Abstract: The mental health of children and adolescents are closely linked to social development. The twenty first century has seen dramatic urbanization and globalization. These among several other social changes, such as nature and shift in family systems, newer patterns of relationships, psychosocial stress, social mobility and public health emergency show double-edged sword effects to mental health of children and adolescents. The unpredictibility and uncertainty of COVID-19 pandemic, including school closure, physical distancing, cleaning and disinfection priciples have presented many challenges to the mental health of children and adolescents, as well as to school mental health services.
Abstract: Objective This study explored the predictive effects of psychological stress in early and middle puberty on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.Methods A cohort of 911 boys and girls from primary and secondary schools in Chongqing was studied. Psychological stress was measured in early and middle adolescence, and the levels of emotional and behavioral problems were determined in one-year follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of psychological stress in early and middle adolescence on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.Results The average psychological stress score in early and middle adolescence was (27.96±24.95), and the average scores of internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems one year later were (8.21±8.46)(6.21±5.87) and (37.90±24.68) respectively. When grouped by gender, these scores, as well as the detection rate of anxiety and depression, withdrawal, physical discomfort, thinking problems, internalization problems and overall problems, were higher in girls than boys(t/Z=-6.38, -5.63, -6.06, -3.74, -6.80, -5.47, χ2=15.88, 12.01, 3.92, 6.64, 24.67, 15.88, P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that the psychological stress scale score was a risk factor for internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems(P < 0.05).Conclusion Psychological stress levels in early and middle puberty have a positive predictive effect on emotional and behavioral problems in the following year.
Abstract: Objective To examine the association of mental health literacy (MHL) and childhood abuse with alcohol drinking behaviors in middle school students, so as to provide a reference for the intervening risky behaviors of the people with bad experiences during childhood.Methods A total of 16 853 middle school students in Beijing, Zhengzhou of Henan Province, and Yangjiang of Guangdong Province were enrolled by multistage convenient cluster sampling method from October 2020 to June 2021 for their self-reported MHL, childhood abuse, and alcohol drinking behaviors. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the correlation of MHL and childhood abuse with alcohol drinking behaviors.Results The overall score of MHL of students was (82.11±12.85) points. The rate of childhood abuse was 42.86%, the rate of recent drinking and excessive drinking were 10.82% and 5.14%, respectively. The detection rate of recent drinking and excessive drinking among students in boys, high school, only-child, poor family economic status and more intimate partners were higher than their peers(χ2=135.75, 59.25, 16.70, 57.48, 36.67; 109.38, 9.75, 10.32, 65.13, 21.50, P < 0.01). Students who lack MHL [OR(95%CI)=1.27(1.14-1.43, 1.85(1.55-2.22)] and had childhood abuse [OR(95%CI)=1.93(1.75-2.13), 1.64(1.43-1.89)] had an increased risk of recent drinking and excessive drinking(P < 0.01). The highest rate of recent and excessive drinking occurred in students with childhood abuse and lack MHL (15.05% and 7.30%), with OR(95%CI) about 2.47(2.09-2.92) and 3.37(2.55-4.44).Conclusion Lacking MHL and childhood abuse experiences of middle school students are related to alcohol drinking behaviors. Preventing childhood abuse and improving MHL are beneficial to the prevention and control of middle school students' drinking behaviors.
Abstract: Objective To explore whether psychological stress in early and mid-puberty is predictive of adolescent health-risk behaviors.Methods In April 2018, a total of 1 046 primary and secondary school students from grade 5 to 8 were recruited through purposive sampling. The basic information and psychological stress of the respondents were collected by questionnaire and physical examination. In addition, self-reports of health-risk behaviors were collected in October 2018. Logistic multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between psychological stress and health risk behaviors of adolescents.Results The reported health-risk behaviors of the surveyed adolescents ranking from high to low were unreasonable physical activity (62.05%), food preferences (24.76%), fighting (21.03%), suicidal ideation (17.02%), ideation of running away from home (9.85%), low mood (8.80%), smoking (4.21%), drinking (3.73%), gambling (3.63%) and internet addiction (3.06%). Logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the high level of psychological stress was a risk factor for fighting (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03), suicidal ideation (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03), low mood (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03), ideation of running away from home (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03), unreasonable physical activity (OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.02), smoking (OR=1.02, 95%CI= 1.00-1.03), internet addiction (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.00-1.03), food preferences (OR=1.01, 95%CI= 1.00-1.02) and gambling (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04)(P < 0.05).Conclusion Unreasonable physical activity and food preferences are most common health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Psychological stress during early to middle puberty is predictive of adolescent health-risk behaviors.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the effect of hypnotherapy on improving pain degree, pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy, coping styles of female college students with primary dysmenorrhea, and to provide the theoretical support for psychological intervention.Methods Fifty-six female college students with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into experimental group(n=28) and control group(n=28).Samples in the experimental group received 10-session structured hypnotherapy, while the control group received no intervention (the control group could receive the intervention when the intervention was proved to be effective).The effects were evaluated with Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire(PSEQ), was proved to be effective.The effects were evaluated with Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire(PSEQ), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire(SCSQ)in the pretest, protest and tracking test.Results The time effect, group effect and time-group interaction on the NRS, PCS, PSEQ scores of the two groups of female college students were all statistically significant (F=12.83, 21.77, 13.65; 22.96, 28.98, 24.84;25.35, 18.26, 27.02, P < 0.01).Immediately after the intervention and 3 months after the intervention, the scores of SCSQ positive coping dimension of the experimental group(1.43±0.35, 1.50±0.39)were significantly higher than those of the control group(1.22±0.19, 1.20±0.21), and the scores of SCSQ negative coping dimension of the experimental group(1.59±0.38, 1.52±0.49)were significantly lower than those of the control group(1.80±0.17, 1.80±0.20), the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.05);There were statistical differences among time effect, group effect and time-group interaction on the positive coping and negative coping scores of SCSQ (F=15.14, 4.29, 14.37;7.66, 4.10, 6.95, P < 0.05).Conclusion Hypnotherapy intervention for female college students with primary dysmenorrhea can effectively alleviate pain degree, and improve the pain catastrophizing and coping styles, enhance their pain self-efficacy. The hypnotherapy also shows long-term effects.
