Abstract: The prevalence of myopia among children and adolescents in China remains high. Currently, the prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents has risen to the level of national health strategy and has attracted extensive attention from the society. Although the role of outdoor activities in preventing myopia is significant, it also has many limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to explore more effective methods for comprehensive intervention. Based on current evidence, in addition to ongoing investigatation of the role of daytime outdoor activities in myopia prevention, emerging controllable environmental and behavioral factors, e.g. increase of indoor high-frequency visual information, regulation of sleep and biological rhythm and dietary supplement of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3, warrents further attention and active transformation into appropriate technologies for myopia prevention and control.
Abstract: To summarize the trends and hot topics of scientific research in the subjects of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, with the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The article sorts out the number and content of general projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the fields of child and adolescent health (application code H2606/H3006) and maternal and child health (application code H2605/H3005) in the past 10 years (from 2012 to 2021). The results showed that the number of projects has increased yearly, and a relatively stable funding scale has been finalized. According to the special health needs of children, adolescents and women, the overall research trend and hotspot had been concentrated, which promoted the research practice of this field, and benefitted children, adolescents and women's health in our nation.
Abstract: Chinese school health education began in the late Qing Dynasty. While both local schools and western missionary schools were involved, each had different characteristics. With the goal of strengthening the country, local schools taught both Chinese and western educational content, and gradually embarked on the road of independent research and development. Missionary schools aimed to spread doctrines and western health concepts, and simultaneously introduced the western school health system. By comparing the development of two kinds of school health education in the late Qing government, this study analyzes the differences between them in terms of their educational objectives, approaches and content. The differences between Chinese and western ideas on education, body and health are summarized and regarded as fundamental factors for their differences.
Abstract: Objective To analyze research hot spots and trends on myopia in children and adolescents in China, and to provide a reference for the future development of this research field.Methods Using CiteSpace software, 725 eligible Chinese documents published over a 22-year period were sourced from CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Chinese databases, were analyzed during 2000-2021. The data were visualized by a keyword co-occurrence map, and clustering, as well as burst and author cooperative networks.Results The research field of myopia in children and adolescents in China had undergone three stages: an initial formation period, development period and rapid growth period, and it was expected that the annual number of papers will maintain an increasing trend in the future. "Myopia" "adolescents" "children" and "students" were the most frequent keywords(667, 535, 288, 47). The keyword burst "adolescents" started the earliest, and "students" had the largest burst strength and duration. Zhang Ning, Tang Wenting, Tao Fangbiao, Yang Xiao and others have made important contributions to this research field.Conclusion In recent years, the research focus in this field has gradually shifted toward the influencing factors, as well as prevention and treatment measures of child and adolescent myopia. The trend of myopia in young children and adolescents is obvious. In the future, research on the prevention, control and treatment of myopia in children and adolescents will become a hot spot.
Abstract: Objective Based on observational, longitudinal and intervention study of common diseases among students in Jiangsu Province, this paper presents the current progress of two-year follow up of myopia cohort regarding the association between growth parameters with progression of myopia among children and adolescents in areas with rapid economic growth.Methods This survey adopted the stratified cluster sampling method for school selection. The full-automatic computer optometry (TOPCON RM800) was used to track myopia-related parameters for all participants from 2019 to 2020 under the condition of mydriasis (compound topicamide eye drops). Relationship between growth parameters of children and adolescents and the incidence and progression of myopia was analyzed by using Cox regression multiple statistical model.Results The myopia rates of students from grade 1 to grade 3 in 2019 were 5.4%, 21.5% and 37.3% respectively. After one year, the myopia rates of all school stages increased to 25.3%, 43.3% and 58.1% respectively(χ2=53.59, 49.63, 32.52, P < 0.01). The mean diopter of right eye and left eye after mydriasis were (0.30±1.24/0.39±1.26)D in 2019 and (-0.33±1.54/-0.19±1.55)D in 2020, respectively based on Cox multiple regression results, age (HR=1.21, 95%CI=1.09-1.34), naked eye vision (HR=0.08, 95%CI=0.07-0.11), height (HR=0.98, 95%CI=0.97-0.99) showed a strong correlation with the incidence and progression of myopia(P < 0.05).Conclusion Myopia is growing rapidly in the central region of Jiangsu Province. It is suggested that diopter, axial length, naked eye vision, age, height and other indicators should be included in the refractive archives of children and adolescents in the region.
Abstract: Objective To understand the referral rate in children with abnormal refractive error in screening programs and associated factors, aiming to provide evidence for improving the rate and myopia prevention and control in the future.Methods Using cluster sampling, three primary schools and three junior middle schools in Huangpu District, Shanghai were selected. All students were archived for refractive development, including examinations such as visual acuity, non-cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. The follow-up visit and related factor information were collected through questionnaire, and the influencing factors of referral rate were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression.Results A total of 2 104 high-risk children and adolescents with suspected refractive abnormalities were suggested follow-up visit, and the actual referral rate was estimated to be 60.4%; the rate of referral to designated hospitals was estimated to be 58.8%. Non-conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that myopic status before the screening(OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.08-1.72), wearing spectacles or ortho contact lens(OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.62-2.59), myopic degree (ORbelow -0.5 D=2.08, 95%CI=1.48-2.92, OR-3.0~-0.5 D=1.86, 95%CI=1.47-2.36), parents' familiarity with screening results(OR=2.92, 95%CI=1.89-4.50), parents' satisfaction with suggestions after screening (OR=3.54, 95%CI=1.16-10.79) were significant factors associated with the referral rate(P < 0.05).Conclusion The actual referral rate among children and adolescents needs to be improved. It is necessary to further optimize the informatization of refractive archives, strengthen popular science education for key population, standardize the professional interpretation of preliminary screening refractive examination results, improve parents' awareness, participation and satisfaction through health education, and achieve the whole process management of refractive archives.
