative effect: OR=4.61, 95%CI=4.12-5.17) and other beverages (additive effect: OR=2.73, 95%CI=2.53-2.95; multiplicative effect: OR=4.56, 95%CI=4.00-5.20) had both additive and multiplicative effects with insomnia, and increased the risk of depressive symptoms in first-grade middle school students (P<0.01).  Conclusions  The interaction between the consumption of SSB and insomnia symptoms may increase the risk of depressive symptoms among first-grade middle school students in Yunnan Province. It is necessary to advocate middle school students to reduce SSB intake, in order to decrease the occurrence of depressive symptoms among this population.
Longitudinal association between processed food consumption and anxiety symptoms among college students in Yunnan Province
JIANG Yinghong, SU Yunpeng, SU Yingzhen, TAO Jian, CHEN Weiwei, HU Dongyue, YANG Junyu, XU Honglü
2024, 45(2): 178-182. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024051
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  Objective  To explore the association between processed food consumption and anxiety symptoms among college students in Yunnan Province, so as to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of anxiety symptoms in this population.  Methods  A cluster random sample of 2 515 first-year students from two universities in Yunnan Province was selected to carry out a longitudinal investigation which included a baseline survey (November 2021, T1) and three follow-up visits (June 2022, T2; November 2022, T3; June 2023, T4). The food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess processed food consumption, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21, Chinese version) was used to evaluate anxiety symptoms. A generalized estimation equation model was used to analyze the relationship between processed food consumption and anxiety symptoms.  Results  The detection rates of T1-T4 anxiety symptoms among college students in Yunnan Province were 29.70%, 36.70%, 37.69% and 38.73%, respectively, and the corresponding anxiety symptom scores were 4(0, 8), 4(0, 10), 4(0, 12), 2(0, 14). After controlling for demographic variables and confounding factors in the generalized estimation equation model, a statistically significant association was found between consumption of carbonated beverages (β=0.06, 95%CI=0.03-0.08), and other processed snacks (β=0.04, 95%CI=0.01-0.07) (P<0.05). The stratified analysis by gender showed that the consumption of carbonated beverages (β=0.08, 95%CI=0.05-0.12) and fast food (β=0.03, 95%CI=0.00-0.06) was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms in female college students (P<0.05). There was no significant association between processed food consumption and anxiety symptoms in male college students (P>0.05).  Conclusions  Processed food consumption by college students in Yunnan Province may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms, particularly among female students. There is a need to strengthen guidance in respect to processed food consumption, so as to prevent and treat anxiety symptoms.
Prospective effects of dietary intake on lung function of pupils in Chengdu City
MAO Yongwen, LIU Xueting, HE Chunlei, CHEN Mengxue, LI Danting, ZHANG Kexin, ZHANG Qin, WANG Xiaoyu, XU Yujie, CHENG Guo
2024, 45(2): 183-187. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024052
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  Objective  To investigate the prospective effects of intake of each food group on the development of lung function of pupils, so as to provide theoretical basis for promoting the healthy development of lung function and preventing chronic respiratory diseases in Chinese children.  Methods  A cluster stratified sampling method was used to select a total of 893 pupils in grades 2-5 from Chengdu in November 2021. Dietary data of respondents were collected using a food frequency questionnaire within the past year, then the food group intake was categorized into T1, T2 and T3 from low to high by the trichotomous method, and anthropometric measurements including lung capacity were obtained in 2022. Logistic regression models and test for trend were used to analyze the prospective effects of intake of each food group on lung function development of pupils.  Results  Among male students, consumption of vegetables [118.6(50.5, 188.2)g/d] and milk and dairy products [200.0(73.3, 250.0)g/d] were higher in the excellent lung capacity group than in the non-excellent lung capacity group [90.0(37.1, 192.9), and 178.6(35.7, 250.0)g/d], with statistically significant differences (Z=-1.98, -2.24); among girls, the group with excellent lung capacity consumed less staple food [391.1(273.6, 511.4)g/d] than the group with non-excellent lung capacity [407.4(309.5, 594.3)g/d], and the group with excellent lung capacity consumed more aquatic products [31.2(14.6, 69.8)g/d] and milk and dairy products [215.0(107.1, 250.1)g/d] than that of the non-excellent lung capacity [19.4(10.7, 58.3), 114.3(35.7, 250.0)g/d] (Z=-2.01, -3.33, -5.10)(P<0.05). After adjusting for energy, body mass index Z score(BMI-Z), mother's education level, averge family income monthly, whether presence of smokers in the living environment, and whether participation in physical activities during the past week, among male students, T3 group of vegetable intake (OR=0.48, 95%CI= 0.27-0.86), T2 group of bean and soy product intake (OR=0.52, 95%CI=0.27-0.96), T2 and T3 groups of milk and dairy products intake (T2:OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.31-0.93; T3:OR=0.52, 95%CI=0.30-0.90) were negatively associated with non-excellent lung capacity (P<0.05). Among girls, T3 group of aquatic product intake(OR=0.52, 95%CI=0.28-0.97), T2 and T3 groups of milk and dairy product (T2:OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.25-0.76;T3:OR=0.33, 95%CI=0.19-0.59) were negatively associated with non-excellent lung capacity, whereas the T2 group of red meat intake (OR=2.51, 95%CI=1.37-4.67) was positively associated with non-excellent lung capacity. Non-excellent lung capacity was found to be negatively associated with vegetable and milk and dairy product intake in boys by test for trend; in girls, milk and dairy products intake was negatively associated with non-excellent lung capacity, whereas red meat intake was positively associated with non-excellent lung capacity (t=-1.13, -0.44;-3.03, 1.95, Ptrend<0.05).  Conclusions  Milk and dariy products intakes reduce the risk of non-excellent lung capacity in pupils, vegetables intakes reduce the risk of non-excellent lung capacity in boys, and the intake of red meat increases the risk of non-excellent lung capacity in girls. Promoting rational food choices is necessary for children to improve healthy lung development.