Abstract: Objective To identity patterns of psychological abuse and neglect among male and female adolescents, and to examine the relationship between psychological abuse and neglect with mobile phone dependence.Methods A total of 1 070 adolescents from 5 middle schools in Ganzhou and Wuhan were investigated with Child Psychological Abuse and Neglect Scale (CPANS), Mobile Phone Addiction Index Scale (MPAI) and demographic questionnaire. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to construct typologies of psychological abuse and neglect involvement in male and female adolescents.Results Three latent classes were identified for boys: low-level psychological abuse and neglect group (56.68%), medium-level psychological abuse and neglect group (29.80%), high-level psychological abuse and neglect group (13.52%). For girls, four latent classes were identified including low-level psychological abuse and neglect group (49.38%), medium-level psychological abuse and neglect group (29.01%), high-level psychological abuse and neglect group (11.12%); high-level psychological abuse group (10.49%). Adolescents who suffered from psychological abuse and neglect were more likely to be dependent on mobile phones. Among them, boys' dependence on mobile phones was manifested as out of control, withdrawal, escape and inefficiency[Medium level: B(95%CI)=0.28(0.12-0.44), 0.29(0.11-0.46), 0.35(0.16-0.53), high level: B(95%CI)=0.37(0.16-0.59), 0.42(0.19-0.65), 0.33(0.07-0.59), 0.50(0.25-0.74), P < 0.05], while girls showed evasion and inefficiency in high levels of psychological abuse[B(95%CI)=0.34(0.01-0.67), 0.46(0.14-0.78), P < 0.05].Conclusion There are heterogeneous differences in psychological abuse and neglect between male and female adolescents, and the relationship between each category and mobile phone dependence varies. The results provide suggestions for adolescent mental health intervention.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the sleeping status of the first-grade primary students aged 6-8 in Beijing, to investigate the association between maternal parenting stress and children's sleep, and to inform intervention of addressing sleep problems among children in Beijing.Methods Online survey was conducted based on the child cohort study designed to study puberty, obesity, and cardiovascular risk (PROC). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were completed by parents, and 1 136 school-aged children and their mothers were included as study participants. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between maternal parenting stress and children's sleep.Results The prevalence of sleep problems among first-grade primary students was 78.52%. Among the children who received PSI-SF, the score of children with sleeping problems(86.66±17.31) was higher than that of the children with no sleeping problems(78.59±17.75)(t=6.42, P < 0.01). After adjusting sociodemographic characteristics, multivariable logistic regression results showed children of mothers with parenting stress were more likely to have sleep problems (OR=2.52, 95%CI=1.55-4.11, P < 0.01). Taking 3 dimensions in PSI-SF as independent variables, the analysis indicated that compared with the children having mothers free from parental stress and difficult children, the children with mothers with parental stress were more likely to suffer from the sleeping problems(OR=1.66, 1.76, P < 0.05).Conclusion Sleep problems are prevalent among first-grade primary students, and it underscores providing psychological support to alleviate maternal parenting stress to address children's sleep problems.
Abstract: Objective To explore the association between aggression and social support and their gender differences among Chinese adolescence, and to provide a scientific reference for preventing and reducing aggressive behaviors of adolescents.Methods Conducted a cross-sectional survey of 15 623 adolescents in 5 provinces in China, namely, HeiLongjiang, Hubei, Anhui, Guangdong and Yunnan Province. And the Chinese version of the Adolescent Social Support Scale was employed to assess the aggression and social support, life events, psychological characteristics, family condition and demographic characteristics among adolescents.Results The prevalence of self-reported high level of aggression was 23.5%(3 670/15 623). Males reported higher rate of high level aggression than females (24.4% vs 22.5%, χ2=19.30, P < 0.01). Significant association between aggression and social support was identified in univariate analysis (χ2=620.68, P < 0.01). After controlling for potential confounders, aggression was also significantly negatively associated with social support (OR=1.27-1.84), and there was dose-response relationship between them(P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between aggression and social support was similar among male participants and female participants (ROR=1.02-1.10, P>0.05).Conclusion The findings indicate that aggression is associated with social support both in male and female adolescents. Improving the social support for adolescents can reduce their aggressive behaviors.
