Current Articles

2024, Volume 45,  Issue 6

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Strengthening the health management of children and adolescents to promote high-quality development of school health work
GUO Xin
2024, 45(6): 761-765. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024174
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As an important component of school health, child and adolescent health management is critical to maintaining physical and mental health development. The article focuses on exploring the connotation and importance of health management for children and adolescents, and specifically highlights the core themes, namely comprehensive health management. Comprehensive health management emphasizes the comprehensive consideration of the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors affecting children and adolescents, refers to the interrelationships between various health issues, and addresses multiple health problems by applying comprehensive intervention measures. The study aims to provide useful ideas and suggestions for child and adolescent health management, so as to nurture a favorable environment for healthy development and promote an overall improvement of their health level.
Chen Zhiqian and rural school health services in China
WANG Limin, ZHOU Ruyi
2024, 45(6): 766-769. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024164
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During the peirod of Republic of China, the rural economy in China was in a state of decline, with poor hygiene conditions and extremely low levels of physical health among children. Under such circumstances, Professor Chen Zhiqian established the first rural health pilot zone in China and created the Dingxian Model, and explored a path suitable for the development of rural school health services by conducting health education courses, cultivating good hygiene habits, examining and improving students' physical health status, and carrying out health surveys among teachers and students. The above actions has accumulated valuable experiences for the exploration and practice of contemporary rural school health services.
Applied research of the impact of air pollution on absenteeism in students with respiratory issues through machine learning analysis
CAO Chengbin, YANG Wenyi, YU Xiaojin, WANG Yan, YANG Jie
2024, 45(6): 770-774. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024169
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  Objective  To explore the performance of machine learning prediction models in forecasting student absenteeism due to respiratory symptoms caused by air pollution in short term, aiming to provide a methodological reference for early warning systems of school diseases.  Methods  Utilizing data from short-term sequences of student absenteeism due to respiratory symptoms in Jiangsu Province from September 2019 to October 2022, the study integrated average concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. A univariate distributed lag nonlinear model was employed to select optimal lag variables for the pollutants. An extreme gradient boosting(XGBoost) algorithm model was developed to predict the frequency of absenteeism due to respiratory symptoms and compared with the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous factors(SARIMAX) model.  Results  Between 2019 and 2022, an average of 9 709 students per day in Jiangsu Province were absent due to respiratory symptoms. The daily average air quality index (AQI) was 76.96, with mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 averaging at 35.75, 61.13, 28.89, 104.81 μg/m3, respectively. Granger causality tests indicated that AQI, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significant predictors of absenteeism frequency due to respirutory symptoms(F=1.46, 1.79, 1.67, 3.41, 2.18, P < 0.01). The single-day lag effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 reached their peak relative risk (RR) values at lag4, lag0, lag0, lag4 respectively. When integrating these optimal lag variables for the pollutants, the XGBoost model demonstrated superior predictive performance to the SARIMAX model, reducing the mean absolute error (MAE) from 2.251 to 0.475, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) from 0.429 to 0.080, and root mean square error (RMSE) from 2.582 to 0.713; at the P75 percentile alert threshold, the sensitivity improved from 0.086 to 0.694 and specificity from 0.979 to 0.988, with the Youden index increasing from 0.065 to 0.682.  Conclusions  The XGBoost model exhibits robust predictive performance and effective early warning capabilities for short-term sequences of student absenteeism due to respiratory symptoms caused by air pollution. Schools could timely adopt this model to preemptively detect and control disease outbreaks, thereby enhancing school health management.
Development of the Family-School-Community Cooperation Dilemma Scale for Nutritional Education in Primary School Students and its reliability and validity
LUO Caifeng, WU Jing, XU Jianou, LÜ Fei, SUN Jiaxuan, SHANG Bin, ZHANG Xuting
2024, 45(6): 775-779. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024175
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  Objective  To develop the Family-School-Community Cooperation Dilemma Scale for Nutritional Education in Primary Schools Students, and to determine its reliability and validity, in order to provide a basis for developing targeted strategies to promote family-school-community cooperation in the area of nutritional education.  Methods  Based on overlapping spheres of influence theory, the initial scale was developed through a qualitative and literature review, discussion with Delphi experts and a pilot survey from July 2022 to July 2023. From July to September 2023, a total of 125 primary school parents, 118 primary school teachers and 113 community personnel were selected from six cities in Jiangsu Province by convenient sampling methods, who were investigated to test the reliability and validity of the scale and to develop a formal scale.  Results  The final Family-School-Community Cooperation Dilemma Scale for Nutritional Education in Primary School students consisted of 3 dimensions and 19 items. The exploratory analysis extracted three metric factors, with a contribution ratio of 69.07% to the accumulated variance. The mean scale component effectiveness was 0.94, and the coefficient of association between the respective dimensions and the scale ranged from 0.80 to 0.91.The overall Cronbach α coefficient for the scale was 0.95, the folded half reliability was 0.87, and the retest reliability was 0.98.  Conclusion  The Family-School-Community Cooperation Dilemma Scale for Nutritional Education in Primary School Students has good reliability and validity, and can be used to measure the degree of the family-school-community cooperation dilemma regarding nutritional education in primary school students.
Analysis of the current status and regulatory effectiveness of daylighting and artificial lighting in primary and secondary school classrooms in Shanghai
YANG Jianping, LIN Jianhai, LI Ping, ZHENG Chaojun, WANG Yaning, LIU Jiajia, MAO Jie
2024, 45(6): 780-783. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024176
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  Objective  To understand the current situation and regulatory effectiveness of daylighting and artificial lighting in primary and secondary school classrooms in Shanghai, so as to provide a basis for enhancing the visual environment of school classrooms.  Methods  From April 2021 to December 2023, the daylighting and artificial lighting conditions of classrooms in 1 735 regular primary and secondary schools currently in operation in Shanghai were monitored, and the qualified rate of each indicator was calculated. The Chi-square test or Fisher exact probability method were used to compare the differences in qualification rates across different educational stages, regions, school type, both before and after the implementation of regulatory measures. The regulatory measures included convene interview, propaganda and education, supervision order, supervisory opinion paper, rectification requests and offenses and punishment.  Results  The qualified rate of daylighting and artificial lighting in primary and secondary school classrooms was 30.1%, with a qualified daylighting rate of 85.6% and a qualified artificial lighting rate of 32.9%. There was no statistically significant differences in the qualified rate of daylighting and artificial lighting in primary and secondary schools (32.4%, 28.1%;χ2=3.76, P > 0.05). However, statistically significant differences were found in the qualified rate of daylighting and artificial lighting in urban and rural school classrooms (32.6%, 26.7%), as well as in public and private schools (31.4%, 20.6%) (χ2=6.99, 9.92, P < 0.05). Following the implementation of regulatory measures, the qualified rate of classroom daylighting and artificial lighting improved from 30.1% to 83.2%, while the respective qualified rates of daylighting and artificial lighting increased from 85.6% to 91.1% and 32.9% to 90.5%. Compared to the pre-implementation period, the qualified rate of classroom daylighting and artificial lighting, as well as the respective rates of daylighting and artificial lighting, all showed statistically significant differences after the implementation of regulatory measures (χ2=995.29, 25.34, 1 219.87, P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Effective regulatory measures can promote enhanced classroom daylighting and artificial lighting. Attention should be paid to improving classroom artificial lighting, in order to provide students with enhanced visual environment.