Nutritional status and its related factors among primary and secondary school students in Beijing City
WANG Yan, SUN Bingjie, ZHAO Hai, XU Huiyu, GAO Ruoyi, LUO Huijuan, GUO Xin
2024, 45(2): 188-192. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024041
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  Objective  To assess the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Beijing City and to analyze the related factors, so as to provide a scientific basis for improving the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in a targeted manner.  Methods  Based on the 2021 Beijing Student Common Diseases and Health Influencing Factors Surveillance Project, a stratified random cluster sampling method was used to conduct a physical examination and questionnaire survey on 25 487 primary and secondary school students from September to November 2021. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of nutritional status detection rates, and disordered multi-classification Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with students' nutritional status.  Results  The detection rates of malnutrition, overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students in Beijing City were 4.7%, 18.0% and 23.8% respectively. The detection rates of malnutrition, overweight and obesity were higher among male students (5.1%, 20.4%, 29.7%) than female students (4.2%, 15.5%, 17.4%) (χ2=12.23, 101.71, 526.99, P<0.01). The detection rate of obesity was higher in the suburbs than urban areas(26.6%, 19.8%), and the detection rate of malnutrition was lower in the suburbs than urban areas (4.2%, 5.5%)(χ2=157.25, 23.61, P<0.01). The results of disordered multi-classification Logistic regression showed that the related factors for malnutrition, overweight and obesity were gender, residence, moderate-to-vigorous exercise ≥60 min per day and lack of sleep(OR=1.70, 1.88, 2.48; 1.14, 0.87, 0.67; 0.85, 0.92, 0.81; 0.83, 1.08, 1.07); frequency of fried food intake daily was a related factor for overweight (OR=0.70); whether eating breakfast daily or not was a related factor for overweight and obesity (OR=0.91, 0.84); academic level (middle and high school) was a related factor for malnutrition and obesity (OR=1.38, 1.37; 0.77, 1.40)(P<0.05).  Conclusions  The problem of overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students in Beijing City continues to be serious, especially among boys and suburban areas. It is recommended that society, schools, families and individuals should work together to improve the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students by adopting a graded and classified approach.
Current situation and related factors of AIDS discrimination among junior medical students in Jiangxi Province
HUANG Duoqin, ZOU Wei, ZHENG Ya'nan, WAN Xin, GONG Xi
2024, 45(2): 193-197. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024043
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  Objective  To explore the current situation and related factors of AIDS discrimination among junior medical students in Jiangxi Province, so as to provide a reference for effective AIDS anti-discrimination intervention measures in medical colleges.  Methods  Using a convenience sampling approach, 2 484 medical students were selected from five universities in Jiangxi Province from July to August 2023. An anonymous survey was conducted using a general information questionnaire, a AIDS knowledge questionnaire, and the Chinese version of Zelaya's AIDS Stigma Scale. Independent sample t-tests and analysis of variance were carried out to analyze the level of AIDS discrimination among medical students with different characteristics. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to identify the related factors of AIDS discrimination.  Results  The total score of AIDS discrimination among medical students was (2.55±0.67). The dimension with the highest score was fear of contracting the disease (2.89±1.01). The results of the multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the factors related to AIDS discrimination included gender (β=-0.17), grade (β=-0.08), being an only child or not (β=-0.04), whether knowing about AIDS knowledge or not (β=0.22), willingness to use condoms during sexual activity (β=0.07), willingness to participate in school sexual health knowledge-based activities (β=0.05) and the perceived importance of self-health (β=0.11) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  AIDS discrimination is prevalent among junior medical students in Jiangxi Province. Efforts should be undertaken to enhance humanistic education and relevant knowledge dissemination among junior medical students to reduce the level of AIDS discrimination.
Analysis of associated factors of attempting e-cigarettes use among senior high school students in Beijing City between 2019 and 2023
QIN Ran, GUO Xin, LI Ting, ZHAO Jinhui
2024, 45(2): 198-202. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024021
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  Objective  To analyze prevalence and associated factors of attempting e-cigarettes use among senior high school students in Beijing City between 2019 and 2023, in order to providing references for the construction of smoke-free senior high schools environments.  Methods  In 2019, 9 137 students from 44 senior high schools in Beijing City were monitored, including 27 general senior high schools and 17 vocational senior high schools. In 2023, the study included 6 709 students from 30 senior high schools comprising 21 general senior high schools and 9 vocational senior high schools. On-site investigations using anonymous questionnaires were conducted. The monitoring content included demographic information, second-hand smoke exposure, tobacco product use and tobacco awareness. Chi-square test was used to compare the differences of various indicators in different groups, and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was adopted to analysis the influencing factors among senior high school students attempting to use e-cigarettes between 2019 and 2023.  Results  In 2019, the rates of vocational senior high school and general senior high school students attempting to use e-cigarettes were 22.57% and 9.78%, respectively. In 2023, it decreased to 14.39% and 6.43%, respectively. In 2019 (OR=1.59, 95%CI=1.35-1.88) and 2023 (OR=1.71, 95%CI=1.38-2.11), vocational senior high school students both hold higher risk of attempting to use e-cigarettes, compared with general senior high school students. In 2019, non-indigenous senior high school students attempting to use e-cigarettes were more than indigenous senior high school students (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.05-1.56). In 2019 (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.34-1.95) and 2023 (OR=1.77, 95%CI=1.35-2.31), smoking anywhere in households increased the risk of attempting to use e-cigarettes among senior high school students. In both 2019 and 2023, not attempting to smoke cigarettes (OR=0.24, 95%CI=0.21-0.29; OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.11-0.19), not currently smoking cigarettes (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.22-0.40; OR=0.30, 95%CI=0.17-0.53), not being exposed to secondhand smoke in school (OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.53-0.72;OR=0.51, 95%CI=0.41-0.64) or in outdoor public places (OR=0.74, 95%CI=0.63-0.86;OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.50-0.78) all reduced the risk of attempting to use e-cigarettes among senior hgih school students(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The influencing factors of attempts by senior high school students in Beijing City to use e-cigarettes are generally consistent between 2023 and 2019, with a focus on vocational senior high schools to ensure the continuity of intervention measures and promote the construction of smoke-free senior high schools.
Current status of AIDS knowledge, attitudes, practices and associated factors of high-risk sexual behavior among college students in Tianjin City
LIU Yi, LIU Zhongquan, WU Ziming, GONG Hui, BAI Jianyun, YU Maohe
2024, 45(2): 203-206. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024053
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  Objective  To understand the current status of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, attitudes, and practices of college students in Tianjin City and to further investigate the associated factors of high-risk sexual behaviors, so as to provide a scientific and theoretical basis for accurate prevention and treatment of AIDS.  Methods  A stratified cluster random sample of 64 697 students in 56 colleges and universities in Tianjin City in November to December 2022 was investigated about the current status of AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. Information was collected using online survey via Questionnaire Star. Descriptive analysis was used for the current status of AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among college students. Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the influencing factors of high-risk sexual behavior among college students.  Results  The AIDS awareness rate of college students in Tianjin City reached 87.33%. The sexual openness rate was 70.73%. Among the 3 463 students who had sex during the past year, 42.13% of students reported high-risk sexual behavior. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that female, having a romantic partner, having received sex education and prevention and treatment knowledge of AIDS were negatively associated with high-risk sexual behavior (OR=0.66, 0.59, 0.81, 0.59, P<0.05). Being in sophomore year, non-heterosexuality (homosexuality, bisexuality, not knowing), prejudice against AIDS, and misunderstanding the testing methods for AIDS showed positive correlations with high-risk sexual behavior (OR=1.22, 2.49, 2.30, 3.17, 1.43, 1.22, P<0.05).  Conclusions  The awareness rate of AIDS in college students in Tianjin is high, but high-risk sexual behaviors are still at a high level. Further targeted knowledge education and behavioral interventions are needed to scientifically prevent the spread of AIDS.