Abstract: Objective To compare the effectiveness and clinical safety between the two through the observation of Orthokeratology lens and multifocal soft lens.Methods By using prospective longitudinal design, sixty patients (120 eyes) with orthokeratology lens and multifocal soft lens were selected. After 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, our tests were conducted, including ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear break-up time(BUT), corneal fluerescein staining (CSF) and meibomian gland function assessment, before and after wearing glasses, ocular axis and refraction in 6, 12 and 18 months after were evaluated to assess the effect of myopia control.Results But in the orthokeratology lens group was lower than the soft lens group after two months. The difference was statistically significant(t=4.35, P < 0.05). After 1 month of wearing glasses, BUT in the orthokeratologylens group was shorter than before(F=305.83, P < 0.05). In the group of soft lens, there was no statistically significance before and after wearing glasses(F=0.38, P>0.05). There was no difference in corneal fluorescence staining (CSF) and meibomian gland function between the two groups before and after wearing glasses.(Ftime=1.55, 1.38, 10.15, 1.50, P>0.05, Fgroup=2.31, 0.02, P>0.05). After 18 months of wearing orthokeratology lens, the average degree of spherical lens increased by -0.53 D, which was different from that before wearing(F=6.54, P < 0.05). After wearing soft lens 18 month, the average degree of spherical lens increase by -0.34 D, which was different from that before wearing(F=2.88, P < 0.05). After 18 months of wearing glasses, there were differences in the growth of ocular axis between the two groups(F=2.73, 2.83, P < 0.05).Conclusion Orthokeratology lens and multifocal soft lens are both safe and effective measures to control myopia.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the refractive progression and associated factors of children of different ages and refractive status, and to provide guidance on myopia prevention and control program formulation and work practice.Methods A total of 20 kindergartens, primary schools, and secondary schools in 2 districts of Shanghai were selected based on the existing cohort, and baseline data in 2015 and one-year follow-up data in 2016 were collected from 1 510 children aged 4 to 14, including cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL), and corneal curvature. The distribution and progression of SER and AL in children of different ages and refractive status were analyzed, and the influencing factors of SER progression (ΔSER) were explored using multiple linear regression.Results ΔSER remained relatively stable at age 4 and 5 (average -0.08 to -0.07 D/year), and SER drifted significantly towards myopia (average -0.50 to -0.31 D/year) in all groups older than 6 years, dropping back to -0.44 to -0.33 D/year after age 11; Elongation of AL (ΔAL) was 0.27 to 0.35 mm/year in 4 to 10 years group, and decreased to 0.15 to 0.22 mm/year in 11 to 14 years group. The ΔSER and ΔAL were greatest in the new-onset myopes [(-0.90±0.05)D, (0.51±0.02)mm], followed by the low myopia group [(-0.68±0.04)D, (0.36±0.02)mm], then followed by the moderate to high myopia group[(-0.49±0.06)D, (0.23±0.03)mm] and the lowest in the hyperopia group[(-0.21±0.02)D, (0.26±0.01)mm], with a statistically significant difference among these groups (P < 0.05). Age (β=-0.07), baseline SER (β=0.05) and ΔAL (β=-0.78) were independent influencing factors for refractive progression in the 4 to 10 years old group, while ΔAL(β=-1.55) was the only independent influencing factor in the 11 to 14 years old group (P < 0.05).Conclusion The elongation of AL in preschoolers is mostly physiologically and should be prevented from growing beyond the physiological range by increasing outdoor activities. The primary students, as well as students with pre-myopia or low myopia are the priority groups for dynamic monitoring and intervention in myopia prevention and control.
Abstract: Objective To understand the distribution and progress of premyopia among children aged 6-8 years in Shanghai, and to analyze the related influencing factors in order to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents in China.Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted among 2 037 students in grades 1 and 2 from eight primary schools in eight districts of Shanghai. At baseline and annual follow-up, ophthalmological examinations such as visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length were performed, and questionnaires on related factors were collected. The epidemiological characteristics of premyopia were analyzed, and the influencing factors of incident myopia in premyopic and hyperopic children were examined by multivariate Logistic regression.Results The prevalence of overall premyopia at baseline, first-year follow-up, and second-year follow-up were 26.2%, 37.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. Among them, the prevalence of premyopia in children aged 6, 7, and 8 at baseline were 20.7%, 37.0%, and 42.6%, and in children aged 8, 9, and 10 at the second-year follow-up were 31.5%, 38.3%, and 41.4%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between boys and girls (χ2=0.01-2.66, P>0.05). The incidence of myopia in children with premyopia at baseline was 31.5% after 1 year of follow-up, and the cumulative incidence of myopia after 2 years of follow-up was 62.0%, which was much higher than that in children with hyperopia (0.6% and 9.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that premyopia at baseline, female, having two parents with myopia, and AL at baseline were negatively associated with incidence of myopia at 2 years of follow-up (P < 0.05).Conclusion Premyopic children are at high risk of developing myopia within 2 years and are a priority group for surveillance and myopia prevention interventions.
Abstract: Objective To explore the screen related sedentary behavior among senior primary school students in Beijing and to analyze the influence of psychosocial determinants and nutrition-related knowledge on the behavior.Methods In January 2020, a total of 1 316 students in grade 4-6 from two primary schools in Beijing were selected. Information on video-viewing (watching TV or playing video games), self-efficacy, habit strength, nutrition-related knowledge, outcome expectation and the capacity to persist toward goal attainment were collected through questionnaires. Disordered multi-classification Logistic regression and random forest algorithm were used to analyze the influencing factors.Results The frequency of screen related sedentary was 5.0(3.0, 10.5) times/week, and the duration was 37.5(9.6, 97.5) min/d in senior elementary school children. The results of disordered multi-classification Logistic regression showed that the capacity to persist toward goal attainment, nutrition-related knowledge, habit strength, self-efficacy and gender positively correlated with the frequency of screen related sedentary (OR=1.6, 1.7, 4.9, 4.2, 1.5), while the nutrition-related knowledge, habit strength, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, grade and gender positively correlated with screen time (OR=1.7, 5.6, 5.7, 1.6, 1.6, 1.7)(P < 0.05). Random forest regression tree model showed that the top four influencing factors on screen related sedentary frequency were self-efficacy, the capacity to persist toward goal attainment, habit strength and nutrition-related knowledge and the top four influencing factors on screen time were self-efficacy, outcome expectation, nutrition-related knowledge, habit strength.Conclusion Screen related sedentary behavior is prevalent among senior primary school students in Beijing. Health education should be strengthened regarding influencing factors of screen related sedentary behavior.