Concentration and health risk assessment of trichloromethane in drinking water for rural primary and middle school students in Tianjin
ZHANG Lei, HU Haijuan, ZHANG Kexin, ZHAO Liang
2024, 45(6): 784-787. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024177
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  Objective  To evaluate the distribution characteristics and health risk of trichloromethane (TCM) in the drinking water supply of primary and middle schools in rural areas of Tianjin, so as to provide a scientific basis for improving drinking water safety in rural schools.  Methods  A total of 60 water samples from 30 rural primary and middle schools in 10 agricultural districts of Tianjin were collected from April to June (dry season) and July to October (wet season) in 2023 with direct selection method. The content of TCM was detected according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Drinking Water, and a risk assessment method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency was used to evaluate the health risk of TCM through oral exposure.  Results  The concentration of TCM in drinking water was no detection to 54.00 μg/L, with an average of (13.44±14.88) μg/L, and the value was higher during the wet season [12.90(1.40, 32.28)μg/L] than the dry season [2.40(1.40, 18.13)μg/L] (Z=-2.09, P<0.05). The concentration of TCM for primary and middle schools were [3.38(1.40, 20.75) μg/L] and [5.30(1.40, 28.23)μg/L] respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between different types of schools (Z=0.50, P>0.05). The carcinogenic risk through oral exposure ranged from 3.84×10-7 to 2.05×10-5, while the non-carcinogenic risk ranged from (0.00-0.16), all within the acceptable range. Children aged 6 to 9 years old were at the highest risk.  Conclusions  TCM has been detected in the drinking water of rural primary and middle schools to a certain extent in Tianjin, and attention should be paid to the potential health risks of oral exposure. The monitoring and management of disinfection by-products in drinking water should be strengthened to further reduce the risk of exposure to children.
Analysis of the effect of 12-week high-intensity fitness exercises on improving metabolic disorders among obese adolescents
LI Ke, LI Ningchuan, DING Yifan, LIN Chen, XU Meiqi, SUN Lei, WANG Hongwei
2024, 45(6): 788-793. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024178
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  Objective  To analyze the effects of 12-week high-intensity fitness exercise on body composition, lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in obese adolescents, so as to provide references for improving the health levels of obese adolescents.  Methods  From January to June 2023, 20 obese adolescents from Huaifeng Vocational and Technical School in Huai'an City were recruited for the study. Participants were assigned to an exercise group (n=10) and a control group (n=10) for a 12-week exercise intervention by random number table method, and both groups had the same diet during the intervention period. The exercise group engaged in three exercises every week, mainly consisting of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise combined with high-intensity intervals. In the first week, there was a 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, followed by 10 minutes of high-intensity interval training in the total intervention time each week, and the rest of the time was aerobic exercise with a total intervention time of 60 minutes to maintain; the control group did not receive specific interventions. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and lipid levels were determined using an automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression levels of serum inflammatory factors were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, and gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using t test and Chi-square test.  Results  After 12 weeks of intervention, the levels of triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese adolescents in the exercise group decreased from (1.7±0.6, 3.5±0.8) mmol/L to (0.9±0.3, 2.6±0.4) mmol/L, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from (1.1±0.2) mmol/L to (1.4±0.2) mmol/L; and serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(IL-1Rn) decreased from (8.4±1.6) to (4.5±0.4) ng/mL in the exercise group (t=7.34, 2.49, -3.05, 2.56, P < 0.05). The α-diversity results showed that the Chao index (268.00±22.67) and Ace index (243.98±38.64) in the exercise group were higher than those in the control group (184.52±19.28, 171.43±23.33), and the differences were statistically significant (t=2.48, 2.53, P < 0.05). The Shannon index (5.36±1.41) in the exercise group was higher than that in the control group (4.73±1.12), and the Simpson index (0.78±0.10) was lower than that in the control group (0.89±0.10), but the differences were not statistically significant (t=1.83, -2.10, P>0.05). The β-diversity results showed that the intergroup differences in gut microbiota structure between the exercise group and the control group were greater than the intragroup differences, and the differences in gut microbiota structure between the exercise group and the control group were statistically significant (R2=0.083, P < 0.05). After intervention, there were significant differences in the relative abundances at the levels of phylum, class, genus, and species in gut microbiota among obese adolescents between the exercise group and the control group (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The 12-week high-intensity fitness exercise can alleviate obesity symptoms in obese adolescents through the gut microbiota-lipid metabolism pathway and improve mild chronic inflammatory status.
Effects of dietary restriction combined with different exercises on inflammatory factors and gut microbiota in obese children
WANG Peng, LIU Baoliang, HU Zhenyu, LIU Yan, JIANG Di, ZHANG Ping
2024, 45(6): 794-798. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024179
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  Objective  To compare the effects of aerobic exercise, resistance training, and a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training (combined exercise) with dietary restrictions on inflammatory factors and gut microbiota in obese children, so as to provide the reference for improving the health level of obese children.  Methods  From August to September 2022, a total of 70 obese children aged 10-12 from the Affiliated Experimental Primary School of Minjiang Normal University were recruited through online notifications and WeChat distribution through parent groups. Participants were divided into dietary restriction (DR, n=18) group, aerobic exercise combined with dietary restriction (AE+DR, n=18) group, resistance training combined with dietary restriction (RT+DR, n=17) group and combined exercise combined with dietary restriction (ART+DR, n=17) group, through random number table method. From September to November 2022, each group received different interventions.The daily dietary intake of calories in the DR group was determined according to resting energy consumption. The AE+DR group intervention mainly included skipping rope, aerobics exercises, jogging and sports games, and were maintained for each session lasting 50 minutes. For RT+DR group, the exercise intensity of resistance training was (65%-85%) maximum strength, with a total of 10 actions. The ART+DR group included resistance training (20 minutes), aerobic exercise (20 minutes), preparation and relaxation phases for 5 minutes each. The DR and exercise intervention was administered for 8 weeks (4 times a week for Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday). Before and after different intervention methods, serum inflammatory factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and intestinal flora was calculated by plate colony counting method.  Results  Compared to those before intervention, the levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, and the contents of enterococcus and escherichia coli in the faeces significantly decreased, while the contents of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in the faeces significantly increased after intervention (t=7.19, 7.15, 4.57, 5.42, 5.15, -3.51, -7.30;5.14, 3.64, 3.02, 3.27, 5.00, -3.09, -3.75;7.10, 10.86, 7.74, 10.92, 9.26, -6.63, -6.33, P < 0.05) in AE+DR, RT+DR and ART+DR groups. The levels of serum TNF-α and CRP and enterococcus decreased significantly, and the contents of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in the faeces increased significantly after intervention (t=2.74, 2.22, 2.14, -2.21, -2.81, P < 0.05) in the DR Group. After 8 weeks of intervention with different methods, the change differences of enterococcus, escherichia coli, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium in the faeces, and serum TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP levels were statistically significantin the four groups of obese children (H=22.22, 23.75, 13.44, 28.33, 18.02, 33.64, 25.14, P < 0.01). In addition, the decreases of enterococcus in the faeces and serum TNF-α, IL-6, CRP levels, and the increases of lactobacillus in the faeces were significantly higher than those in the other three groups.  Conclusions  Dietary restriction alone or combined with different exercises bring beneficial changes in the inflammatory factors and gut microbiota indicators in obese children. Combined exercise, as well as aerobic exercise combined with dietary restrictions are more reasonable and effective in obese children.