Effects of comprehensive intervention on 24 h activity behavior among obese students in vocational colleges
WANG Haibo, LIU Chao, CHEN Haibo
2024, 45(2): 207-212. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024054
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  Objective  To explore the effects of comprehensive intervention measures targeting physical activity, sedentary, sleep and other behaviors on 24 h activity behavior of obese students in vocational colleges, so as to provide a more tailored empirical basis for intervening obese students in vocational colleges.  Methods  A quasi-experimental design using parallel controlled, randomized grouping was conducted from January to March 2023. A total of 79 first-year obese students from a vocational college in Wuxi City were selected as the intervention group (41 students) and the control group (38 students). From April to June, 2023, the control group received no intervention, while the intervention group adopted an information-based and behavioral intervention approach to comprehensively intervene in 24 h physical activity, sedentary, sleep and other behaviors (120 minutes each day for 8 weeks).Wherein, information-based intervention mainly used paper leaflets and social and learning software to accurately push intervention information, and behavioral intervention mainly concentrated 1 hour of physical exercise and multiple activity behavior requirements every day with the triaxial accelerometer to feedback the objective data of physical activity. Subsequently, from June to July, 2023, a one-week post-test and follow-up survey were conducted respectively.Bouchard diary in physical activity, Weekly questionnaire and triaxial accelerometer were used to record the 24 h activity behavior of both groups of students.T-test and repeated measurement analysis of variance were used to compare the differences of 24 h activity component index time between two groups before and after intervention and examine the changes within each group.  Results  Before and after intervention, there was no significant difference in the time of each component index of 24 h activity behavior in the control group. However, repeated measures analysis of variance between the intervention group and the control group revealed statistically significant interaction differences in physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep and other index time were statistically significant(pre-test and post-test: F=6.45, 4.66, 7.21, 7.88; pre-test, post-test and follow-up-test: F=5.37, 5.12, 5.43, 5.29; P < 0.01). During the follow-up period, compared with the post-test data [(313.25±54.15, 601.88±65.47, 462.83±42.86, 61.92±18.53)min/d], the time of each component (physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, other) of the 24 h activity behavior of students in the intervention group rebounded [(298.52±60.27, 613.69±68.55, 442.33±45.26, 85.28±20.57)min/d], but it was better than the pre-test data [(230.45±67.42, 720.32±105.63, 369.78±32.31, 119.29±22.17)min/d], and the difference was statistically significant(F=42.46, 39.45, 33.41, 59.43, P < 0.01). During the intervention period, the physical activity, sedentary and sleep duration indicators of the intervention group students showed fluctuating patterns in the 4th and 5th weeks.  Conclusions  The comprehensive intervention on 24 h activity behavior among obese students in vocational colleges shows significant effectiveness, but its sustainability is insufficient. Considering the characteristics of obese students in vocational colleges, personalized intervention measures should be provided to increase physical activity and sleep time and reduce static activity time, in order to promote students to develop a healthy lifestyle.
Effects of electronic sports games on children's acquisition of basic motor skills in a digital society
LI Kang, SU Qingqing, ZHOU Shaolin, MA Guocai
2024, 45(2): 213-217. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024055
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  Objective  To evaluate the influence of electronic sports games on children's acquisition of basic motor skills, so as to provide assistance for children's acquisition of basic motor skills in the context of digital society.  Methods  Computer searches were conducted on CNKI, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases from March 2012 to March 2022. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool RoB 2 and the extension tools RoB 2 Cluster and ROBINS-I. Publication bias assessment, heterogeneity test, subgroup analysis and Meta-analysis were performed using RevMan 5.3.  Results  A total of 12 studies included 897 participants, 7 randomized controlled trials, 2 cohort randomized controlled trials and 3 non-randomized trials. Among them, 2 items had a low risk of bias, 8 items had certain risks and 2 items had a high risk of bias. Measures of basic motor skills in children from 12 studies included object control skills, motor skills, coordination, agility and balance. The results of Meta-analysis showed that electronic sports games had a positive effect on children's acquisition of basic motor skills (SMD=0.81, 95%CI=0.46-1.17, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Children can generate positive interactive communication behavior through physical activity and digital screen, and then promote the development of basic motor skills.
Tobacco retailer outside middle schools in Wuhan City and its impact on smoking behavior among students
YAN Zhiwen, YAO Guang, PEI Hongbing, WU Changhan, WU Lin, ZUO Yuting, GUO Yan
2024, 45(2): 218-222. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024056
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  Objective  To understand the distribution of tobacco retailer within 100 meters outside middle schools in Wuhan City and its impact on smoking behavior of middle school students, so as to provide basis and feasible suggestions for the development of tobacco control policy for adolescents.  Methods  From February to May 2023, a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 20 middle schools from 4 districts in Wuhan City. To investigate the distribution of tobacco retailer within 100 metres outside the school and the sale of tobacco to minors. A total of 4 882 students were surveyed using the core questions of the 2021 Chinese Adolescent Tobacco Prevalence Questionnaire. Fisher exact probability test, Chi-square test and Chi-square trend test were used for statistical analysis.  Results  Nearly 70.00% of middle schools had tobacco retailer within 100 metres, with an average of (1.10±0.97) per middle school. The awareness rate (100.00%) and labeling rate (87.50%) of licensed tobacco retailer were higher than those of non-licensed tobacco retailer (33.33%, 16.67%) (P < 0.05). The rates of tried smoking, current smoking and buying cigarettes within 30 days were 7.13%, 1.99% and 2.54%, respectively. The rates of students who tried smoking (8.58%), current smoking (2.29%) and buying cigarettes within 30 days (2.85%) in schools with tobacco retailer within 100 metres were higher than those in schools without tobacco retailer (3.79%, 1.28%, 1.83%)(χ2=35.80, 5.37, 4.37, P < 0.05). And as the grade increased, the rates of tried smoking, current smoking and buying cigarettes among middle school students all showed an upward trend (χtrend2=66.20, 36.10, 16.17, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Middle school students in Wuhan City have high tobacco availability. The findings suggest that school ban should be extended from 50 meters to 100 meters, and the regulatory authorities must strictly prohibit selling tobacco products to minors at tobacco retailer.