Abstract: Objective To explore the buffering effect of positive childhood experiences (PCEs) on mental health risks among adolescents before and after COVID-19 epidemic.Methods In October 2019 (before the outbreak of COVID-19), 1 322 students from grades 4 to 9 were recruited from primary and secondary schools in two counties of Chizhou city, Anhui Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect general demographic information, PCEs, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-harm behavior, suicidal ideation. Follow-up survey was conducted after school re-opening (May 2020). Mental health status before and after the COVID-19 epidemic was compared among students with different PCEs by multiple logistic regression analyses.Results The detection rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-harm behavior and suicidal ideation (22.6%, 16.0%, 40.0%, 29.9%) of the respondents after school re-opening were significantly higher compared that before the epidemic (16.5%, 13.5%, 31.1%, 22.6%). There were no significant differences in the detection rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-harm behavior and suicidal ideation between high PCEs group before and after the epidemic (Z=-0.05, 0.27, 0.84, 1.84, P>0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of depressive symptoms and self-harm behavior in the low PCEs group after school re-opening was 1.39 times higher than that before the epidemic (95%CI=1.05-1.84, P < 0.05). The risk of non-suicidal self-injury behavior in the low PCEs group after school re-opening was 1.31 times higher than that before the epidemic (95%CI=1.05-1.62, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in mental health detection rates in high PCEs group before and after the epidemic (P>0.05).Conclusion During the time of COVID-19 epidemic, PCEs is associated with lower rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-harm behavior and suicide ideation in adolescents. The findings suggest that more support and help should be given to adolescents from the perspectives of family, school and peers, so as to reduce the adverse effects of public health emergencies on adolescents' mental health.
Abstract: Children were vulnerable groups in major public health emergencies. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was widespread in the world. The mental health of school-age children has become a worldwide concern. Herein, we conducted this review to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of general children and special children with a high risk of psychological problems, focusing on the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among school-age children in different countries and regions during the COVID-19 epidemic. Considering the susceptibility between individuals and the accessibility of social resources, we further explored the child, family, and social related factors affecting the mental health of school-age children. Finally, some suggestions on the construction of children's mental health service system in major public health emergencies were put forward at the national, school-family-community, and individual levels. Building a safe and reliable child mental health protection network required the joint efforts of all sectors of society.
Abstract: With the rapid development of economy, mental health problems of children and adolescents have been widely concerned by the society across China. Early-onset mental health problems increase the risk of mental diseases in adulthood, bring heavy burden to the family and society. This study reviews the research progress of school-based interventions for mental health promotion among children and adolescents within and outside China, aiming to provide reference for relevant policies for early prevention, control and intervention of children and adolescents' mental health problems in China.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the psychological impacts of passive social media use on adolescents by systematically reviewing the existing domestic and foreign literature about passive social media use. The results showed that the psychological impacts of passive social media use included cognitive outcomes (self-concept clarity, self-esteem), affective outcomes (depression, anxiety, envy, loneliness), subjective well-being (life satisfaction), more types of social media (social short-form video), detailed information on forms of passive use, as well as possible impacts (positive psychological, social, and behavioral outcomes) on teenagers and college students should be exlpored by utilizing multiple methods(longitudinal study, the grounded theory) are expected in future studies.
Abstract: Social media-based mental health intervention for adolescents is a hot topic in foreign research and practice, but this intervention has not been widely adopted in China, and there is a lack of sufficient reference in terms of theoretical application, research tools, and key aspects. Through combing foreign literature, this review explores the positive effects of social media on adolescent mental health, adolescent online behaviors, and the current situation and problems of mental health promotion to provide theoretical, conceptual, and practical approaches for the development of mental health promotion and enhancement in China.
Abstract: The growth and development of children is related to the future of the country and the nation. In recent years, there have been more and more cohort studies in the field of children's mental health. Bymainly introducing the advantages of cohort studies on children in distress and organizes domestic and foreign cohort studies in the field of mental health of children in distress, this article finds that it is mostly used in depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation and attempts, etc, and mainly explores the risk and prevalence of mental health development in children in distress, and identifies long-term negative damage. The research aims to promote the long-term development and high-quality development of such research by analyzing and summarizing the status quo and prospects of cohort research in the field of mental health of children in distress.