Current status of health education faculty and paths to improvement in Yuzhong District of Chongqing
LIU Ling, RAN Wenhua
2024, 45(6): 799-802. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024180
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  Objective  To understand the current status of health education faculty in Yuzhong District of Chongqing, so as to explore the implementation path to improve the construction of health education faculty.  Methods  In August 2023, stratified random sampling was used to directly select a total of 555 teachers and school doctors from 17 schools in 11 streets of Yuzhong District, who were invited to conduct a questionnaire survey. A total of 409 full-time or part-time health education teachers were included in the analysis of the results. Both χ2 test and Fisher exact probability method were analyzed for compare the differences in the frequency of conducting health education courses and specializing in specializing areas among different plant health education teachers in Yuzhong District.  Results  Health education course faculty were mainly female teachers, accounting for 81.66%. The proportions of physical education (PE) teachers, school doctors, head teachers and teachers from other disciplines were 14.67%, 8.31%, 62.84%, 14.18%, and the class teachers (81.33%) and school doctor (80.95%) were found of the highest proportion of providing health education courses, and the teaching section was mainly elementary school (first to third grade: 42.30%, fourth to sixth grade: 44.74%). Among the teachers, school doctors had the highest proportion (88.24%) of receiving training related to health education courses. And there was a significant stastical difference in the frequency of conducting health education classes among PE teachers, school doctor, head teachers and the teachers of other courses (χ2=54.46, P < 0.01). The results of Fisher exact probability method showed that the differences in self-assessment of the most and least skilled areas among PE teachers, school doctor, head teachers and teachers of other courses were statistically significant (P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Health education faculty in Yuzhong District is mainly composed of PE teachers, school doctor, head teachers and teachers of other courses. The standardized training and assessment of teaching for school doctor could promote the school nurse group developing into specialized health education faculty.
Aassociation of school natural environment perception, exercise identification and exercise behavior among junior high school students
CHEN Xuan, ZHU Congqing, DONG Baolin
2024, 45(6): 803-806. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024181
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  Objective  To analyze the relationship of school natural environment perception, exercise identification and exercise behavior, so as to provide references for promoting and improving exercise behavior among junior high school student.  Methods  A total of 607 junior high school students were selected from Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jilin and Henan provinces by adopting a combination of convenience sampling and stratified cluster random sampling methods, and a longitudinal tracking survey was conducted over a three-month period in two stages (T1: March 2023, T2: June 2023), from March to June 2023. Assessment was carried out by using School Natural Environment Perception Scale, Physical Exercise identification Scale and Physical Activity Rating Scale. The associations of school natural environment perception, exercise identification and exercise behavior were explored using correlation analysis and the cross-lagged model.  Results  For the junior high school students during T1 and T2 periods, there were positive correlations between the two of school natural environment perception, exercise identification and exercise behavior (r=0.04-0.61, P < 0.01). The cross-lagged analysis revealed that school natural environment perception in T1 period significantly predicted exercise identification (β=0.22, P < 0.01) and exercise behavior (β=0.18, P < 0.01) in T2 period. Moreover, the exercise identification in T1 period significantly predicted school natural environment perception (β=0.18, P < 0.01) and exercise behavior in T2 period (β=0.19, P < 0.01). However, the effects of exercise behavior on the school natural environment perception (β=0.03) and exercise identification (β=0.03) were not statistically significant (P>0.05).  Conclusions  For the junior high school students, school natural environment perception and exercise identification are the cause variables of the exercise behavior. Moreover, school natural environment perception and exercise identification have an interactive effect.
Effect of cyclic training on metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents
CHEN Wenfeng, LIANG Songshang, TANG Minqiang
2024, 45(6): 807-811. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024115
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  Objective  To explore the effects of cyclic training on metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents, so as to provide a reference for reducing physical burden and maintaining physical health for the obese adolescent population.  Methods  The study selected 42 obese adolescents aged 10-17 from Foshan City from June 1 to September 1, 2021. The subjects were randomly divided into a training group (n=24) and a control group (n=18). The training group implemented a 12-week training plan (4 times weekly), including two major events and six movements, namely resistance training (push ups, sit ups, forward lunge) and aerobic exercise (high leg lifts, stationary runs, jumping jack), and each action lasted for 25 seconds with a 15 second interval, completing 4 groups. The control group maintained daily living habits.The t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis.  Results  After intervention, the weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and fat mass of the training group [(72.3±1.8)kg, (26.4±2.0)kg/m2, (31.9±2.3)%, (17.5±2.8)kg] were all lower than before intervention [(73.8±2.1)kg, (30.3±1.8)kg/m2, (34.4±2.5)%, (20.0±3.3)kg], and the muscle mass and physical fitness index of the training group [(32.4±1.1)kg, (67.3±5.3)%] were higher than before intervention [(31.5±1.5)kg, (63.1±6.9)%] (t=-2.75, -7.10, -3.61, -2.83, 2.37, 2.36, P < 0.05). After intervention, the blood glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference and hip circumference of the training group [(4.6±0.5)mmol/L, (8.2±0.4)mmol/L, (2.8±1.2)mmol/L, (73.5±4.2)cm, (93.2±5.8)cm] were all lower than those before intervention [(4.9±0.4)mmol/L, (8.7±0.8)mmol/L, (3.9±1.1)mmol/L, (77.8±3.9)cm, (99.5±5.1)cm], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher than that before intervention[(3.2±0.3)mmol/L, (2.9±0.8)mmol/L](t=-2.30, -2.74, -3.31, -3.68, -4.00, 2.29, P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant differences between groups in the parameters of each indicator before intervention (P>0.05), while all indicators in the training group were lower than those in the control group except for muscle mass, physical fitness index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were higher than those in the control group after intervention (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The cyclic training method for 12 weeks is helpful to prevent the metabolic syndrome disease in obese adolescents.It is possible to appropriately increase the intervention methods of cyclic training to reduce the occurrence of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents.