Abstract: Objective To investigate parents' acceptance to the COVID-19 vaccine booster shots for their children aged 3-11 years in Nanjing based on the theory of planned behavior, and to provide a scientific theoretical basis for carrying out COVID-19 booster vaccination among children of this age group.Methods A total of 1 286 parents of children aged 3-11 years in Nanjing were selected by multistage stratified cluster sampling. A questionnaire survey based on the theory of planned behavior was used to investigate their willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 booster dose, and structural equation model was used to conduct data analysis.Results About 90.2% of parents were willing to give their children a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. The model constructed based on the theory of planned behavior could explain 42.2% of the variance of vaccination acceptance. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control had a direct positive effect on parents' acceptance to booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (path coefficients were 0.47 and 0.18, P < 0.01); The direct effect of subjective norms on vaccination acceptance was not statistically significant; Perceived behavioral control and subjective norms could have indirect positive effects on vaccination acceptance through attitudes (path coefficients were 0.27 and 0.13, P < 0.01).Conclusion Parents in Nanjing have a higher acceptance to vaccinate their children aged 3-11 years with the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. The theory of planned behavior shows a good explanatory ability on parents' acceptance to vaccinate their children, and attitude plays an important role in the formation of vaccination acceptance.
Abstract: Objective To investigate whether there is a nonlinear relationship and threshold effect between the number of daily steps counts and fat loss in obese children and adolescents.Methods Forty-eight obese children and adolescents were randomly recruited to undergo 4-week closed exercise training during July to August 2021. Actigraphy GT3X+ was used to monitor the daily steps, and fat loss effect was evaluated by changes of body composition indicators before and after the intervention. Paired samples t test was used to compare the indicators before and after the intervention; the dose-response relationship between daily steps counts and fat loss was analyzed by linear regression and piecewise regression, and the nonlinear relationship was analyzed by restricted cubic spline (RCS).Results Body fat mass, percentage of body fat, lean body mass and skeletal muscle mass decreased (27.50±7.33)kg, (36.17±5.59)%, (47.55±6.48)kg, (26.14±3.84)kg, respectively compared with those before intervention (t=21.04, 13.32, 7.65, 8.35, P < 0.05). There was a significant nonlinear dose-response relationship between daily steps counts and the change of these indicators (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and baseline BMI, each 1 000-step increase in daily walking number, BMI increased by 0.44(95%CI=0.03-0.84)kg and body fat percentage by 0.61%(95%CI=0.17%-1.04%). After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline BMI, each 1 000 step increased in daily number of steps occurred when the daily number of steps ranged from 8 300 to 11 400, lean body weight increased by 0.58(95%CI=0.11-1.04)kg, skeletal muscle mass increased by 0.29(95%CI=0.03-0.54)kg.Conclusion There is a non-linear dose-response relationship between daily steps and fat loss in obese children and adolescents, for optimal fat loss efficiency, daily steps to 8 300-11 400 appropriate.
Abstract: Objective To understand the current status and associated factors of smoking behavior among adolescents in Tibet.Methods From August to October 2019, 4 983 students were selected by PPS and cluster sampling for questionnaire survey. The Chi-square test and unconditional Logistic regression analysis were used to explore associated factors of smoking among adolescents in Tibet.Results In 2019, current smoking rate of Tibetan adolescents was 11.3% (563/4 983), attempted smoking rate was 21.8% (1 086/4 983), and the rate of second-hand smoke exposure was 62.4% (3 111/4 983). Among the 563 current smokers, 82.9% reported they wanted to quit smoking, 79.9% had made a quit attempt in the past 12 months, and only 11.7% received help or advice from professionals. Logistic regression analysis showed that city (OR=2.38), third grade (OR=1.51), high school (OR=2.90) or vocational high school (OR=3.53), boys (OR=16.93), pocket money ≥50 yuan per week (OR=1.93), exposure to second-hand smoke (OR=16.12), awareness of harm from second-hand smoke (OR=1.40), no awareness of harm from second-hand smoke (OR=4.89), exposure to tobacco advertising (OR=1.83), friend smoking (OR=7.47) and observing teacher smoking every day (OR=1.79) were associated with more teenagers' current smoking behaviors. Perceived low attractiveness in smoking behavior (OR=0.54) was associated with lower teenagers' current smoking behavior(P < 0.05).Conclusion Smoking and attempted smoking are common among Tibetan adolescents in 2019, and second-hand smoke exposure is serious. Vocational high school students are the key population for tobacco control intervention, and schools are the primary places for tobacco control intervention.
Abstract: Objective To investigate child injury prevention practice and associated factors among parents of primary school students.Methods Parents of 2 577 students were selected from three primary schools in three administrative regions of Shanghai by multi-stage sampling method between May and June in 2021. Questionnaire survey was administered to parents based on the Index System for Assessing Parent's Ability on Child Injury Prevention, which was developed previously by the present research group.Results were converted into standardized scores for descriptive analysis, and the original scores were analyzed by multiple linear regression model.Results The standardized scores of parents on environment safety, product safety, behaviors and skills and psychological safety were (0.91±0.08)(0.93±0.08)(0.97±0.04)(0.95±0.05), respectively. The standardized score of general ability was (0.95±0.04). The standardized scores on knowledge, attitude and practice of injury prevention were (0.99±0.03)(0.97±0.05)(0.89±0.10), respectively. Mothers' performances were generally better than fathers'. Parents with higher education performed better than those with lower education. Parents with "being a parent" in mind performed better on child injury prevention.Conclusion There is a gap between practice with the knowledge as well as attitude towards child injury prevention among parents of primary school students. Parenting role, educational background and parental awareness of the importance of parental role are primary factors that affect child injury prevention practice.