Abstract: Depression is a major public health issue among adolescents. The Ministry of Education of China recently proposed to integrate depression screening into students' school health-check among adolescents. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the strength of recommendation and implementation details of routine screening for adolescent depression across professional organizations and countries. This paper outlines the epidemiology and risk factors of adolescent depression and summarizes relevant international guidelines and recommendations. We suggest that before the national implementation of school-based depression screening, key issues including scientific evidence, execution details, resource allocation and ethical considerations need to be examined in close collaboration with all stakeholders. Systematic piloting followed by rigorous evaluation will also be needed.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) and depressive symptoms among young men who sex with men (YMSM) in Guangzhou, and then to explore the impact of CSA on depressive symptoms.Methods A convenient sampling method was used to recruit MSM. YMSM who aged 18-24 and have lived in Guangzhou for more than 3 months were included in this study. Data on demographic characteristics, homosexual partners seeking behaviors, sexual orientation, CSA experience and depression were collected through an electronic questionnaire. χ2 tests were used to compare the proportion of CSA and depressive symptoms among YMSM with different characteristics. Logistic regressions were preformed to assess the impact of CSA on depression.Results The proportion of CSA experience and depressive symptoms among participants were 31.51% (115/365) and 47.95% (175/365), respectively. Participants with junior high school education or lower and who sought homosexual partners offline reported(75.00%, 62.22%) a higher proportion of depressive symptoms(χ2=7.97, 4.19, P < 0.05). After adjusting for factors e.g. ethnicity, residence, resident duration in Guangzhou, studentship, education, monthly income, sexual orientation and homosexual partners seeking behaviors, the multivariable Logistic regression model showed that YMSM with CSA experience (aOR=1.81, 95%CI=1.12-2.93) were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without CSA experience.Conclusion The prevalence of CSA experience and depressive symptom is relatively high among YMSM in Guangzhou, and CSA experience is associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms. More attention should be paid to strengthen the psychological intervention for YMSM, especially for those who experienced CSA, so as to reduce the risk of depression and improve mental health among YMSM.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and dietary behaviors among middle school and college students in Beijing, so as to provide the basis for carrying out related research and intervention.Methods A total of 18 130 middle school and college students from 16 districts in Beijing were collected through stratified cluster sampling from October to December, 2020. The relationship between middle school and college students' depressive symptoms and dietary behaviors was analyzed by conducting a questionnaire.Results The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 18.2%. The detection rate of depressive symptoms in girls was 19.0%, which was higher than 17.4% in boys(P < 0.05), and the differences were of statistical significance(χ2=8.47, P < 0.01). The detection rate of depressive symptoms in city was 17.9%, and in 10 urban areas was 18.5%(P>0.05), and the differences were of statistical significance(χ2=1.15, P=0.28). The detection rates of depressive symptoms in vocational high school (21.8%) and high school students(20.6%) were and, higher than that in college students (18.2%) and in junior high school students(15.2%), and the differences were of statistical significance(χ2=100.38, P < 0.01). The rates of students with depressive symptoms drinking sugary drinks(14.4%), eating sweets (22.1%) and eating fried foods every day (12.4%) were higher than that of students without depressive symptoms(7.6%, 12.0%, 5.9%), and the differences were of statistical significance(χ2=154.62, 215.67, 164.49, P < 0.01). The rates of eating fresh fruits(63.3%), vegetables (81.7%) and breakfast every day (53.4%) of the students with depressive symptoms were lower than those without depressive symptoms (72.0%, 88.1%, 74.1%), and the differences were of statistical significance(χ2=90.77, 90.59, 518.69, P < 0.01) Logistic regression analysis showed that the detection rate of depression was the important factor of influencing dietary behaviors(P < 0.05).Conclusion The detection rates of depressive symptoms of vocational high school students and senior high school students in Beijing are higher than those of junior high school students and college students. Depression is closely related to dietary behaviors. Promoting students' mental health may help promote students' healthy eating.
Abstract: Objective To explore the status of depressive symptoms among adolescents in different pubertal stages in a district of Chongqing.Methods A self-designed questionnaire and Children's Depression Inventory were administered among 1 001 students in a district of Chongqing. Score and associated factors of depressive symptoms of adolescents through descriptive statistical analysis, Chi-square test, analysis of variance and Logistic regression analysis.Results The detection rate of depressive symptoms among adolescents in a district of Chongqing was 17.3%, and the total score of depression scale was (12.02±6.72). There were statistically significant differences in the inefficiency subscale score of boys across stages of genital, pubic hair, armpit hair and beard, and whether the first spermatorrhea has occurred(t/F=7.08, 5.46, 5.18, 4.21, 5.84, P < 0.05), while significant differences were found in the anhedonia and inefficiency subscales scores among girls across different stages of breast, pubic hair and armpit hair, and whether menarche has occurred(t/F=19.43, 4.92, 3.98, 7.35, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the absence of first spermatorrhea and menarche were associated with lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in boys and girls (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.36-0.98; OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.22-1.00), while pubic hair development was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in girls (OR=9.58, 95%CI=1.28-71.71).Conclusion The detection rate of depressive symptoms among adolescents is relatively low. Boys who have had the first spermatorrhea, and girls with advanced pubic hair development or have had menarche are more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms.
Abstract: Objective To investigate association between adolescent depressive symptoms with circadian rhythm and emotion regulation strategies, and to provide the basis for mental health education for depression.Methods CES-D, Morning and Evening Questionnaire-5 (MEQ-5) and Emotion Regulation scale (ERS) were administered to 2 398 students from 6 middle schools in Chengdu, Langzhong and Leshan of Sichuan Province. SPSS 21.0 was used to data processing and anlysis.Results About 37.9% (909/2 398) of adolescents reported depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptom was higher in female students(χ2=25.15, P < 0.01), rural adolescents(χ2=15.45, P < 0.01), adolescents aged 15-18 compared to aged 12-14(χ2=187.24, P < 0.01). There was significant difference in rate of depressive symptoms among adolescents with different circadian rhythms(χ2=55.19, P < 0.01), with definite evening rhythm preference was the highest(57.1%). Prevalence of depressive symptoms significantly varied by sleep duration(χ2=141.99, P < 0.01), and were highest in adolescents with sleep duration < 6 h(69.4%). The scores of suppression dimension in depressed adolescents were significantly higher than that of non-depressive group, while the scores of reappraisal dimension were significantly higher in non-depressive group than that of depressive group. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender(OR=1.60), age(OR=2.29), suppression(OR=1.13), sleep duration < 6 h(OR=5.17), sleep duration 6-8 h (OR=2.88) were positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. Moderate type(OR=0.53), morning type (OR=0.55) and cognitive reappraisal (OR=0.90) were associated with lower rate of depressive symptoms(P < 0.05).Conclusion Sleep rhythm delay, lack of sleep and emotion suppression in adolescents are associated with higher risk for depression. Regular sleep habits and reasonable emotion regulation might help to prevent adolescent depression.