Effects of maximum fat oxidation intensity exercise combined with diet restriction on lipid and ferroptosis in obese college students with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
LIU Yanbing, LI Qiaoe, MEN Jie, SHI Wenhai
2024, 45(6): 812-816. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024182
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  Objective  To compare the effects of 12-week maximum fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity exercise combined with dietary restriction and FATmax intensity exercise alone on body composition, blood lipid metabolism and ferroptosis in obese college students with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD), so as to provide a exercise prescription reference for rehabilitation treatment of obese NAFLD college students.  Methods  In August 2023, a total of 45 obese NAFLD college students were divided into maximum fat oxidation intensity exercise combined with dietary restriction group (FATmax+DR, n=22) and FATmax group (n=23) by random number table method, who were recruited through online notifications and physical examinations at the Physical Examination Center of Fenyang College of Shanxi Medical University. FATmax group received FATmax intensity exercise with 3 times a week for 12 weeks (FATmax: 0.51 g/min, exercise intensity: 50.14% VO2max and the heart rate: 136.78 times/min). FATmax+DR group underwent 12 weeks of FATmax intensity exercise combined with dietary restriction, and daily dietary energy intake was determined according to resting energy consumption. Body composition, four items of blood lipids and the indicators of oxidative stress and ferroptosis were measured before and after the intervention.The differences of indicators among each group were analyzed by using independent sample t test and paired sample t test.  Results  Before the intervention, there were no significant differences in body composition, four items of blood lipid, oxidative stress and iron death between FATmax+DR group and FATmax group (P>0.05). After 12 weeks of intervention, body weight, body mass index(BMI), body fat mass, trunk fat mass, visceral fat area and serum low density lipoprotein(LDL) and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels in FATmax+DR group were significantly lower than those in FATmax group, while serum high density lipoprotein(HDL) and glutathione(GSH) levels were higher than those in FATmax group (t=-2.30, -3.23, -3.97, -5.85, -3.44, -3.06, -2.03, -2.09; 2.73, 2.42, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in serum levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathion peroxidase 4(GPX4) between the two groups (t=1.49, 1.00, -0.01, 0.59, P>0.05).  Conclusion  Twelve-week FATmax intensity exercise combined with dietary restriction could significantly improve body composition and dyslipidemia, prevent the occurrence of ferroptosis and liver oxidative damage in obese NAFLD college students, which could serve as a timely promotion and application of intervention for obese college students with NAFLD.
Role of risk perception between social media use and human papilloma virus vaccination willingness of college students
GUO Xiuyang, WANG Chenghao, ZHANG Guozhen
2024, 45(6): 817-821. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024168
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  Objective  To understand the impact of social media usage on the human papilloma virus(HPV) vaccination willingness among college students in Xinjiang, so as to provide a theoretical basis for early prevention of HPV-related diseases and preventive education.  Methods  From March to April 2022, a total of 834 college students were selected from three universities including Xinjiang Agricultural University, Xinjiang Normal University and Xinjiang Medical University by stratified cluster random sampling method for online and offline surveys. The demographic characteristics, social media usage, risk perception, HPV vaccination willingness were obtained through questionnaires, and the Logistic regression analysis method was used to explore the role of HPV vaccine risk perception between social media use and HPV vaccination willingness of college students.  Results  Associations were found between social media use (contact intensity, satisfaction, trust), risk perception (risk perception disorder, risk perception benefit) and HPV vaccination willingness among college students (r=0.37, 0.34, 0.35; 0.25, 0.31, P < 0.05). Risk perception benefit had an intermediary effect between social media contact intensity, social media satisfaction, social media trust and HPV vaccination willingness, and the intermediary effects were 0.03 (95%CI=0.01-0.06), 0.04(95%CI=0.02-0.07), 0.04(95%CI=0.01-0.06), and the proportions of intermediary effect were 18.00%, 26.35%, 23.00%, respectively.Risk perception disorder had an intermediary effect between social media satisfaction and HPV vaccination willingness [0.02 (95%CI=0.00-0.04)], and the intermediary effect accounts for 11.36%.  Conclusions  Risk perception benefit is the most important related factors of HPV vaccine willingness, which plays an intermediary effect between social media usage and the willingness to HPV vaccination. HPV publicity and education should be strengthened on social media platforms to promote HPV-related knowledge and awareness of active prevention of HPV infection among college students.
Knowledge and practice levels of infectious disease among primary and middle school students in Beijing
XU Wenjie, BAI Chengxu, CHEN Dongni, WU Shuangsheng, GUO Xin, YANG Peng
2024, 45(6): 822-825. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024183
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  Objective  To investigate the knowledge and practice levels on infectious disease among primary and middle school students, so as to provide a basis for targeted infectious disease in health education and infectious disease prevention and control in schools.  Methods  The stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 25 670 primary and middle school students from 6 urban area and 10 suburban area in Beijing from October to November in 2020. A questionnaire survey on knowledge and practice of students related to infectious disease prevention and control was conducted using the questionnaire compiled by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Chi-square test was used for group comparison.  Results  During the past two weeks, 8.64% students reported sickness absence. The awareness rates of knowledge on infectious disease were 37.64%-93.56%, and the formation rates of practice on infectious disease were between 62.22%-98.74%. The overall awareness rate of knowledge on infectious diseases was 58.58%, and the overall formation tate of practice on infectious disease prevention was 78.19%, with boys (54.14%, 73.67%) lower than girls (63.25%, 82.94%), urban areas (62.88%, 79.12%) higher than suburbans areas (55.30%, 77.48%), vocational high school studengs (43.51%, 68.13%) lower than non-vocational high school students (elementary school: 56.05%, 85.19%; middle school: 61.66%, 78.63%; high school: 66.72%, 72.77%), residential students (55.21%, 71.59%) lower than non-residential students (59.32%, 79.64%), students living with parents (59.22%, 79.30%) higher than those not with parents (54.60%, 71.34%), and the differences were statistically significant (χ2=219.08, 148.95, 514.34, 26.44, 27.12; 323.26, 9.91, 536.11, 144.32, 114.11, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The levels of knowledge and practice regarding relative infectious disease among primary and middle school needs to be improved. Health education on the weak links in knowlege and practice of infectious disease prevention and control should be strengthened to reduce the incidence and transmission of infectious diseases.