Longitudinal study on the relationship between cumulative family risk and depression symptoms among children and adolescents
LIU Yan, SUN Xu, CHEN Huan
2024, 45(2): 223-226. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024005
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between cumulative family risk and depression symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up among children and adolescents, so as to provide reference basis for promoting the mental health of children and adolescents.  Methods  Data were acquired from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) project in 2016(T1), 2018 (T2), and 2020 (T3), which included 730 children and adolescents, their families and parents. The measurement tools included the Cumulative Family Risk Scales and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Chi-square test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship between cumulative family risk and depression symptoms among children and adolescents.  Results  The detection rates of moderate and above depression symptoms among children and adolescents at T1, T2, and T3 were 14.4%, 15.9%, and 24.5%, respectively. The prevalence of depression symptoms of children and adolescents at T2 was higher in females (19.8%) than males (12.5%)(χ2=7.28, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses showed that the cumulative family risk at T1 positively predicted depression symptoms of children and adolescents at T1, T2, and T3(OR=1.73, 1.32, 1.38, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The cumulative family risk has a long-lasting impact on depressive symptoms among children and adolescents after 2 and 4 years. Family and schools should pay attention to the changes in depression among children and adolescents, and provide timely intervention and assistance to promote their mental health development.
Analysis of role adaptation and associated factors among college freshmen
JIN Aiqun, HU Yongmei, KONG Ping
2024, 45(2): 227-231. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024057
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  Objective  To explore the influencing factors of role adaptation of college freshmen, so as to provide empirical support for developing adaptive education in college.  Methods  A cluster sampling method was used to select 3 126 freshmen from six universities of Hefei City and Wuhu City in Anhui Province in October 2022, who were investigated with Positive Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PPQ), Freshmen's Role Adaptability Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and Life Satisfaction Scale. Independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the scores (caverage score of items) of various variables of college freshmen with different demographic characteristics. Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to analyze the correlation.  Results  There were statistically significant differences in scores of psychological capital, resilience, life satisfaction and role adaptation among college freshmen of different origin (large and medium-sized cities: 3.63±0.54, 3.73±0.64, 3.47±0.80, 3.14±0.65;county level city or county seat: 3.57±0.52, 3.61±0.63, 3.35±0.75, 3.09±0.63;villages and towns: 3.50±0.50, 3.54±0.58, 3.23±0.75, 3.06±0.60), whether in class committee (yes: 3.63±0.52, 3.69±0.60, 3.40±0.76, 3.18±0.59; no: 3.43±0.50, 3.48±0.64, 3.25±0.77, 2.93±0.65), father's education level (junior high school or below: 3.52±0.51, 3.57±0.61, 3.27±0.75, 3.07±0.61; senior high school or technical secondary school: 3.62±0.53, 3.68±0.63, 3.44±0.78, 3.12±0.63;junior college or above: 3.68±0.56, 3.78±0.64, 3.57±0.80, 3.19±0.68), mother's education level(junior high school or below: 3.53±0.51, 3.58±0.61, 3.28±0.75, 3.06±0.60;senior high school or technical secondary school: 3.63±0.55, 3.70±0.63, 3.48±0.78, 3.15±0.66;junior college or above: 3.72±0.54, 3.86±0.65, 3.62±0.83, 3.27±0.70) (F/t=11.89, 21.89, 23.02, 3.83;10.08, 9.20, 5.20, 10.63;19.34, 20.76, 29.52, 6.44;22.51, 26.79, 30.94, 13.92, P < 0.05). The differences of scores in resilience and role adaptation of different genders (boys: 3.66±0.64, 3.12±0.65; girls: 3.56±0.59, 3.05±0.58) and in life satisfaction whether being an only child (yes: 3.40±0.79; no: 3.33±0.76) among college freshmen were statistically significant (t=4.51, 2.75, 2.35, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that psychological capital, resilience and life satisfaction of college freshmen were positively correlated with role adaptation (r=0.49, 0.49, 0.36), while psychological capital, resilience and role adaptation were positively correlated (r=0.60, 0.59) and Psychological capital was positively correlated with resistance (r=0.81)(P < 0.01). The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that gender, whether in class committee, psychological capital, resilience and life satisfaction were positively associated with role adaptation among college freshmen (R2=0.28, β=0.04, 0.10, 0.23, 0.26, 0.07, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Role adaptation of college freshmen is related with psychological capital, resilience and life satisfaction. Schools should strengthen mental health education to promote smooth role transition for college freshmen.
Effect of self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency in the association of physical activity and smoking cessation beliefs among college students
ZHANG Zhitong, WANG Ge, PENG Yue, WANG Jianyi, JIAN Yutong, WANG Jingjiang
2024, 45(2): 232-235. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024058
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  Objective  To explore the roles of self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency in the relationship between college students' physical activity and smoking cessation beliefs, in order to provide a basis for the positive effects of college students' physical activity on smoking cessation beliefs.  Methods  From May 6 to 23 in 2023, 3 048 students from 10 colleges in Jiangxi Province were recruited and surveyed using the Physical Activity Participation Scale, the Smoking Cessation Self-efficacy Scale, the Smoking Rationalization Tendency Scale and the Smoking Cessation Belief Scale. The Harman one-way test was adopted for common method bias test. Bias correction was unfolded by Bootstrap method, and 95% confidence intervals of parameter estimates were analyzed using repeated sampling 5 000 times.  Results  The results of the sequential mediation model analysis showed that physical activity was positively associated with college students' beliefs about smoking cessation (β=0.17), and physical activity, self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency were positively associated with each other (β=0.41, 0.08, 0.19) (P < 0.05). Both self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency positively predicted smoking cessation beliefs (β=0.19, 0.17, P < 0.01). Self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency mediated the relationship between physical activity and smoking cessation beliefs, with a mediating effect value of 0.09, accounting for 62.82% of the total effect value (0.15).  Conclusions  Self-efficacy and smoking rationalization tendency have a serial mediating effect between physical activity and smoking cessation beliefs among college students. Interventions should be actively used to enhance college students' beliefs about smoking cessation, promote smoking cessation behaviors.