Abstract: Objective To explore the associations between parental marital status with bullying and self-injurious behavior among primary and secondary school students, and to provide intervention support for the prevention of self-injurious behavior of primary and secondary school students. Methods A total of 11 107 primary and secondary school students in Nanyang, Anyang and Xinxiang city from central China were selected using multistage clustering sampling method. A questionnaire survey regarding bullying was administered. Results Report rate of bullying in boys (18.1%) was higher than that in girls (9.8%), while report rate of self-injurious behavior in girls (3.9%) was higher than that in boys(3.2%)(χ2=155.56, 4.64, P < 0.05). The severity of bullying (r=0.44) and types of bullying (r=0.42) were positively correlated with self-injurious behaviors(P < 0.01), while parental marital status was negatively correlated with self-injurious behavior(r=-0.11, P < 0.01). Parental marital status negatively moderated the relationship between severity of bullying(β=-0.01), types (β=-0.05) with self-injurious behavior(P < 0.01). Conclusion Parental marital status plays a moderating role in the association between bullying and self-injurious behavior among primary and middle school students.The lower parental marital status, the higher rate of self-injurious behavior among bullied children. Comparison of bullied rates among primary and secondary school students with different characteristics.
Abstract: Objective To understand the relationships of social exclusion, personality trait and emotion regulation with willingness to seek help after being bullied, and to provide reference for rationalized intervention of campus bullying among middle school students.Methods A tatal of 2 040 middle school students from a middle school in Jiangxi Province were selected as the research objects, and surveyed by general situation questionnaire, Olweus Bullying Questionnaire, Willingness to Seek Help Scale, social exclusion scale, personality scale and Emotion Regulation Scale. Among them, a further survey of 381 bullies was conducted and SPSS 26.0 was used for statistical processing of data.Results About 55.88% (133/238) and 58.74% (84/143) reported willingness to seek help after being bullied among middle and high school students, respectively(χ2=0.30, P>0.05). There were no significant differences in gender and residency(P>0.05). In junior middle school students, compared with the non-help-willingness group(3.83±0.78, 3.35±1.03, 3.33±1.03, 29.81±7.77), the rejected scores of the help-willingness group were lower(3.57±0.75), scores of affinity and openness in personality traits were higher(3.69±0.88, 3.72±0.79), the cognitive reappraisal scores were higher(32.42±8.25). Among senior middle school students, the rejected and expression suppression scores of the help-willingness group were lower(3.51±0.67, 26.96±7.47), while extroversion personality traits were higher(3.61±0.95). Multivariate unconditional Log-binomial regression analysis showed that high score of expression suppression was associated with less willingness to seek help(OR=0.94, P=0.02).Conclusion Social exclusion, personality trait and emotional regulation may have certain influences on willingness to seek help after being bullied among junior and senior middle school students, effects varies by grade level.
Abstract: Objective To understand the level of depressive symptoms and associated factors in alopecia college students in Changchun.Methods The convenience sampling method was used to select 275 alopecia students from outpatient clinics in the Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine during November 2019 to June 2021. Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale(CES-D) and general characteristics were collected. Depressive symptoms and its associated factors were analyzed by binary Logistic regression.Results A total of 121 students with hair loss reported depressive symptoms, with the detection rate of 44.0%. Female(OR=2.26, 95%CI=1.22-4.20), 26-30 years of age(OR=2.43, 95%CI=1.01-5.85), poor sleep quality(OR=13.63, 95%CI=4.09-45.42), substantially affected interpersonal relationship(OR=3.56, 95%CI=1.57-8.06), perceived severe stress (OR=3.73, 95%CI=1.35-10.30) were positively correlated with depressive symptoms in alopecia college students, and 1-2 times of exercise per week, 3-5 times of exercise per week, and >5 times of exercise per week (OR=0.17, 0.14, 0.03, 95%CI=0.05-0.61, 0.04-0.52, 0.01-0.14) were negatively correlated with depressive symptoms in alopecia college students(P < 0.05).Conclusion Depressive symptoms are reported in 44.0% of alopecia college students in Changchun, which might be related with age, gender, sleep quality, interpersonal distress, stress perception and exercise.
Abstract: Objective To understand the association between positive and negative childhood experiences with uncertainty stress in college students.Methods From March to May 2021, 1 816 college students in Jiangsu and Hubei Province were randomly selected, and an electronic structured questionnaire was used to collect the general characteristics, positive and adverse childhood experience, and uncertainty stress. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between positive and negative childhood experiences with uncertainty stress.Results The reported rate of uncertainty stress among 1 816 college students was 27.5%(n=500). Logistic regression results showed that the risk of uncertainty stress among students with childhood abuse experience was 2.10 times higher than that of control group(OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.64-2.70). The probability of uncertainty stress in students with high self-awareness was 37% of those with low self awareness(OR=0.37, 95%CI=0.24-0.57). The probability of uncertainty stress in students with positive predictable life was 32% of those without(OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.13-0.77).Conclusion College students are vulnerable population for psychological stress. Both positive and adverse childhood experience are associated with the occurrence of uncertainty stress. Early screening for with adverse childhood experiences in adolescents is recommended to protect physical and mental health.
Abstract: Objective To understand the association between non-suicidal self-injury and self-control among rural junior high school students in Guizhou Province, and to provide reference for the development of prevention and control measures.Methods Using a multistage stratified random cluster sampling method, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4 452 junior high school students in 30 rural schools in Guizhou Province from November to December 2021 to investigate non-suicidal self-injury and self-control using the Non-suicidal Self-Injury Scale and the Self-Control Scale.Results A total of 986(22.2%) students had occasional non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, 593(13.3%) students reported frequent non-suicidal self-injury, and the occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury among junior high school students varied significantly by gender, grade, only child, residence, left-behind experiences, academic performance, academic pressure, parent-child relationship, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and exposure to domestic violence (χ2=6.97-168.68, P < 0.05);the average score of self-control among junior high school students in rural Guizhou Province was 48.0(39.0, 57.0), and the differences in self-control scores, impulse control, healthy habits, resist temptation, focus on work, and moderate entertainment were of statistical significance among students with varied frequency of self-injurious behavior (Z=612.08, 464.64, 193.10, 228.86, 194.04, 542.20, P < 0.05);high self-control score was associated with more non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.05-1.07, P < 0.05).Conclusion The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury is high among rural junior high school students in Guizhou province, and self-control shows a predictive effect on non-suicidal self-injurious behavior.Schools, families and relevant government departments should pay full attention to it and formulate targeted prevention and control measures.