Effect of group counseling integrating tea-drinking on mental health improvement of college students
DENG Xuyang, LIN Qixiu, ZHU Siyu, LIU Xiaogang, XU Liuqing, HE Jing, WANG Zhilin
2024, 45(6): 826-830. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024184
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  Objective  To explore the intervention effect of group counseling integrating tea-drinking on depression, social avoidance and distress, coping styles and self-esteem among college students, so as to provide references for promoting the psychological health of students.  Methods  From March to June 2021, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit 46 college students from a university in Nanjing for intervention project. There were 23 students in intervention group and control group, respectively. The intervention was conducted for 2.5 hours per week across a 6 week period. The intervention group received two sessions of group counseling that incorporated tea-drinking experience, and the sessions involved tea knowledge explanation, observation and learning, embodied experience, emotional expression, interpersonal assistance and emotional support, cultural customs and life integration. After the intervention was completed, the control group received one-time group counseling that integrated tea-drinking. The Wilcoxon difference test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to compare the scores of each scale within and between the groups, and the χ2 test was used to compare the detection rates.  Results  There were no statistically significant differences in the scores of positive coping, negative coping, self-esteem, social avoidance and distress between the intervention group and the control group (Z=-1.20, -0.33, -0.35, 1.31, P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in positive coping styles, self-esteem, social avoidance and distress between the intervention group and the control group after the intervention(27.70±5.60, 22.05±4.30;30.52±3.63, 28.27±4.06;7.43±7.38, 13.64±6.79) (Z=-3.31, -2.10, 3.22, P < 0.05). The intervention group showed statistically significant differences in social avoidance and distress scores before and after the intervention(11.96±7.47, 7.43±7.38) (Z=-2.88), and the depression detection rate decreased(60.9%, 30.4%) (χ2=4.29) (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in positive coping, negative coping, self-esteem, social avoidance and distress scores, and depression detection rate between the control group before and after the intervention (Z/χ2=-0.28, -0.42, -1.24, -1.25;1.39, P>0.05). The follow-up results 1-year later showed that there was a statistically significant difference in social avoidance and distress(6.57±6.21, 14.16±9.22), and in the detection rates of depression(21.7%, 52.2%) between the intervention group and the control group (Z/χ2=2.70, 4.57, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Group counseling integrating tea-drinking could improve interpersonal relationships, emotional states, self-esteem levels and coping strategies among college students. Group psychological counseling that incorporates tea-drinking can be adopted to improve the mental health status of college students.
Tracking observation of fine motor development in children aged 6-8 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
FAN Biyao, ZHU Xiaotong, REN Yuanchun, SONG Yiling, JIANG Wen, LU Shuang, MO Dapeng, LI Xinshe, BI Xiaoyu, WANG Fang, LIU Jing, JI Ning
2024, 45(6): 831-834. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024185
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  Objective  To examine the developmental trajectory of fine motor ability in school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for two years, so as to provide scientific evidence to promote motor development in ADHD children.  Methods  From April to June 2019, 31 children aged 6-8 years old were selected from a public elementary school. They were diagnosed with ADHD by two psychiatric professionals according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-Ⅴ) criteria. Additionally, 31 typical developmental children, matched for age, sex and IQ with the ADHD group, were recruited as the control group. Fine motor ability was assessed with tasks of hand manual dexterity in Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MACB-2), and a follow-up assessment was conducted from April to June 2021. The development changes of fine motor ability between two groups of children were compared by using t test and repeated measures analysis of variance.  Results  Between baseline and follow-up periods after two years, the total score of hand fine motor in the ADHD group did not show significant improvement (7.4±3.0, 8.0±3.4; t=-1.05, P>0.05), while there was a small effect size improvement in typically developing control group (9.5±2.1, 10.5±2.4; t=-2.12, effect size=0.38, P < 0.05). Follow-up after two years, coin/peg throwing scores with dominant hand improved between ADHD group and control group (7.0±3.3, 9.5±3.2; 8.4±2.8, 11.6±1.6) (t=-3.74, -6.33, P < 0.01; effect size=0.67, 1.14), with a smaller improvement in the ADHD group. The score for threading beads/threads decreased in between ADHD group and control group (7.9±2.4, 5.8±3.1; 9.2±1.1, 8.2±1.9) (t=3.89, 2.78, P < 0.01; effect size=0.70, 0.50), with a greater decrease in the ADHD group.  Conclusions  The development speed of fine motor ability in children with ADHD aged 6-8 is slow and continues to lag behind normal developmental children. Fine motor development in children with ADHD should be closely monitored, and targeted interventions should be implemented when necessary.
Relationship between executive function and social adjustment in children with developmental dyslexia
YIN Feifei, XIAO Xinyu, ZHANG Han, ZUO Pengxiang, LI Dan
2024, 45(6): 835-839. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024136
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  Objective  To explore the characteristics of executive function of developmental dyslexic children and the relationship with social adaptability, in order to provide a scientific basis for promoting healthy development of developmental dyslexic children.  Methods  From June to September 2023, 85 students in the developmental dyslexia group, 85 students in the biological age-matched group and 85 students in the reading level-matched group were selected from the third to sixth grades of two elementary school in a region of Xinjiang by cluster random sampling method. Their executive function was assessed by the Stroop procedure, the 2-back procedure and the numerical conversion procedure, respectively, and their social adaptive ability was assessed by the Social Adaptation Scale for Children and Adolescents. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences in executive function and social adjustment among the three groups, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the relationship between executive function and social adjustment in developmental dyslexic children.  Results  Children in the developmental dyslexia group had lower correctness on the Stroop color-word task (0.72±0.21), the 2-back task (0.32±0.13), the digit-switching task (0.54±0.16) and the total score of social adjustment (165.39±31.36) than children in the biological age-matched (0.80±0.19, 0.38±0.11, 0.61±0.15, 181.71±31.85) and reading level-matched group (0.79±0.17, 0.35±0.07, 0.58±0.15, 175.71±27.48) (F=4.54, 5.05, 4.97, 6.31, P < 0.01). The inhibition (Stroop color-word task correct rate) and conversion subcomponent (digit-switching task correct rate) of the executive function of children in the developmental dyslexia group were both positively correlated with their social adaptive ability (r=0.34, 0.43), and the refreshing subcomponent of the executive function (2-back task correct rate) was negatively correlated with their social adaptive ability (r=-0.27) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Children with developmental dyslexia have executive function deficits and social maladjustment, and their executive function is related to social adjustment. Measures should be taken to improve the executive function of developmental dyslexic children and to improve their social adaptation.
Association of health-related quality of life and parental companionship among middle school students
ZHAO Tianjie, ZHU Fan, ZHU Guiyin, QI Tiantian, GUO Shihao, MA Yinghua
2024, 45(6): 840-843. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024144
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  Objective  To understand the association of health-related quality of life of middle school students with parental companionship, so as to provide a reference for school and family health education.  Methods  From September to November 2023, 4 594 middle school students were selected through convenient sampling from four economic zones in China (Liaoning Province, Beijing City, Sichuan Province, Shanxi Province). Structured questionnaires were used to evaluate health-related quality of life among middle school students. The t-test, variance analysis and linear regression were used to analyze the relationship between health-related quality of life with parental companionship among middle school students.  Results  The average score of health-related quality of life among middle school students was (140.99±21.38). There were statistically significant differences in the scores of health-related quality life among middle school students in different regions, genders, educational stages, grades, whether they live on campus and parental companionship(F/t=20.73, 8.62, 16.71, 105.70, -9.51, 52.29, P < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed that students who were living in eastern region, boys, with higher self-evaluation of academic performance, with higher subjective family socioeconomic status, with parental companionship (β=3.19, 4.96, 2.19, 6.11, 3.19), and older students had lower health-related quality of life levels (β=-2.34)(P < 0.01).  Conclusions  There are significant regional differences in the health-related quality of life levels among middle school students. It is necessary to strengthen the popularization of school health education and focus on students who do not live with their parents on a daily basis to provide more psychological support for them.