Bullying bystanders' behaviors among pupils and the correlation with family function
MA Zhengyu, SU Zhiqiang, YANG Yuanyuan
2024, 45(2): 236-239. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024009
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  Objective  To analyze the status of childhood bullying bystander's behaviors among pupils and the correlation with family function, so as to provide empirical support for educational intervention in campus bullying.  Methods  A questionnaire survey using the cluster random sampling method was administered to 1 145 pupils from a primary school in Wushan County within Chongqing City in November 2019, including Pupil Bullying Bystander Behavior Scale and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale(FACES). The χ2 test, Spearman related analysis and binary Logistic regression were used to determine the detection rate of different bullying bystander behaviors among pupils and the association with family function.  Results  The proportion of bullying promoters, bullying protectors, and bystanders were 4.7%, 92.1%, and 42.1%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the three types of bullying bystander's behaviors among the different grades pupils(χ2=21.45, 7.98, 27.48, P < 0.05). There were significant correlation between family function and its dimensions with different types of bullying bystander behavior (|r|=0.07-0.20, P < 0.05). Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that pupils' family function and grade had statistically significant impact on promoting bullying behavior, protecting victim behavior, and bystander behavior (OR=0.98, 3.33; 1.02, 1.95; 0.99, 0.58, 0.41, 0.61, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The bullying bystander's behaviors of pupils are related to grade in school and family function. Schools should implement educational interventions for pupils of different grades and focus on improving pupils' family function to effectively promote the occurrence of positive bystanders' behaviors in pupils.
Longitudinal study on anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty among Chinese college students
TANG Siyao, MA Zijie, CHEN Rongning, LI Xueguo, ZHAO Jingbo
2024, 45(2): 240-243. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024059
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  Objective  To explore the longitudinal changes and related predictive factors of anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) among Chinese college students, so as to provide theoretical reference for promoting students' mental health.  Methods  Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-short Form and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale were administered among 5 683 students from 22 universities in Guangdong Province from September 10 to October 17, 2021 (T1, baseline survey), and from March 15 to April 22, 2023 (T2). Using paired sample t-test to analyze the changes in anxiety and IU among college students, a linear regression model was established to explore factors that can predict anxiety, IU and their changes during T1 and T2 periods.  Results  During the T1 period, the average scores of anxiety and IU among college students were (3.26±3.46, 34.88±7.96), while during the T2 period, they were (4.41±4.16, 36.40±8.07). During the T2 period, the levels of anxiety and IU among college students were higher than those during the T1 period (t=19.59, 13.67, P < 0.01). The linear regression results showed that age (B=-0.02), moderate (B=-0.18) and poor (B=-0.88) mental health status, as well as online browsing of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic (later called as epidemic) related information for >1- < 3 hours (B=-0.30) and ≥3 hours (B=-0.22), all of which could negatively predict changes in anxiety during T1 to T2 periods. Living in rural areas (B=0.11) could positively predict changes in anxiety during T1 to T2 periods (P < 0.05). Moderate (B=-0.19) and poor (B=-0.47) mental health status, browsing epidemic related information online for >1- < 3 hours (B=-0.32) and ≥3 hours (B=-0.33), academic performance being moderately affected by the epidemic (B=-0.10), and personal planning being moderately affected by the epidemic (B=-0.13) and severely affected (B=-0.22), all of which could negatively predict changes in IU during T1 to T2 periods (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Levels of anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty increases significantly after epidemic. Mental health status of college students should need long-term monitoring, and students with poor mental health should need special attention.
Latent profile analysis of college students' short-form video addiction
PAN Junxing, GUO Junqiao, WU Yangjie, ZHAO Xiaoyun
2024, 45(2): 244-247. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024027
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  Objective  To explore the latent categories and general demographic characteristics of short-form video addiction among college students, so as to provide empirical reference for prevention and intervention of short-form video addiction among college students.  Methods  Convenience sampling method was used to select 1 386 college students from a certain university in Anhui Province in June 2023. A questionnaire survey was conducted among college students by using the Short Video Addiction Scale. The latent profile analysis method of "individual center" was used to explore the categories of college students' short-form video addiction, and multiple Logistic regression was used to explore the influence of demographic variables on the latent classification of short-form video addiction.  Results  College students with short-form video addiction were divided into three latent categories: non addiction group (22.15%, n=307), low addiction group (63.28%, n=877) and high addiction group (14.57%, n=202). The results of multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, major type and family location were related with short-form video addiction among college students: male students (low addiction group: OR=0.47; high addiction group: OR=0.41), cultural and historical majors (low addiction group: OR=0.66), and students from cities (high addiction group: OR=0.51) were less likely to be involved in short-form video addiction (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  There is significant group heterogeneity in short-form video addiction among college students. Families, schools and society should attach importance and pay attention to the phenomenon of short-form video addiction among college students, actively take targeted intervention measures to prevent and reduce the occurrence of short-form video addiction symptoms among college students.
Correlation analysis between preschool children's emotional competence and home-rearing environment
XIA Xiaofei, WEI Hui Suan, HUANG Bo, XIE Wuyang, WANG Liang
2024, 45(2): 248-252. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024013
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  Objective  To analyze the correlation between preschool children's emotional competence and home-rearing environment in Shangrao City, so as to provide support for improving children's emotional competence development as well as their home-rearing environment.  Methods  A total of 1 242 children aged 3-6 years old from 10 kindergartens in Shangrao City were retrospectively investigated by stratified cluster random sampling method in December 2022, and the Children's Emotional Adjustment Scale-Preschool Version (CEAS-P) and the Home Nurture Environment Scale for children aged 3-6 were surveyed on parents of preschool children. The t-test was used to test the difference, Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of preschool children's emotional competence.  Results  There were significant differences in emotional competence scores of preschool children for demographic indicators including age, place of residence, health status and whether they were only children (F/t=5.98, 6.56, 38.00, 2.23, P < 0.01). The emotional competence of preschool children was positively correlated with the home-rearing environment (r=0.62, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that diverse activities/play participation, social adaptation/self-management, and emotional warmth/self-expression in home-rearing environment were positive predictors of children's emotional ability (β=0.30, 0.28, 0.16), while neglect/intervention/punishment were negative predictors (β=-0.09)(P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The home-rearing environment is a factor related to young children's emotional competence. It is suggested specific parenting initiatives such as enriching family activities and play, strengthening children's self-adaptation and management, giving warmth and let children express emotions, and preventing child neglect, interference and punishment should be conducted to improve children's emotional competence.