Abstract: Objective To examine the changes of depressive and anxiety symptoms in school-aged children during home confinement and to identify possible influence of learning and lifestyle behaviors on mental health changes.Methods The population of this study were obtained from the "Tongji Mental Health Cohort". Two primary schools in Wuhan were selected through cluster sampling and students in grade 2-5 were surveyed. This study was divided into two stages. In the first stage (T1=during home-learning), a total of 2 588 valid questionnaires were collected. In the second phase (T2=during school-learning), 2 424 children were followed up successfully. Combining the results of the depression and anxiety symptoms of the two surveys of children respectively to classify the children's psychological outcomes. Association between home-learning and lifestyle behaviors with the change of psychological symptoms in school-aged children were estimated by disordered multi-classification Logistic regression.Results The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms were 28.9% and 21.0% in school-aged children at T1, 35.6% and 30.6% at T2, respectively. The aggravation and persistence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children were partly related to their home-learning and lifestyle behaviors. Concentration in class(OR=0.63, 95%CI=0.45-0.89), frequent interaction with teachers (OR=0.74, 95%CI=0.57-0.95), participation in physical exercise at home (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.41-0.87) was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in children. Time spent on playing video games (OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.06-1.24) and fear of infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (OR=1.83, 95%CI=1.39-2.42) were positively associated with anxiety in children. Boys(OR=0.70, 0.63) were more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety symptoms than girls.Conclusion The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among school-aged children increased when they went back to school after home confinement, suggesting more attention are needed for mental health intervention among school-aged children.
Abstract: Objective To explore the association between circadian rhythm with depressive and anxiety symptoms of college students in Jinzhou City, to provide a theoretical basis for targeted depression and anxiety prevention among college students.Methods A total of 1 938 college students were selected by convenient sampling method from November to December 2020 for questionnaire survey. The relationship between circadian rhythm and depression and anxiety symptoms was analyzed by using questionnaire, survey including Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ).Results There were significant differences in the distribution of depressive symptoms in different majors, smoking, drinking and physical exercise (χ2=46.80, 5.88, 5.76, 12.23, P < 0.05). There were significant differences in the distribution of anxiety symptoms in different majors, smoking and drinking (χ2=9.41, 5.80, 5.56, P < 0.05). Stratified analysis showed that the depressive symptoms of different chronotype were statistically varied by age, gender, professional, grade, registered residence, body mass index, smoking, drinking, and sports(χ2=8.16, 14.42, 12.25, 6.19, 10.99, 15.29, 17.41, 15.63, 7.47, 9.59, 10.51, P < 0.05). The anxiety symptoms of different chronotype were statistically different in age (21 years) and smoking (no), (χ2=8.34, 7.16, P < 0.05). Spearman rank correlation showed that the corrected Mid-sleep on Free Days Corrected for Sleep Debt on Work Days (MSFsc) was positively correlated with the standard scores of depression and anxiety (rs=0.10, 0.09), and social jet lag was positively correlated with the standard scores of depression and anxiety (rs=0.09, 0.05)(P < 0.05). After controlling for age, major, smoking and drinking, binary Logistic regression showed that mean sleep length was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms (OR=0.82), and weekly insomnia frequency was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (OR=1.14).Early type and intermediate type of chronotypes were negatively correlated with depression (OR=0.66, 0.57). Intermediate type of chronotype was negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms (OR=0.65).Conclusion Circadian rhythm is related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, among which the average sleep length, early rise and intermediate sleep patterns are negatively related to depression symptoms, and intermediate sleep patterns and anxiety symptoms, suggesting that circadian rhythm disorder may affect depression and anxiety symptoms.