Prevalence of Lying Flat behaviors and its association with depressive symptoms among college students from three provinces and cities in China
MA Sheng, WANG Huan, WANG Xiaofang, LU Jinkui, WANG Liangjun, HU Yifei, YU Xiaoran, SONG Yi, ZOU Zhiyong
2024, 45(6): 844-848. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024186
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  Objective  To understand the prevalence of Lying Flat behaviors and its association with depressive symptoms among Chinese college students, so as to provide a scientific basis for promoting the physical and mental health development of adolescents.  Methods  From July to October 2023, three universities were selected through convenient sampling from Jiangxi Province, Liaoning Province and Beijing City, respectively. Self-designed questionnaire links were distributed on campus to collect basic information and Lying Flat behaviors among college students, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was utilized to screen for students with depressive symptoms. Finally, a total of 4 225 valid questionnaires were obtained. Chi-square was used to compare of report rates of Lying Flat behaviors across different demographic characteristics. Ordered Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between Lying Flat behaviors and depressive symptoms, with Z test used to assess variations in the strength of associations.  Results  The reporting rates of academic, life, and social Lying Flat were 32.7%, 17.8% and 17.5%, respectively. And 6.7% of the participants were found of all three Lying Flat behaviors simultaneously.Among college students with three Lying Flat behaviors, the constituent ratios of no, mild, moderate and above depressive symptoms were 9.9%, 30.5% and 59.6%, respectively. Additionally, college students who had three Lying Flat behaviors were more likely to show mild, moderate and above depressive symptoms [OR(95%CI)=2.49(1.60-3.87), 7.69(5.01-11.79), P < 0.01].  Conclusions  Academic Lying Flat behavior is most prevalent among college students. Academic, life and social Lying Flat behaviors are all significantly positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Attention should be paid to the Lying Flat behaviors and college students' psychological health conditions to promote their physical and mental health development.
Analysis of factors associated with anxiety symptoms of high school students in Inner Mongolia
YANG Tian, GAO Jianqiong, WEI Nana, ZHANG Xiuhong, MA Caixia
2024, 45(6): 849-853. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024165
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  Objective  To analyse the correlation between unhealthy lifestyles and anxiety symptoms among high school students in Inner Mongolia Region, so as to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of anxiety symptoms among high school students.  Methods  From September to November 2023, 35 362 high school students were selected by stratified cluster random sampling method from 12 cities (103 counties) in Inner Mongolia Region, and the survey was conducted by using the questionnaire on student health status and influencing factors. The χ2 test and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the influencing factors of anxiety symptoms.  Results  The total number of students with anxiety symptoms was 2 747, and the detection rate of anxiety symptoms was 7.77%. The results of multivariate Logistic regression analyses showed that female students, father having higher education background, never eating breakfast, being overweight and obese, sleeping < 8 h/d, being scolded by parents in the past 30 days, and depressive symptoms were positively correlated with the anxiety symptoms of the high school students (OR=1.31, 1.23, 1.53, 1.14, 1.22, 1.51, 28.92); non-smoking, having no alcohol consumption, no Internet addiction and no use of sedatives without doctor's permission were all negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms of high school students (OR=0.84, 0.73, 0.57, 0.40) (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Anxiety symptoms of high school students are closely related to unhealthy lifestyle. Measures should be taken to improve unhealthy lifestyle, so as to reduce the occurrence of anxiety symptoms in high school students.
Construction and evaluation of risk prediction model for non-suicidal self-injury of middle school students
HU Dazhen, WANG Lu, DUAN Wenjing, XIE Yuxiang, YANG Shu, HUANG Peng
2024, 45(6): 854-858. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024187
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  Objective  To construct a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) risk prediction model for middle school students using different machine learning algorithms and evaluate the model's effectiveness, so as to provide guidance for the prevention and control of NSSI in campus.  Methods  In March 2023, a total of 3 372 middle and high school students from schools in Nanchang, Fuzhou and Shangrao cities in Jiangxi Province were selected by combining stratified random cluster sampling and convenient sampling methods. Questionnaire surveys were conducted using various instruments including general information questionnaire, Self-esteem Scale, Ottawa Self-injury Scale, Social Support Assessment Scale, Chinese Version of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire, Event Attribution Style Scale, Adolescent Resilience Scale, and Adolescent Life Events Scale. Data were divided into training set (n=2 361) and test set (n=1 011) at a ratio of 7∶3, and variables were selected based on univariate and LASSO regression results. Four machine learning algorithms including namely random forest, support vector machine, Logistic regression and XGBoost, were used to construct NSSI risk prediction models, and the models' performance was evaluated and compared using metrics including area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and F1 score.  Results  The detection rate of NSSI among middle school students was 34.4%. Univariate analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in NSSI detection rates among middle school students of different grades, genders, registered residence locations, whether they were class cadres and four types of bullying (physical, verbal, relational bullying and cyberbullying) (χ2=27.17, 15.81, 11.54, 4.63;68.22, 140.63, 77.81, 13.95, P < 0.05). NSSI was included as the dependent variable in the LASSO regression model for variable screening, and the results regression identified 10 predictive variables including grade level, self-esteem, subjective support, support utilization, verbal bullying, emotional control, interpersonal relationships, punishment, loss of relatives and property, and health and adaptation issues. The AUC values of random forest, support vector machine, Logistic regression, and XGBoost algorithms were 0.76, 0.76, 0.76 and 0.77, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between pairwise comparisons (Z=-0.59-0.82, P>0.05). Sensitivity values were 0.62, 0.61, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. Specificity values were 0.74, 0.78, 0.78 and 0.78, respectively. Positive predictive values were 0.56, 0.59, 0.60 and 0.59, respectively. Negative predictive values were 0.79, 0.79, 0.80 and 0.79, respectively. F1 scores were 0.59, 0.60, 0.61 and 0.60, respectively.  Conclusions  All four non-suicidal self-injury risk prediction models perform well, with the Logistic regression model slightly outperforming the others. Schools and parents should pay attention to the predictive factors corresponding to NSSI, so as to reduce the occurrence of NSSI among middle school students.