Effects of after-school exercise service on physical fitness in primary school students
ZHANG Bin, LI Liang, WANG Mengdie, XU Jianfang
2024, 45(2): 253-257. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024042
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  Objective  To investigate the effects of after-school exercise service (referred to as the "after-school ES") on physical health, so as to provide evidence for possible beneficial effect of after-school ES.  Methods  Students in the fourth grade of primary school were recruited from September 2021 to July 2022 in Changsha City and divided into the control group (n=220) and the after-school ES group (n=220). The control group only participated in the regular physical education activities of the school. The after-school ES group received after-school ES for one academic year, 4 times a week, 40-50 minutes per time, for a total of 32 weeks. Body shape indicators such as height, weight and percentage of body fat, as well as physical fitness indicators such as 50-meter running, grip strength and progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) were measured in September to October 2021 and June to July 2022, respectively. Independent sample t-test, Chi-square test and two-factors repeated measurement analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of the data.  Results  After one academic year, compared with the control group [(13.52±2.30)kg], muscle mass of primary school students in the after-school ES group [(13.76±2.32)kg] significantly increased, while waist-to-hip ratio [(0.95±0.16)] and percentage of body fat [(20.17±7.43)%] significantly decreased compared to the control group [(1.01±0.21), (22.02±12.34)%](F=330.70, 6.85, 4.33, P < 0.05). The proportion of overweight and obesity in after-school ES group decreased significantly from 19.5% to 12.3% (χ2=4.35, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the scores of 50-meter running [(10.00±1.06, 10.21±0.83)s], 1-minute sit-up [(33.25±8.24, 30.76±9.34)times], sitting and flexion [(14.53±7.50, 8.59±6.32)cm], 1-minute rope skipping [(125.01±30.50, 115.97±32.09)times], eyes closed and single legged standing [(30.00±34.72, 25.72±23.82)s], selective response time [(635.66±91.72, 652.79±120.42)ms] and VO2max [(45.31±1.02, 43.67±0.85)mL/(kg ·min)] in the after-school ES group were significantly improved, with statistical significance (F=5.32, 443.14, 97.23, 814.07, 36.49, 6.11, 396.91, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  After-school ES can improve body shape of primary school students, reduce the risk of overweight and obesity and enhance physical fitness. It is recommended that schools should appropriately increase after-school ES to promote physical fitness of students.
Differential characteristics of motor development levels, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility processing in preschool children
ZHENG Quanliang, WANG Tingzhao, SHI Bing, CHI Aiping, NING Ke
2024, 45(2): 258-262. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024060
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  Objective   To explore the neural processing differences in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility associated with motor development levels in preschool children, so as to provide a basis for motor learning and cognitive development in preschool children.   Methods   From March 20 to 31 in 2023, a total of 84 preschool children aged 4-6 were recruited from two kindergartens in Xi'an City. The MOBAK-KG Motor Development Assessment Scale was used to assess the children's motor development levels. The Go/no-go task paradigm was employed to test inhibitory control ability, and the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task paradigm was utilized to evaluate cognitive flexibility. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to monitor the preschool children's prefrontal cortex oxygenation dynamics during inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks. Malab software and Homer 2 plugins were used to calculate prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration of preschool children during the tasks.   Results   The high motor skills group exhibited significantly higher task accuracy during inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks [0.95(0.92, 0.97), (0.54±0.12) ] compared to the low motor skill group[0.93(0.85, 0.97), (0.45±0.13) ] (Z/t=-2.09, 3.14, P < 0.05). During the inhibitory control task, the high motor skill group [0.24(0.10, 0.41), 0.34(0.16, 0.62), 0.30(0.07, 0.52), 0.26(0.09, 0.53), 0.15(0.01, 0.43), 0.34(0.10, 0.67)mol/L ] showed significantly higher oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (L-DLPFC, R-DLPFC), left and right pars triangular Broca's areas (L-PTBA, R-PTBA), and left and right frontopolar areas (L-FPA, R-FPA) compared to the low motor skill group [0.04(-0.13, 0.15), 0.00(-0.12, 0.11), -0.01(-0.17, 0.14), 0.04(-0.14, 0.16), -0.01(-0.16, 0.12), -0.03(-0.21, 0.15)mol/L ] (Z=-4.83, -5.57, -4.77, -4.10, -3.45, -5.74, P < 0.01). During the cognitive flexibility task, the high motor skill group[0.21(0.03, 0.36), 0.28(0.15, 0.45), 0.15(0.05, 0.30), 0.20(0.05, 0.37), 0.04(-0.17, 0.26), 0.14(-0.08, 0.40)mol/L ] exhibited significantly higher oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the L-DLPFC, R-DLPFC, L-PTBA, R-PTBA, L-FPA, R-FPA brain regions compared to the low motor skill group [0.02(-0.20, 0.23), 0.02(-0.12, 0.21), 0.00(-0.22, 0.16), 0.00(-0.16, 0.15), -0.05(-0.25, 0.06), 0.01(-0.23, 0.20)mol/L ] (Z=-3.63, -4.45, -3.58, -3.75, -2.18, -1.98, P < 0.05).   Conclusions   The motor development level in preschool children is closely related to inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. It is crucial to emphasize motor learning in early childhood to further promote holistic development of both mind and body.
Intervention effect of 12 week spinal health gymnastics on high and low shoulder exercise in adolescents
YANG Jun, SI Guangyan, WEI Yang, WANG Yi
2024, 45(2): 263-266. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024061
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  Objective   To explore the intervention effect of 12 week spinal health exercise on adolescents' high and low shoulders, in order to provide empirical evidence for exploring simple and feasible measures to intervene.   Methods   In February 2023, 60 high and low shoulder students from a vocational high school in a certain county of Luzhou City were randomly selected as the research subjects by convenient sampling method. Paired sampling was used to randomly divide participants into an intervention group and a control group with 30 students each group. The intervention group received spinal health gymnastics intervention during 12 weeks of morning exercises and large break exercises for twice a day, with two groups each time; the control group maintained their previous morning exercises and large break exercises. A follow-up study was conducted on the height difference between the left and right shoulder peaks of the intervention group and the control group students before intervention, after 12 weeks intervention, at 4 weeks post-intervention. The t-test was used to analyze the changes in shoulder peak height difference between the intervention group and the control group.   Results   Before intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in the height of the left and right shoulder peaks between the intervention group [(2.50±1.19)cm] and the control group [(2.49±1.20)cm] adolescents (t=0.05, P>0.05). After 12 weeks of intervention, the difference in shoulder height between the left and right sides of adolescents in the intervention group decreased, compared to that before intervention [(1.43±1.15, 2.50±1.19)cm], while the control group increased compared to that before intervention [(2.58±1.19, 2.49±1.20) cm], and the differences were both statistically significant (t=-78.17, 20.15, P < 0.05). At 4 weeks post-intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in the height of the left and right shoulder peaks between the intervention group [(1.44±1.15)cm] and the control group [(2.59±1.18)cm] compared to 12 weeks after the intervention (t=1.80, 1.05, P>0.05). The intervention group [(2.49±1.26, 2.52±1.16) (1.43±1.21, 1.44±1.13) (1.44±1.21, 1.45±1.14)cm] and the control group [(2.45±1.24, 2.52±1.20) (2.55±1.24, 2.61±1.18) (2.55±1.22, 2.62±1.18)cm] showed no statistically significant difference in the height of the left and right shoulder peaks between males and females before intervention, after 12 weeks of intervention, and after stopping intervention for 4 weeks (t=-0.08, -0.03, -0.02; -0.15, -0.12, -0.15, P>0.05).   Conclusions   Spinal health gymnastics has a good effect on correcting high and low shoulders in adolescents. Spinal health gymnastics should be promoted on campus to promote adolescent posture health.