Abstract: Objective The association of self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention and outcome expectation with the consumption of snack in senior primary school students were investigated, providing evidence for the application of psychosocial determinants based on Social Cognitive Theory in children's nutrition education.Methods A total of 1 353 students, 10-12 years old, participated in this study.Participants completed questionnaires for assessing self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention, outcome expectation and snack consumption in January 2020.Results Average times of snack consumption among primary school students were 5.0(3.0, 8.5) times per week, and the snack intake were 4.0(0.9, 22.9) g/d.The outcome expectation score was-1.0(-2.0, -1.0) points, while the score of children's snack-related self-efficacy was (4.3±0.9) points, habit strength score 1.0(1.0, 3.0) points, and the goal intention (4.2±1.2) points.Students with higher snack intake showed lower scores in outcome expectation, self-efficacy and goal intention (t=-9.0, 6.8, 5.2, P < 0.01).Logistic regression showed negative association between outcome expectation and self-efficacy factors with snacking behavior (OR=0.7, 0.8, respectively), as well as positive association between habit strength and snacking behaviors (OR=1.3, P < 0.05).Conclusion The evidence indicated that self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention and outcome expectation are associated with child's snack consumption, and can be used as theoretical foundation for child snack consumption education.
Abstract: Objective To explore the effectiveness of art therapy based on painting in ADHD intervene for classroom interfering behaviors.Methods A total of 60 children with ADHD were randomly selected from three primary schools in Wenfeng District, Anyang City, Henan Province.All the children were randomly divided into two groups.The control group received no intervention.The observation group was intervened with painting art for 8 weeks.The achievement rate of classroom goal behavior and the scores of Conners children's behavior questionnaire were compared before and after the experiment.Results The achievement rate of all classroom target behaviors (no noise in class, no repetition of teacher's speech in class, obeying instructions, no leaving the seat without permission in class, participating in classroom activities) in the observation group was significantly higher after intervention (χ2=23.65, 30.54, 18.54, 16.98, 20.34, P < 0.05), and significantly higher than that in the control group (χ2=16.22, 36.02, 24.43, 38.55, 16.95, P < 0.05).The results of Conners children's behavior questionnaire showed that the scores of learning problems, impulse/hyperactivity and hyperactivity index in the observation group were significantly lower after intervention (Z=7.63, 8.42, 9.56, P < 0.05), and significantly lower than those in the control group (Z=10.81, 11.25, 10.16, P < 0.05).Teacher-rated Conners children's behavior questionnaire showed that the scores of behavior problems, hyperactivity, inattention passivity and hyperactivity index in the observation group were significantly lower (Z=6.32, 7.56, 10.03, 9.18, P < 0.05), and significantly lower than those in the control group (Z=11.66, 19.22, 12.24, 9.01, P < 0.05).Conclusion Art therapy based on painting in ADHD intervention can effectively reduce classroom interfering behaviors, promote concentration and improve ADHD symptoms.
Abstract: Objective To understand the current situation of physical health of children aged 3-6 years in Jiangsu Province, and to provide reliable basis and reference for the theoretical and practical work of children's physical health promotion.Methods According to "National Physical Fitness Evaluation Standard Handbook (Children's Part)", the body shape and physical fitness indexes of 5 951 children in Jiangsu Province were measured and analyzed.Results Overall proportion of standard physical constitution among children aged 3-6 in Jiangsu Province was 79.8%, which was lower than the national average level in 2020(94.4%).Among them, the excellent rate, good rate and compliance rate of boys in comprehensive evaluation were higher (4.3%, 15.7%, 80.3%) than those of girls (3.6%, 15.3%, 79.2%); The height and weight of children were generally higher than the national level in 2020;The strength and explosive power of children's lower limbs was lower than the national level in 2020(t=11.56, P < 0.01);The flexibility and physical balance of older children in Jiangsu Province were relatively good.Conclusion The physical fitness level of 3-6-year-old children in Jiangsu Province has increased steadily, especially physical flexibility and physical balance ability However the related qualities such as lower limb strength, explosive power and coordination need to be paid attention to and improved.It highlights the importance of monitoring, management and promotion of children's physical fitness.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the relationship between body fat distribution and bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescents and gender differences among Chinese adolescents, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of bone metabolic diseases.Methods A total of 1 575 adolescents aged 12-18 years old were selected from Yinchuan by cluster random sampling.Body composition and bone mineral content were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between body fat distribution and BMC after adjusting for confounding factors.Results Except for LTFR, the levels of FM, AFM, TFM, TrTFR and TrLFR in boys were lower than those in girls (t=-13.52, -15.18, -12.47, -12.25, -7.96, P < 0.05);After adjusting for age, sex and weight, FM, AFM, TFM, TrTFR and TrLFR were all negatively correlated with BMC level (P < 0.05).For each increase of 1 standard deviation in TFM, BMC level decreased by 0.53 standard deviation (95%CI=-0.57--0.49, P < 0.01].LTFR had a linear negative correlation with BMC level in boys (B=0.07, P < 0.01), no similar correlation was found in girls (B=0.01, P=0.74).There was a linear negative correlation between TrLFR and BMC level in girls (B=-0.06, P=0.03), but the correlation was of no significance in boys (B=-0.01, P=0.55).Conclusion Sex difference in body fat distribution in Chinese adolescents is observed.Body fat distribution is closely related to bone minerals content in adolescents.