Impact of smart physical education assignment on physical health of male college students
DU Yubin, WANG Xianmao, ZHOU Weifeng, TANG Lian, JIANG Jing, GAO Hongyun
2024, 45(6): 859-863. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024188
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  Objective  To explore the impact of smart physical education assignment on physical health of male university students, so as to provide theoretical support and practical references for physical health improvement of male university students and implementing smart sports assignments.  Methods  From September 2023 to January 2024, 317 sophomore male students from six Taekwondo elective classes at Hunan Institute of Engineering were selected and were randomly divided into an intervention group (n=157) and a control group (n=160). The intervention group was given sports assignments twice a week through smart means with an intervention duration of 15 weeks, each time for 25-35 minutes, in addition to the teaching according to the public course syllabus, while the control group was taught according to the public course syllabus. The physical and health indicators of both groups were tested before and after intervention, then the differences in various physical health indicators between two groups of students before and after intervention were compared through t-test and Mann-Whitney U test.  Results  After the intervention, the vital capacity, 50 m run, sit-and-reach, 1 000 m run, and pull-up scores of the intervention group significantly improved compared to those before intervention. The scores improved from (3 918.27±737.34)mL, 7.88(7.53, 8.45)s, 9.80(2.70, 15.75) cm, 4.30(4.12, 4.50) min and 3.00(0.00, 7.50) times to (4 574.19±800.61) mL, 7.65(7.37, 8.12)s, 17.20(11.80, 21.55)cm, 4.13(3.58, 4.31)min and 5.00(1.00, 10.00) times, respectively (t/Z=-7.60, 2.61, -8.39, 5.62, -2.72, P < 0.05). Before intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in physical health indicators between the intervention group and the control group (P>0.05).After intervention, the scores of the intervention group on the vital capacity, 50 m run, sit-and-reach, 1 000 m run and pull-up, were significantly higher than those of the control group [(4 310.97±808.90)mL, 7.75(7.40, 8.30)s, 14.10(8.42, 17.87)cm, 4.29(4.08, 4.45)min and 4.00(1.00, 7.00) times] (t/Z=2.91, -4.55, -4.75, -4.15, 2.58, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Having 25-35 min smart physical education assignment twice a week can effectively improve physical health level of male college students. It is recommended to assign appropriate amount of smart sports homework to improve physical health level of college students, while ensuring the amount and intensity of physical activity in public physical education courses.
Analysis of prevalence of dental caries and associated factors among preschool children with disabilities in Bengbu
LI Ping, ZOU Xiaosong, TIAN Ruixue, ZHANG Jiaye, ZHUO Feng, JIANG Wenrui, LU Xiaomiao
2024, 45(6): 864-867. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024189
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  Objective  To understand the oral health status and associated factors of preschool children with disabilities in Bengbu City, so as to provide evidence for preventing dental caries in children with disabilities.  Methods  From September 2021 to March 2022, a total of 405 preschool children with disabilities from two rehabilitation institutions in Bengbu were randomly selected for oral health examination, questionnaire survey and physical examination. The caries prevalence rate among disabled children was analyzed. After grouping based on children's BMI, the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among children was explored. Multivariate binary Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the factors associated with dental caries occurrence in children.  Results  The prevalence of dental caries in preschool children with disabilities was 74.07%, with rates of 71.01% for boys and 77.27% for girls. There was a significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls aged 5(66.67%, 88.24%) (χ2=7.53, P < 0.05). There were significant differences in the dmft index among different BMI groups (underweight: 240, normal weight: 606, overweight: 30, obese: 60, H=35.66, P < 0.05). BMI was negatively correlated with dmft(r=-0.50, P < 0.01). Frequent tooth brushing (2-3 times daily), the use of fluoride toothpaste, limited intake of sugary foods (< 2 times/d) in the past six months, and exclusively breastfeeding within first six months were negatively correlated with the occurrence of dental caries in disabled children (OR=0.09, 0.41, 0.24, P < 0.05). Sleep forward to eat, parental education level of junior high school or lower, and parental education of vocational school or high school were positively correlated with dental caries (OR=3.18, 5.95, 3.99, 66.95, 7.75, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The caries prevalence rate of disabled children in Bengbu City is high and is influenced by multiple factors. It is time to strengthen the oral health training for parents and teachers in educational institutions, pay attention to children's oral health care, and help disabled children improve their quality of life.
Impact of 24 h movement behaviors on fundamental motor skills in preschool children
SHI Xiaofeng, LIU Ruixiang
2024, 45(6): 868-872. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024190
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  Objective  To investigate the association between 24 h movement behaviors (physical activity, sleep, and screen time) and fundamental motor skills (FMS) in preschool children, in order to provide the reference and basis for ensuring the long-term development of children's motor skills.  Methods  A total of 607 children aged 3 to 5 years old were selected from 6 kindergartens of 6 urban districts in Taiyuan in March 2022, through a combination of convenient sampling and stratified cluster random sampling method, and the baseline test was conducted to collect data on the children's 24 h movement behaviors and FMS; the follow-up test after one year was carried out in March 2023 to collect FMS data. The test of gross motor development-3rd was used to assess the children's FMS levels. Physical activity and sleep duration were measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers, while screen time was reported by parents. Pearson correlation analysis, hierarchial and binary Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association of 24 h movement behavior with FMS.  Results  The results of baseline showed that total of physical activity (TPA) at baseline was positively associated with manipulation skills, mobility skills and total score of TGMD-3 (β=0.40, 3.87, 4.27, P < 0.01). The follow-up results after one year indicated that low-intensity physical activity (LPA) and screen time at baseline were negatively associated with increased TGMD-3 scores one year later (β=-1.93, -0.79, P < 0.01). Conversely, baseline moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), TPA and sleep duration were positively associated with increased TGMD-3 scores after one year (β=4.62, 4.51, 3.19, P < 0.01). The follow-up results showed that meeting 2 or 3 items of the 24 h movement behavior guidelines was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of achieving motor skill proficiency (OR=2.31, 3.32, P < 0.01) compared to not meeting any 24 h movement behavior guideline after one year.  Conclusions  MVPA and enough sleep could positively affect FMS improvement, whereas LPA and long screen time could negatively affect FMS improvement at one year follow-up. Schools and families should ensure that preschool children meet the recommended standards of the 24 h movement behavioral guidelines to promote long-term development of FMS.