Abstract: Objective To investigates the prevalence of depression and anxiety among middle school students at different times, and to provide a reference for mental health promotion among adolescents.Methods A total of 1 505 middle school students, selected from Chongqing in 2021 by using multi-stage stratified random sampling method, were surveyed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(CSE-D) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS).Results At the beginning of the semester, 434(27.6%) and 601 students(38.2%) reported depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. While at the end of the semester showed that 463 cases (30.8%) were prone to depression, and 653 cases (43.4%) reported depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The detection rate of depressive symptoms at the end of the semester was significantly higher than that at the beginning of semester. (43.4%, 38.2%, χ2=8.55, P < 0.05). Depressive of female students at the end of the semester(52.8%) was higher than that at the beginning of the semester(46.3%)(χ2=6.19, P < 0.05) The detection rate of anxiety symptoms in senior high school students at the end of the semester(44.9%) was significantly higher than that of at the beginning of the semester(28.6%) (χ2=43.33, P < 0.01). No significant difference in anxiety symptoms boys and junior high school students between the beginning and the end of the semester (χ2=2.34, 0.71, P>0.05).Conclusion Substantial changes are observed in anxiety symptoms among female middle school students and depressive and anxiety symptoms among high school students in different periods of a semester. When investigating depression and anxiety of middle school students, time effect should be considered.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the incidence of adolescent depressive symptoms in primary and secondary schools in Guangzhou and the effect of gestational complications on adolescent depression, so to provide scientific basis for depression prevention among adolescent.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 808 primary and secondary schools in 11 districts of Guangzhou. A total of 96 756 parents of adolescents aged 10-20 were surveyed for adolescents depressive symptoms and maternal gestational complications.Results The parental reported rates of mild, moderate and major depressive symptoms of adolescents were 5.5%, 3.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the severity of adolescent depression symptoms had statistical significance with maternal gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, cholestasis, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, gestational anemia and viral hepatitis (χ2=12.42~158.91, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression showed that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.18-1.68), hypothyroidism during pregnancy (OR=1.61, 95%CI=1.15-2.26), and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy (OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.03-1.91), anemia during pregnancy (OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.35-1.59), and viral hepatitis during pregnancy (OR=1.67, 95%CI=1.38-2.02) were positively correlated with the severity of adolescent depression symptoms reported by parents(P < 0.05).Conclusion Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypothyroidism, gestational hyperthyroidism, gestational anemia and gestational viral hepatitis are associated with adolescent depressive symptom.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalence of video display terminal syndrome (VDT) among medical students in university, and to explore the correlation between VDT syndrome and depressive symptoms, so as to provide theoretical guidance for promoting college students' mental health.Methods A total of 3 265 freshmen and juniors in the Department of Medicine of Nanchang University were surveyed with census method in November 2019 to collect information regarding general information, symptoms related to VDT syndrome, depression status.Results In the valid questionnaire, the detection rate of VDT syndrome among college students was 33.3%, and the detection rates of VDT syndrome varied significantly by sex and clinical major(χ2=6.45, 18.82, P < 0.05); The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 54.6%. One-way ANOVA showed that there was significant differences in VDT syndrome status between those with and without depression symptoms (χ2=63.88, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression showed that VDT syndrome could increase the risk of detecting depression (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.58-2.14, P < 0.01).Conclusion VDT syndrome has a high detection rate in college medical students and is a risk factor for depression in medical students. Society and schools should pay attention to health education on the rational use of video terminals for medical students, and take corresponding measures to intervene, so as to improve the physical and mental health of medical students.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the relationship between violence exposure and depression in adolescents, and to explore possible moderating effects of emotional balance, so as to provide the evidence reference for understanding the status and characteristics of adolescents'violence exposure.Methods A total of 2 506 middle school students from three middle schools in Ganzhou selected by convenient cluster random sampling.Violence Exposure Scale (VES), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Emotional Balance Scale were used for questionnaire survey.Results There were statistically significant differences in the scores of violence exposure among middle school students of different genders, grades, whether the only child or not, father'educational level, mother's educational level and family types (t/F=3.85, 21.14, 2.90, 7.62, 8.13, 8.12, P < 0.01).There were statistically significant differences in the scores of depression among middle school students of different genders, grades and family types (t/F=-7.05, 18.61, 7.42, P < 0.01).There were statistically significant differences in the scores of emotional balance among middle school students of different genders, grades, father's educational level and mother's educational level (t/F=7.93, 9.22, 7.71, 6.86, P < 0.01).Emotional balance was positively related to the depressive mood of middle school students (r=0.34, P < 0.01), and emotional balance was negatively related to depression (r=-0.20, P < 0.01).Emotional balance had the moderating effect on violence exposure and depression among middle school students (t=-3.35, β=-0.02, P < 0.01).Conclusion Violence exposure is related to depression of middle school students.Improving the emotional balance ability of adolescents can effectively reduce the negative effects of violent exposure on early adolescent depression, and reduce the incidence of adolescent depression.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the progression of depressive and anxiety symptoms of children, especially whose parents were frontline workers in the combat of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), and to provide evidence for children's mental health promotion.Methods In June and December 2020, two surveys were conducted among the children in a primary school in Qiaokou District, Wuhan.The questionnaire included demographic information, student learning conditions, and depressive/anxiety symptoms.Results A total of 963 children completed both surveys.The detection rate of depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up was significantly higher than that at the baseline survey (depressive symptoms: OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.16-1.83;anxiety symptoms: OR=1.79, 95% CI=1.41-2.28, P < 0.01).There was no statistically significant change in depressive/anxiety symptoms among children whose parents were frontline workers compared with those whose parents were not (P>0.05).Girls, lower learning efficiency, and less interaction with teachers in class were risk factors for depressive or anxiety symptoms of children (P < 0.05).Conclusion Mental health status of children requires continuous attention.Moreover, timely psychological protection should be given to prevent the occurrence of psychological problems and the further deterioration of psychological problems.
Abstract: The present review aims to summarize update information regarding screening guidelines for depression in children and adolescents across the world, and to provide reference for school-based adolescent depression screening in China. Globally, national guidelines or expert consensus on screening for depression in children and adolescents were collected and reviewed. Majority of these guidelines and expert consensus propose universal screening for depression among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years based on appropriate screening tools, which ensure the early detection, treatment and intervention of adolescent depression. However, there lacks sufficient evidence to support universal screening for children under 12 years of age, except for those with high-risk for depression.