Abstract: Objective To analyze under 5 years old mortality rate during 2016-2021 in Xicheng District, Beijing, and to provide scientific basis for further reducing infant mortality rate and under 5 years old mortality rate.Methods A descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the mortality surveillance data of children under 5 years old reported by Preventive Health Department of Xicheng District Community Health Service Center during 2016-2021.Results During 2016-2021, under 5 mortality, infants and newborn mortality in Xicheng District decreased from 2.31‰, 1.85‰ and 1.12‰ to 1.55‰, 1.07‰ and 0.48‰ respectively.There was no significant difference in mortality rate between 2016 and 2021(P>0.05).The leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age included other congenital abnormalities (except congenital heart disease and down's syndrome)(18.79%), preterm birth/low birth weight (16.36%) and birth asphyxia (7.88%).Infant deaths accounted for 69.23%-80.00% of deaths of children under 5 years of age, and neonatal mortality accounted for 44.44%-71.43% of infant mortality.Conclusion It is necessary to carry out relevant preventive intervention and quality management based on the main causes of death, and to further improve the management of critically ill neonates and reduce neonatal mortality.
Abstract: Objective To explore the screening cut-off point and screening efficacy of morning serum LH combined with IGF-1 levels on puberty initiation to provide the basis for developing the gnrh stimulation test reasonably and promoting the systematic management of children and adolescence.Methods A retrospective study was conducted to select 1 724 children aged 8-13 years who took physical examination and were identified of breast development (between grade 2 and grade 3) or increased testicular volume (4.00-10.00 mL) in Child Health Department of Wuhan Children's Hospital during January 1st 2019 and December 31th 2021, and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test was performed in endocrinology department ward in the same period.Doppler ultrasound was used to determine gonadal volume, and GnRH stimulation test was conducted to determine the puberty initiation in children.The ROC curve was utilized to determine the screening cut-off points of morning serum LH and IGF-1 on puberty initiation, and the reliability and validity of the cut-off points were all tested.Results The testicular volume was (4.88±2.19) mL in boys, and 75.5% was classified as initiation of gonadal growth.Whereas the ovaries volume was (1.78±0.65) mL in girls, and 91.39% classified as initiation of gonadal growth.The results of the GnRH stimulation test showed that among boys and girls, the medians LH peak were 13.22 and 21.79 IU/L, and the median LH/FSH peak ratios were 2.13 and 1.87.As a result, 597 boys and 864 girls were diagnosed as puberty initiation.Screening efficacy analysis indicated that the cut-off point of morning serum LH on puberty initiation were 0.23 IU/L in male (Kappa=0.60) and 0.22 IU/L in female (Kappa=0.66), and IGF-1 cut-off point were 187.00 IU/L in male (Kappa=0.45) and 178.00 IU/L in female (Kappa=0.46).High sensitivity and specificity and better screening efficacy (Kappa=0.60, 0.64) on single-item screening of morning blood LH in boys and tandem screening of LH and IGF-1 in girls.Conclusion Morning serum LH and IGF-1 are good predictors on puberty initiation.GnRH stimulation test should be carried out to determine the puberty initiation when morning serum LH reaches 0.23 IU/L in boys, morning serum LH reaches 0.22 IU/L and IGF-1 reaches 178.00 IU/L in girls.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the trend change of the drowning mortality among children and adolescents in Chongqing, 2012-2021, and to provide suggestion for drowning prevention and control.Methods Drowning death cases (ICD-10:W65.0-W74.9) among children and adolescents in Chongqing from 2012 to 2021 were derived from Chongqing death registration system.The difference of the drowning mortality between male and female, urban and rural area were compared by Chi-square test.The trend change of the drowning mortality between 2012 and 2021 was analyzed by annual percent change (APC).Results The mortality and ASMR of drowning among children and adolescents decreased from 9.57/105, 9.42/105 in 2012 to 2.80/105, 2.83/105 in 2021 significantly (t=10.93, 10.52, P < 0.01).And its APC were-13.15% and 13.06% respectively.The drowning mortality in male was higher than that in female (P < 0.05).The drowning mortality in rural area was higher than that in urban area (P < 0.05).The mortality of drowning among children aged between 0 and 4 years old, 5 and 9 years old, 10 and 14 years old decreased by 15.30%, 17.80% and 11.40%(APC=-15.30%, -17.80%, -11.40%, t=11.11, 9.22, 5.62, P < 0.05).The proportion of drowning in natural water field among children and adolescents accounted for about 80%.Conclusion The mortality of drowning among children and adolescents in Chongqing decreases rapidly.Vulnerable population of drowning includes boys, rural children and adolescents, and children age of 0-14 years old.Comprehensive prevention for drowning should be carried out continuously.
Abstract: Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors for functional constipation (FC) among high school students in Chongming District of Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chongming District of Shanghai from March-June 2019.A total of 4 969 adolescents under the age of 18 were recruited high schools, using a stratified random sampling technique.A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome Ⅳ criteria for diagnosing FC and predisposing factors was filled by each student in a classroom setting.Results The prevalence of FC among middle school students in Chongming District of Shanghai was 13.95%.There were no significant differences in the prevalence between males and females, middle and high school groups, and urban and rural areas (P>0.05).In senior high schools, students in the graduation year were more likely to suffer from FC (17.36%, 130/749) than other students (13.77%, 201/1 460)(χ2=5.01, P=0.03).The prevalence of FC in the key senior high schools (18.23%, 115/631) was significantly higher than that in ordinary high schools (13.07%, 49/375)(χ2=7.43, P=0.02).Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of physical exercise, and consumption of spicy foods, proportion of spicy foods in the diet, consumption of vegetables, a lower proportion of vegetables in the diet, drinking water, anorexia, quality of sleep and school type were associated with FC in high school students (OR=0.11-7.71, P < 0.05).Conclusion FC is prevalent among high school students on Chongming District of Shanghai, especially among middle school graduates, and many risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of FC.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the retention rate and anticaries effects of pit and fissure sealant in the first permanent after 5 years among children in Henan Province.Methods Random cluster sampling was used in 8 counties/districts of Henan Province that participated in the comprehensive intervention program for children's oral diseases in 2015.One project school was selected from each county, and two classes of sixth grade students were selected from each school.In the selected class, children who underwent pit and fissure sealing in the first permanent molars in 2015 were treated as the experimental group, and children who met the indications but did not undergo pit and fissure sealing were treated as the control group.The retention of sealant and caries in the first permanent molars were investigated.Results After 5 years of pit and fissure sealing, the complete retention rate, partial retention rate and complete abscission rate were 15.84%, 55.32% and 28.84%, respectively.The incidence of caries in the experimental group (19.02%, 0.44±0.87) was lower than that in the control group (27.91%, 0.54±1.00)(χ2/t=11.98, 2.63, P < 0.05).The caries reduction rate was 31.85%.The rate of net benefit was 8.59%.The higher the retention rate of sealant, the lower the incidence of caries (χ2=167.16, P < 0.01).Conclusion The long-term effect of the comprehensive intervention project on children's oral diseases in Henan Province is promising.Pit and fissure sealant can effectively prevent caries in children's first permanent molars.