Association between the ratio of dietary vitamin A to body weight and hypertension in children
CHENG Ping, REN Yanling, LIU Qin, CHEN Lanling, TONG Jishuang, XIAO Lun, QIN Jun, LI Xinggui, MA Jun, XU Lin, SHI Xiuzhen, WANG Li, WAN Lingjuan, LIANG Xiaohua
2024, 45(2): 267-272. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024062
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  Objective   To explore the relationship between the ratio of dietary vitamin A (VitA) to body weight and hypertension among children, so as to provide a reference for blood pressure control through dietary nutritional interventions and childhood hypertension prevention.   Methods   Utilizing the baseline survey and follow-up sample data from the Healthy Children Cohort established in urban and rural areas of Chongqing from 2014 to 2019, structured quantitative dietary questionnaire and self-designed questionnaire were used to investigate the information of dietary intake and socioeconomic characteristics of 15 279 children, as well as blood pressure, height, weight measurement. The ratio of dietary VitA to body weight was divided into four groups based on quartiles [≤P25(Q1), >P25~P50(Q2), >P50~P75(Q3), >P75(Q4)]. Generalized linear regression models and Logistic regression models were used to analyze the correlation between ratio of dietary VitA to body weight with blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension.   Results   The results of the 2014 baseline survey indicated that, after adjusting for confounding factors such as demographic indicators and nutritional intake, significant differences were observed in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) among different groups categorized by the ratio of dietary VitA to body weight (F=157.57, 44.71, 95.92, P < 0.01). The baseline ratio of dietary VitA to body weight in children exhibited a negative correlation with DBP, SBP and MAP at baseline and in 2019. Compared to Q1 group, the risk of hypertension decreased among children in Q4 at baseline and follow-up in 2019.[baseline: β(95%CI)=-0.65(-0.89--0.42), -0.22(-0.42--0.01), -0.36(-0.56--0.16); 2019: β(95%CI)=-0.77(-1.34--0.19), -0.62(-1.21--0.02), -0.77(-1.34--0.19), P < 0.05 ]. Compared to Q1 group, the risk of hypertension decreased among children in Q4 at baseline and follow-up in 2019 [OR(95%CI)=0.63(0.49-0.81), 0.18(0.08-0.42), P < 0.01 ].   Conclusions   The ratio of dietary VitA to body weight is significantly negatively correlated with blood pressure levels among children, and dietary VitA deficiency is an independent risk factor for hypertension among children. Measures should be taken to actively adjust children's dietary nutrition and reduce the risk of childhood hypertension.
Application of two different methods of visual acuity assessment for myopia screening among lower-grade elementary school students
LIANG Li, XU Shaojun, ZHU Yi, XU Xing, ZHAO Mengya, WEN Yuechun, TAO Fangbiao
2024, 45(2): 273-276. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024063
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  Objective   To explore two visual acuity standards for examining uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) to define poor vision in lower-grade elementary school students, and to compare the difference of screening myopia rates when combined with non-cycloplegic auto-refraction (NCAR), so as to provide a scientific basis for standardizing UCVA examination methods using CAR as the gold standard of authenticity and reliability.   Methods   From March 22nd to April 9th, 2023, a total of 549 first and second-grade students aged 7-8 years from a primary school in Hefei City were selected for the study by convenient cluster sampling method. Two methods were employed for UCVA examination: the first method involved charts where the student could not make mistakes in identifying at least half of the characters per line (V1), and the second method used charts with character sizes ranging from 4.0-4.5, 4.6-5.0 and 5.1-5.3, without allowing 1, 2 and 3 errors per line (V2). While NCAR was performed, then 187 students underwent CAR examination. Paired Wilcoxon rank-sum test and McNemar test were used to compare the differences between V1 and V2 methods in defining poor vision and screening myopia rates. Using CAR as the gold standard, the authenticity and reliability of defining screening myopia rates through the combination of V1 and V2 methods along with NCAR were evaluated.   Results   The UCVA examination results for V1 and V2 showed statistically significant differences in both the right eye [5.0(4.9, 5.0), 4.9(4.8, 5.0)] and the left eye [5.0(4.9, 5.0), 4.9(4.8, 5.0)] (Z=-13.95, -13.34, P < 0.01). The detection rates of poor vision for the right eye were 43.53% for V1 and 63.21% for V2, and the left eye with 44.08% for V1 and 62.11% for V2, with statistically significant differences (χ2=106.01, 95.09, P < 0.01). When screening myopia rates were assessed for UCNA methods combined with NCAR, the right eye rates were 21.49% for V1 and 24.59% for V2, and the left eye rates were 21.31% for V1 and 23.13% for V2, with statistically significant differences (χ2=15.06, 8.10, P < 0.01). Using CAR as the gold standard, the detection rates in the right eye and left eye were 16.58% and 17.11%, respectively. The Youden indices for defining screening myopia in the right eye were 0.80 for V1 and 0.79 for V2, and the left eye with 0.85 for V1 and 0.83 for V2. The agreement rates for the right eye were 91.98% for V1 and 89.30% for V2, and the left eye with 94.12% for V1 and 91.98% for V2. The Kappa values for the right eye were 0.73 for V1 and 0.67 for V2, and the left eye with 0.81 for V1 and 0.75 for V2.   Conclusions   Authenticity and reliability of two UCVA examination methods combined with NCAR in defining screening myopia are higher in V1 than V2 methods. It is recommended to unify the visual acuity examination methods by requiring the correct identification of more than half of the total number of visual markers in a row.