Abstract: Self-injury behavior accounts for a high proportion of disease burden among adolescents worldwide, which is also important antecedent for multiple health outcomes in adulthood. Early identification of risk factors and intervention for self-injury are of substantial importance for adolescents. Limitations in study design and data analysis of previous studies on adolescent self-injury hinder the progress in self-injury prediction and intervention. To address these limitations and improve adolescent self-injury prediction models and interventions, more evidence based on high-quality population studies with advanced statistical methods are needed.
Abstract: Objective To explore the predictive effect of machine learning algorithms on college students'suicidal ideation and to analyze the associated factors of college students'suicidal ideation.Methods The mental health data of 21 224 undergraduates was selected from a university in 2021.The independent variables were 37 demographic and internal and external mental health factors.The dependent variable was whether college students had suicidal ideation.Support vector machine, random forest and LightGBM algorithm were used to establish prediction models.The model was used in test set to so as to evaluate the model's prediction effect by using detection rate, F1 score and accuracy rate.Based on the superior model, the high-risk factors of suicidal ideation in college students were analyzed.Results The detection rates of support vector machine, random forest, and LightGBM models were 61.0%, 64.0%, 69.0%;F1 scores were 0.63, 0.63, 0.64, and accuracy rates were 73.0%, 73.0%, 72.0%, respectively.Based on the superior LightGBM model, risk factors of suicidal ideation in college students included, depression, grade, gender, despair, place of origin, sense of meaning, attitude toward suicide, dependence, family economic situation, hallucinatory delusion symptoms, anxiety, internet addiction, and interpersonal distress.Conclusion The LightGBM model has a better prediction effect than the support vector machine and random forest models.
Abstract: Objective To analyze household determinants of adolescents'non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and to provide scientific basis for NSSI intervention amogn adolescents.Methods Using stratified random cluster sampling method, 15 623 middle school students aged 11-20 were selected from Heilongjiang, Anhui, Hubei, Yunnan, and Guangdong provinces, and non-suicidal self-injury and related household determinants were investigated by questionnaire.Results The survey showed that 28.8% of people who had NSSI in the past year accounted; among them, 17.6% had 1-4 times (occasional self-injury) and 11.2% had 5 times or more (repeated self-injury) univariate results showed that whether they were an only child, family type, educational level of the main caregiver, family rearing style, family monthly income per capita, and whether there was a family history of mental illness was associated with adolescents'NSSI (χ2=6.30-12.16, P < 0.05);multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that whether one child or family parenting style is still significantly related to occasional NSSI (OR=1.11, 1.34, P < 0.05) after controlling for gender, age, grade, ethnicity, emotional control, resilience, loneliness and social support; whether it is an only child, educational level of the main caregiver and family parenting style are still significantly related to repeated NSSI (OR=1.19, 0.69, 1.57, P < 0.05);stratified analysis by region shows that the influencing factors of NSSI in adolescents in each region are different.Conclusion Family factors such as the only child and the education level of the main caregiver may be related to the occurrence of adolescents'NSSI, but there are regional differences in the family impact of NSSI.
Abstract: Objective To identify the latent classes of cyberbullying in college students, and to analyze its relationship with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, so as to provide a theoretical reference for effectively intervention of cyberbullying.Methods Cluster random sampling was used to select 1 094 college students from Liaoning Province and Jilin Province from April to May, 2021.The Cyberbullying Victims'Behaviors Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and BSI-CV were used in this study and data was analyzed by using latent class analysis, one-way analysis of variance and Logistic regression to analyze the data.Results Cyberbullying of college students could be divided into three latent classes: low incidence group (72.40%), general incidence group (20.20%) and high incidence group (7.40%).There were significant differences in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among different classes of cyberbullying (P < 0.01).Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for demographic variables, general incidence group and high incidence group significantly and positively predicted depressive symptoms (βgeneral incidence group=0.88, βhigh incidence group=2.44, P < 0.01) and suicidal ideation (βgeneral incidence group=0.50, βhigh incidence group=1.20, P < 0.01).Conclusion Families, schools and society should conduct different interventions for college students who suffer from different classes of cyberbullying to reduce depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and promote mental health of college students.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of suicidal ideation and the effects of daily stress and positive mental health on suicidal ideation among college freshmen in Wuhan.This study aims to provide a scientific basis for mental health improvement and suicide prevention among college students from the perspective of positive psychology.Methods In December 2020, a convenient sampling method was used to select 2 592 freshmen from three universities in Wuhan.Demographic information, suicidal ideation, positive mental health, and daily stress were assessed.T-test and Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the status and influencing factors of suicidal ideation among college freshmen.Results The one-year prevalence of suicidal ideation was 27.5%.Freshmen with suicidal ideation had higher daily stress scores and daily stress scores in different domains than freshmen without suicidal ideation (t=-13.00--4.68), the positive mental health scores of freshmen with suicidal ideation were lower than freshmen without suicidal ideation (t=17.14, P < 0.01).Female (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.44-2.05), the higher education level of the mother (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.05-1.53) and total experience of daily stress (OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.09-1.13) were associated with risk of one-year suicidal ideation.Positive mental health was negatively associated with suicidal ideation (OR=0.88, 95% CI=0.87-0.90, P < 0.01) and had a moderating effect on the association between daily stress and suicidal ideation.Conclusion Suicidal ideation among college freshmen is closely related to daily stress and positive mental health.It is necessary to pay close attention to daily stress of freshmen and reduce suicidal ideation by improving positive mental health.