Abstract: Objective To explore the epidemiological characteristics of mortality of accidental injury children aged 5-19 years in Yunnan Province during 2015-2019, to provide further evidence for reducing accidental mortality in children.Methods The mortality cases of accidental injury by gender, age groups, and causes among children and adolescents in Yunnan Province during 2015 to 2019 were analyzed retrospectively.Poisson regression model was used to estimate the trend of mortality.Chi-square test was used to compare the differences of mortality by gender and age groups.Results During 2015 to 2019, the mortality rate of accidental injury in children and adolescents aged 5-19 years in Yunnan Province decreased from 19.15/105 in 2015 to 18.35/105 in 2019(Z=-3.36, P < 0.01).The mortality rate of all types of accidental injuries in male was higher than that in female (χ2=867.01, 11.69, 147.60, 190.34, 7.23, 702.97, P < 0.05).The top three causes of fatal accidental injuries included road traffic accidents, drowning and falls.Except for accidental falls, the mortality rate of other causes in the 15-19 age group was significantly higher than that in the age of 5-9 years and 10-14 years groups (χ2=764.47, 75.91, 31.75, 9.24, 114.96, 327.64, P < 0.05).The top three traffic accidents were happened among motorcyclists, light trucks or caravans and cars, accounting for 27.83%, 10.57% and 7.90% respectively.Conclusion Targeted measures should be taken continuously according to the characteristics of children and adolescents in different regions, age groups and gender to reduce the incidence and mortality of accidental injuries among children.
Abstract: Objective To understand the sanitation status of rural primary and secondary schools during 2015-2019, and provide data support for the formulation of environmental sanitation policies for schools in rural areas of Guiyang.Methods According to the requirements of the Work Plan for the Rural Environmental Sanitation Monitoring Project in Guiyang City from 2015-2019, 145 rural schools in Guiyang were selected by stratified random sampling method, including 75 elementary schools and 70 junior high schools.Through on-site inspection and questionnaire survey, information regarding school basic situation, drinking water for students, water supply and toilet sanitation in school.Results Students'drinking water was mainly bottled water or water from a water purifier, the proportional rate increased from 37.9% to 72.4%;water supply in the school was mainly from village water plant, from 69.0% to 93.1%;the proportion of schools with independent public toilets and toilets in dormitory buildings ranged from 65.6% to 100.0%, the proportion of schools with toilets in teaching buildings was less than 60.0%, but the penetration rate of sanitary toilets in independent public toilets, teaching buildings and dormitory buildings were more than 80.0%.Qualified rate of squatting in the men's toilet fluctuated between 93.1% and 100.0%.Qualified rate of the squatting in the women's toilet had increased from 44.8% to 65.5%.Proportion of school toilets guarded by specific staff decreased from 31.0% to 27.6%.The proportion of soap increased from 20.7% to 58.6%, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=21.27, P=0.01).Conclusion During 2015-2019, the environmental sanitation in rural areas of Guiyang was acceptable, with students'drinking water, school water supply and sanitary toilets moderately improved.Toilets in the teaching building and women's toilet squatting numbers need to be increased.School toilets managed by specific personnel, as well as good hygiene habits education promotion are encouraged.
Abstract: Objective To explore the gene-lifestyle interaction of ATP2B1-eNOS pathway gene polymorphisms on blood pressure.Methods Using the convenient cluster sampling method, a total of 872 junior middle school students from 3 school in July to August 2019, were included in the final analysis.The survey included questionnaire investigation, anthropometry measurement and blood sample collection.After DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, the gene polymorphisms (ATP2B1 gene rs17249754 and rs2070759, eNOS gene rs1799983 and rs2070744) were genotyped.Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between gene polymorphism and blood pressure phenotypes.Results The prevalence of high blood pressure was 9.52% in adolescents (9.15% in boys and 9.87% in girls), with no significant sex difference (χ2=0.13, P=0.72).There were statistically significant differences between boys and girls in age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI) classification, birth weight, daily school physical exercise time and daily playing video games time (P < 0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that, eNOS gene rs2070744 polymorphism was associated with high blood pressure (HBP) under the recessive model, and the risk of HBP in CC genotype carriers were higher than that TT/TC genotype carriers (OR=3.88, 95%CI=1.00-15.02, P < 0.05).The results of gene-lifestyle interaction showed that ATP2B1 gene rs2070759 polymorphism gene had an interaction with the time of physical exercise in school (Pinteraction=0.05).In the subgroup with daily physical exercise time at school < 1 hour, the TT/TG genotype carriers were associated with increased risk of HBP compared with GG genotype carriers (OR=2.65, 95%CI=1.11-6.30, P < 0.05).But in the subgroup with daily physical exercise time in school ≥1 hour, rs2070759 was not significantly associated with HBP.ConclusioneNOS/rs2070744 polymorphisms are associated with risk of HBP among adolescents.There is significant interaction between ATP2B1 gene rs2070759 polymorphism and physical exercise time in school on HBP.Adolescents should spend more time on physical activity in school, which will help to maintain normal blood pressure level.