Performance of four simplified screening methods of elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents
LI Kunkun, TIAN Wei, TAO Mengmeng, CAO Wenjun
2024, 45(2): 277-282. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024064
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Abstract:
  Objective   To evaluate the performance of four simplified screening methods of elevated blood pressure commonly used among children and adolescents according to Chinese guidelines for prevention and treatment of hypertension (revised in 2018), so as to provide a reference for the early detection of the elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents.   Methods   Stratified cluster random sampling method was used to monitor the physical fitness of 5 211 children and adolescents in a city of Shanxi Province from October to November 2021. Chinese guidelines for prevention and treatment of hypertension was considered as gold standard, and sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) and Kappa value were calculated to evaluate the screening effectiveness of formula method, height-specific method, age group-specific method, sex and age-specific method for screening elevated blood pressure.   Results   The detection rates of elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents screened by gold standard, formula method, height-specific method, age group-specific method, sex and age-specific method were 21.9%, 24.0%, 21.1%, 24.5% and 20.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference between prevalence of elevated blood pressure screened by formula method, sex and age-specific method and gold standard(χ2=1.21, 1.41, P>0.05), whereas height-specific method and age group-specific method had significant differences with gold standard (χ2=20.39, 67.09, P < 0.05). AUC was the largest for height-specific method [0.94(95%CI=0.93-0.95)], and the smallest for age group-specific method [0.87(95%CI=0.86-0.88)]. The Kappa values of height-specific method (0.89) and sex and age-specific method (0.89) were both greater than 0.85, which were more consistent with the screening effectiveness of gold standard. When comparing by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the screening effectivenesses were consistent with the overall in boys, 6-11 years and normal body weight groups, while the screening effectivenesses were different in girls, 12-17 years, overweight and obese groups. The AUC (0.87), Kappa value (0.71) and sensitivity (82.33%) of age group-specific method were the lowest and the screening effectiveness was the worst.   Conclusion   Height-specific method is more effective and can be used for early identification and self-detection of blood pressure abnormalities among children and adolescents.
Analysis of direct-drinking water quality and its influencing factors in primary and secondary schools in Nanjing City
CHEN Chunjing, GE Ming, ZHENG Yuhong, XIONG Lilin
2024, 45(2): 283-285. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024065
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  Objective   To investigate the quality and influencing factors of direct-drinking water in schools in Nanjing City, so as to provide basis for management of school drinking water.   Methods   From April to July 2023, direct drinking water equipment from 146 primary and secondary schools were selected from Nanjing City using a stratified random sampling method and tested for colony forming units (CFU) and permanganate index. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences between groups, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors.   Results   The CFU and permanganate levels of school direct drinking water in Nanjing City were 1.00(0.00, 15.50)CFU/mL and 0.47(0.26, 0.75)mg/L, respectively. The CFU level increased when the filter replacement time exceeded 3 months and when the water source was piped, while the permanganate index increased when the filter replacement time exceeded 3 months and using activated carbon technology (Z=-2.21, -3.92, -2.31, -8.45, P < 0.05). The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the replacement time of filter element exceeding 3 months was positively correlated with the CFU level, and the process type involving activated carbon, a laid pipe network and a filter replacement time exceeding 3 months were positively correlated with the permanganate index(β=167.08, 0.32, 0.35, 0.11, P < 0.05).   Conclusions   There are certain problems with the water quality of primary and secondary school direct drinking water in Nanjing City. Schools should promptly replace the filter and maintain the drinking water equipment to ensure the hygiene and safety of campus water quality.
Research progress on the impact of parental psychological control on adolescent emotional regulation
QIU Yafei
2024, 45(2): 286-290. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.202411
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Emotional regulation is an important aspect of adolescents' adaptation to society. The difficulty in emotional regulation among adolescents is associated with internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety, as well as externalizing problems like aggressive behavior. Parental psychological control as a parenting style, is closely intertwined with the emotional regulation of adolescents. The article reviews the concept and classification of parental psychological control, the theory, mechanism and influencing factors of the impact of parental psychological control on children's emotional regulation, and the impact of children's emotional regulation on parental psychological control, so as to provide a theoretical reference for promoting positive psychological development in adolescents and improving parenting styles.
Foreign research status of prevention of children's sexual assault from the perspective of perpetrators
ZHOU Shengyi, JIANG Mengting, CHEN Yue, ZHENG Qingling
2024, 45(2): 291-295. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024066
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In recent years, the research perspective of the prevention and intervention of children's sexual assault abroad has expanded from the victim's perspective of children's self-protection education and post-mortem remedy to the screening and intervention education of perpetrators in advance, so as to implement the primary prevention of children's sexual assault from the source. The article will summarize the current situation of foreign research on child sexual assault prevention from the perspective of perpetrators, including the target population, prevention practice and forms, so as to provide a reference for the primary prevention of child sexual assault from the perspective of perpetrators in China.
Physiological characteristics of the choroid and its association with myopia in children and adolescents
LIANG Gang, PAN Chenwei
2024, 45(2): 296-299. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024025
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The choroid is a multifunctional dynamic structure located between the sclera and the Bruch membrane, which may be involved in the regulation of eye growth and the development of myopia. Choroidal thickness may serve as an important biomarker for predicting the development of myopia and the effectiveness of myopia control treatments in children and adolescents. The study reviews and summarizes the physiological structure and measuring methods of the choroid, and discusses its influencing factors including age, physiological changes, refractive status, axial length, drug effects, optical environment and so on. The review points out the potential applications of choroidal thickness in myopia research among children and adolescents.
Advances in the correlation between digital eye strain and sleep quality in adolescents
TANG Xinyue, ZHANG Xiaodan, YIN Yuhan
2024, 45(2): 300-304. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024067
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Digital eye strain can affect not only adolescents' visual health, but also sleep quality. In order to provide a reference for safeguarding adolescents' visual health and physical health, the paper reviews the direct correlation, feedback correlation, mediating role and the mechanisms between their digital eye strain and sleep quality, as well as proposes some strategies to reduce digital eye strain and improve sleep quality, such as screen time limits, adjusting the brightness and contrast of electronic screen devices, maintaining correct posture and viewing distance, increasing eye nutrition and protection, establishing a regular sleep routine, avoiding the use of electronic screen devices before bedtime, creating a comfortable and quiet sleep environment, and paying attention to the effects of diet and exercise.