Abstract: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders not only have low cognitive and communication functions, but also have a high incidence of psychological problems, resulting in a huge burden for their family and society. Our study aims to introduce the mental health status of children with major neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism-spectrum disorders, and developmental dyslexia; analyze the association of mental health with neurodevelopment and emphasize the importance of mental health on children development; and discuss how to promote their mental health and further improve their quality of life.
Abstract: Objective To determine the association between physical health fitness with Chinese reading ability of school-aged children, so as to provide evidence for improving children's reading ability.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1 923 school-aged children in grades 2-6 in a primary school in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.The questionnaire included basic demographic information and Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and the Pupil Rating Scale-Revised Screening.At the same time, participants underwent physical fitness tests which included an assessment of height, weight, and lung capacity, as well as a 50-meter run, sit-forward bend, one-minute skipping rope task, sit-ups, and a 50 × 8 round trip.Results A total of 59 children were identified with dyslexia.Normal children achieved higher scores than children with dyslexia in the total physical health score, as well as the one-minute skipping rope score, one-minute sit-up score, and sitting forward score (P < 0.05).Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the reading ability of girls was higher than that of boys (β=-3.04, P < 0.01), and the children who regularly participated in more intense physical activity and who had higher fitness scores had a higher reading ability (β=-1.68, -0.08, P < 0.01).Children's reading ability increased significantly with parental educational level (P < 0.05).Conclusion Gender, parents'education level, physical exercise intensity, and children's physical fitness were identified as influencing factors of school-age children's reading ability.A positive correlation was found between children's physical health level and reading ability.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalence and factors influencing depressive symptoms among children with dyslexia in China.Methods A total of 6 298 children in grades 3-5 were recruited from eight primary schools in Baoan, Shenzhen.The Questionnaire for Children's Reading Ability, the Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children, the Pupil Rating Scale Revised Screening for Learning Disabilities, and the Children's Depression Inventory-short version were used.Results The prevalence of dyslexia was 2.76%(n=174).The rate of depressive symptoms in children with dyslexia (37.36%) was higher than children without dyslexia (18.17%)(χ2=40.94, P < 0.01).Compared with children without dyslexia, children with dyslexia had an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR=2.65, 95% CI=1.87-3.75, P < 0.01).In addition, the average time that a mother spent with her child every day was one of the factors influencing depressive symptoms.The risk of depressive symptoms was lower in children who spent ≥3 h with their mothers than children who spent < 1 h (3-4 h: OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.36-0.81;5-6 h: OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.34-0.78;≥7 h: OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.32-0.69, P < 0.01).Conclusion The rate of depressive symptoms in children with dyslexia was shown to be high.Increasing the time that mothers spend with their children every day is helpful in preventing the occurrence of depression in children.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the characteristics of visual motor integration in children with developmental dyslexia and ADHD, and to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of these children.Methods During July to November of 2020, students from grade 3 to grade 5 of 7 primary schools in Xinjiang were selected by using random cluster sampling method.A total of 56 dyslexia group (group DD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group (group ADHD), comorbidity group and normal control group were selected and compared the differences of their visual motor integration ability and related factors ability.Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the predictive effects of related factors on visual motor integration ability.Results The scores of visual integration ability and visual perception in comorbidity group (95.05±14.01, 12.71±7.40) were lower than those in DD group (104.77±17.19, 23.04±11.48), ADHD group (104.00±14.11, 25.70±10.74) and normal control group (129.80±12.91, 44.05±16.56)(F=/Z58.24, 110.49, P < 0.05).The visual working memory score of the comorbidity group (73.64±5.36) was lower than the normal control group (78.96±4.68)(P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between the DD group (74.48±7.06) and the ADHD group (75.98±7.36)(P>0.05).The results of multiple regression showed that visual perception, age, IQ and visual working memory were associated with visual and motor integration ability of dyslexia children with ADHD (R2=0.32, 0.17, 0.11, 0.04, P < 0.05).Conclusion Visual motor integration and visual perception among children with DD combined ADHD are more severely impaired than those with ADHD and DD alone.Visual perception, age, IQ and visual working memory could help predict the development of visual and motor integration ability in children with DD combined ADHD.
Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurologic development disorder in childhood. There are significant differences in co-morbidities, behaviors, emotions, and cognitive function among patients with different subtypes of ADHD. Neuroimaging techniques (mainly MRI and EEG) provide objective and effective information for the diagnosis and intervention in children with ADHD. At present, from the perspective of the integrity and separation of brain work, combining EEG and MRI, qualitative and quantitative research has shown that there are differences in the brain structure and functional characteristics of children with different subtypes of ADHD, which is of significance to improve the diagnostic rate and treatment effect of ADHD.
Found in 1980 Monthly
Competent Authorities: National Health Commission
Sponsored by: Chinese Preventive Medicine Association