Abstract: Objective To understand the relationships between screen time, physical activity, as well as neck and shoulder pain among university students in Tianjin.Methods In this study, 904 university students in Tianjin were investigated using the Chinese Musculos Keletal Questionnaire during April-June 2021.Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the neck and shoulder pain and the correlation between screen time and physical activity.Results There was significant gender differences in the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (χ2=24.35, P < 0.05).Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that among male students, the risk of neck and shoulder pain whose screen time more than 6 h/d was 4.55 times that of those with screen time ≤2 h/d, among female students, the risk of neck and shoulder pain whose exercise time >150 min/week was 0.63 times than that of students who exercised ≤75 min/week (P < 0.05).Among undergraduate and graduate students, physical activity ≥150 min/d was associated with lower rate of neck and shoulder pain (OR=0.52, 1.26, 0.61), while screen time ≥6 h/d was associated with higher rate of neck and shoulder pain (OR=2.39, 6.18, 2.97), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain were higher in male students as well as undergraduate and graduate students who had higher screen time and higher physical activity than those with lower screen time and higher physical activity (OR=2.96, 2.35, 2.93)(P < 0.05).Conclusion High screen time and physical inactivity is associated with higher risk of neck and shoulder pain among college students.The effect of physical inactivity on neck and shoulder pain might be weaker than that of screen time.It is suggested that schools and families should cooperate to control screen activity and increase physical inactivity, so as to prevent the occurrence of neck and shoulder pain in college students.
Abstract: Objective To understand the allocation of desks and chairs in primary and secondary schools in China from 2018 to 2021 and its influencing factors, so as to provide basis for differentiate intervention strategies.Methods The data related to the allocation of desks and chairs in 153 568 primary and secondary schools in the national random supervision and random inspection from 2018 to 2021 were used to calculate the qualified rate of each index.And the factors related to the qualified rate of two types of desks and chairs in primary and secondary schools were analyzed.Results The overall qualified rate of desks and chairs was 74.23%(113 986 schools), and the qualified rate in urban areas (78.10%) was higher than that in towns (75.93%) and villages (70.39%); The qualified rate of junior middle school (76.15%) was higher than that of senior high school (75.12%) and primary school (73.56%); The qualified rate in the East (84.07%) was higher than that in the Middle (77.24%) and West (61.99%).And the differences were of statistical significance (χ2=945.81, 95.29, 6 757.58, P < 0.01).The qualified rate of desks and chairs in the school shows an upward trend by year.Conclusion The overall qualified rate of desks and chairs in primary and secondary schools in China is not ideal, which need further attention from department of health administration, education, school, as well as other organizations to formulate differentiate intervention strategy despite increasing.
Abstract: Objective To understand the microbial contamination of student lunch in Huzhou, in order to provide reference for foodborne disease prevention and control.Methods In 2021, 225 samples of student lunch were randomly collected from 77 schools and detected for E.coli, S.aureus, B.cereus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, and Diarrhoeal E.coli.According to the relevant standards, the status of microbial contamination was evaluated.Results The total unqualified rate was 2.67%(6/225).The unqualified rates of E coli (>100 CFU/g) was 1.33%.The detection rates of B.cereus, S.aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and diarrhoeal E.coli were 7.11%(16/225), 1.33%(3/225), 0.89%(2/225) and 0.44%(1/225), respectively.The unqualified rates of S.aureus (≥104 CFU/g) and B.cereus (≥105 CFU/g) were zero.There are statistical differences in the unqualified rate of student lunch among different school types (P < 0.05).The unqualified samples mainly came from the primary school canteen, and the unqualified rate was 5.63%(4/71).Conclusion The sanitary quality of student lunch in Huzhou is acceptable, but there are different degrees of foodborne pathogens pollution, especially in primary schools, and supervision and management should be strengthened.
Abstract: In recent years, the overall incidence of scoliosis in children and adolescents in China is on the rise, and it has become the third largest "killer" affecting the health of children and adolescents in China after obesity and myopia. The dysfunction caused by spinal deformity has no obvious pathological manifestations or clinical symptoms in children and adolescents (except for severe scoliosis). It is easy to be ignored in the early stage, but if it is not intervened in time, this will cause serious damage to the long-term prognosis and quality of life of the patients. Therefore, through early scoliosis screening, we can effectively monitor the spinal health status of children and adolescents in China, ensure timely diagnosis of the disease, timely intervention (brace and other conservative treatment), and play the role of early prevention. Avoid further deterioration of scoliosis and surgical intervention. This article will focus on the research progress of screening and conservative treatment of scoliosis.
Abstract: The incidence of myopia in children and adolescents has increased in recent years, with an earlier onset trend. During the same time, sleep problems are prevalent in children and adolescents, including insufficient sleep duration and delayed sleep timing. Sleep, as a cyclical life activity influenced by the circadian rhythm, plays an important role in eye growth and refractive development. This review examines the associations between sleep, circadian rhythm, and occurrence of myopia in children and adolescents across human and animal studies, and discusses the underlying biological processes, so as to offer scientific justification for the prevention of myopia in children and adolescents.
Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-yield chemical and widely present in daily necessities and catering products. It is one of the environmental endocrine disruptors with estrogen-like effects that may affect the immune system. This paper summarizes the most recent epidemiological studies on the relationship between BPA exposure and asthma in children at home and abroad, and briefly outlines the pathogenesis of BPA-induced asthma in children, aiming to provide inspiration and directions for future research.
Abstract: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity that includes scoliosis in the coronal plane, imbalance in the sagittal plane, and rotation of the vertebral body in the transverse axis without any congenital spinal anomalies or combined neuromuscular and skeletal disorders, and is the most common structural scoliosis in clinical practice. Epidemiological surveys have shown that the prevalence of AIS in China is on the rise and has become another important health problem threatening the health of our youth. Studies have found that exercise therapy shows positive effects on the prevention and treatment of AIS, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This paper reviewed relevant literature through China Knowledge Network (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier, regarding pathological mechanisms of the occurrence and development of AIS, as well as effectiveness of exercise therapy on AIS and related mechanisms during recent years, to provide reference for the treatment of AIS.
Found in 1980 Monthly
Competent Authorities: National Health Commission
Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association