Establish of the risk predictive model for varicella outbreaks in primary and middle schools
ZHENG Yongtao, YE Chunmei, NI Zuowei, ZHANG Jiani, LAI Fenhua, GAO Yanmin, YANG Dongbo, WANG Yanmei
2024, 45(6): 873-877. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024191
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  Objective  To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of varicella outbreaks in primary and middle schools, and to establish a risk predictive model, so as to provide scientific guidance for the prevention of varicella outbreaks in schools.  Methods  Based on a nested case-control study, primary and middle schools in 4 districts of Shanghai (Yangpu District and Jingan District) and Hangzhou (Xiaoshan District and Linping District) from January to December 2023 were selected to observe the status of varicella outbreaks. Associated factors of varicella outbreaks were investigated and used for establishing the predictive model, which was evaluated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow(H-L) goodness of fit test, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Calibration curve, decision curve analysis (DCA).  Results  A total of 98 varicella outbreaks were included, with 195 schools without varicella outbreaks during the same period as controls. Eight factors, including the availability of warm water in restroom, availability of hand soap in restroom, average class size, duration of student attendance at school per day, presence of a full-time school doctor, hesitancy of the school principal towards varicella vaccination, and rates of first and second doses of varicella vaccination, were identified as potential factors for school varicella outbreaks, with statistically significant differences (χ2/Z=10.01, 20.49, 17.43, 9.74, 32.17, 6.60, 2.20, 3.39, P < 0.05). The 8 variables above were employed to construct a risk predictive model, and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test yielded a χ2 value of 5.863 (P>0.05); the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.846 (95%CI=0.799-0.893); Calibration curve analysis indicated good consistency between predicted and actual values of the model. DCA demonstrated favorable predictive performance of the model over a wide range.  Conclusions  The predictive model for school varicella outbreaks demonstrates satisfactory accuracy and efficacy. It suggested to make good use of this prediction model and take relevant measures to reduce the risk of varicella transmission in schools.
Prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis among healthy children and adolescents aged 3-18 in Anhui Province
SU Ying, CHEN Xia, WANG Binbing, LUO Xianwei, CHENG Pengbo, ZHOU Shujie
2024, 45(6): 878-881. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024167
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  Objective  To monitor the prevelance of Neisseria meningitidis among healthy children and adolescents aged 3-18 in Anhui Province, so as to provide support for epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis prevention and control.  Methods  From September to October in 2021 and 2022, 4 033 healthy children and adolescents aged 3-18 were selected by stratified random sampling from Anhui Province, including areas north of the Yangtze River (Bozhou, Fuyang, Bengbu, Huainan, Chuzhou, Hefei) and areas south of the Yangtze River (Wuhu, Ma'anshan, Tongling, Anqing, Chizhou, Xuancheng) and the secretions of children and adolescents were collected from the posterior pharyngeal wall above the uvula, and the strains were identified by bacterial culture and nucleic acid detection. McNemar test and Kappa consistency test were used for statistical analysis. Chi-square test and Chi-square trend test were used to compare the rates.  Results  The carrier rates of Neisseria meningitidis were 0.47% and 1.07%, respectively. The sensitivity of nucleic acid detection was higher. Among the detected bacteria, group B accounted for the largest proportion of 76.74%. It was followed by group C (4.65%), group Y (4.65%), group W 135 (2.33%) and group X (2.33%). The bacteria bearing rate of male students was higher than that of female students (χ2=11.44); with the increase of age, the bacteria bearing rate of children and adolescents showed an increasing trend (χtrend2=42.69); the bacterial bearing rate of children and adolescents in the north of the Yangtze River was higher than that in the south of the Yangtze River (χ2=23.19); the bacteria bearing rate of children and adolescents without immune history was higher than that with immune history (χ2=11.02)(P < 0.01).  Conclusions  Neisseria meningitidis group B has become an epidemic strain in Anhui Province, and senior children and adolescents have become the key population of epidemic prevention and control. It is necessary to continue to do a good job in the surveillance of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis disease and focuse on group B disease cases, so as to prevent the occurrence of cluster outbreaks in schools.
Correlation analysis of electronic screen use and myopia among primary and secondary school students in six provinces and cities of China
GAO Ruoyi, XU Huiyu, LUO Huijuan, ZHANG Jingshu, LI Ting, KUANG Huining, E Boran, GUO Xin
2024, 45(6): 882-886. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024172
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  Objective  To study the correlation between electronic screen use and myopia among primary and secondary school students in six provinces and cities in China, in order to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive prevention and control of myopia.  Methods  From November 2020 to June 2022, a total of 16 557 primary and secondary school students from six provinces and cities in China (Beijing City, Liaoning Province, Zhejiang Province, Henan Province, Shaanxi Province, Chongqing City) were selected by stratified cluster random sampling and probability smampling methods, and a questionnaire prepared by Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention was used to investigate their electronic screen use. According to Screening Criteria for Myopia in Children and Adolescents, 0.5% mass concentration of compound topicamide eye drops was used to paralyze the ciliary muscle and undergo slit lamp optometry. Chi-square test was used to compare the differences between groups, and binary Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between electronic screen use and myopia.  Results  About 58.3% of primary and secondary school students used electronic screens for more than two hours a day on average, and 63.4% of primary and secondary school students used continuously electronic products for more than 15 minutes at a time for non-study purposes. After adjusting for confounding factors, parents' unrestricted use of electronic screen time and electronic screen time ≥2 h/d were positively correlated with myopia (OR=1.27, 1.13, P < 0.05). Gender stratified analysis showed that boys who used electronic screen time ≥2 h/d had a higher risk of myopia (OR=1.15, P < 0.05). The results of grade stratification analysis showed that parents' unrestricted electronic screen use time and electronic screen time ≥2 h/d were positively correlated with myopia in the lower grade of primary school students (OR=1.34, 1.18, P < 0.05). Among the higher grade of primary school students, continuous use of electronic screens for non-study purposes for more than 15 minutes at one time was positively correlated with myopia (OR=1.18, P < 0.05). There was a multiplicative interaction between total screen time and one continuous screen time (OR=1.04, P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Primary and secondary students in six provinces and cities in China reports excessive electronic screen usage which is associated with myopia. Schools and parents should jointly limit the use of electronic screen among primary and secondary students to reduce the occurrence of myopia.
Countermeasures and the development dilemmas of college hospitals in Shandong Province
YANG Zhongdong, GAO Shuhua, XU Hong
2024, 45(6): 887-890. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024192
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  Objective   To understand the current development status and challenges of college hospitals in Shandong and to seek scientific countermeasures, so as to promote the development of college hospitals.   Method   A total of 178 college hospitals in Shandong Province were surveyed by a questionnaire in December 2022. Additionally, 30 university hospital directors were selected for field investigations and telephone interviews by direct selection method. The survey covered aspects such as management and operation, human resources, departmental staffing and hospital functions.   Results   About 65.73% of college hospitals were affiliated with the logistics department of their respective colleges. Tier 1 hospital accounted for 28.09% of the total. Personnel shortage in university hospitals was evident, and there were 109(61.24%) hospitals where the number of non-permanent staff exceeded that of permanent staff. About 143 university hospitals (80.34%) had requirements for the promotion of professional and technical personnel. A total of 102(57.30%) college hospitals had incomplete departmental configurations. A survey of 30 college hospitals showed that 7 schools set up health professionals with a ratio of 600∶1. The number of people aged 40 and above was the highest, accounting for 53.12%; and the professional titles were mainly junior and intermediate, accounting for 83.95%. The department settings mainly included internal medicine (96.67%), preventive health care (63.33%) and surgery (60.00%). A total of 12 schools offered public health education courses.   Conclusions   There are deficiencies in the management and operation, hardware facilities, personnel department allocation and functional performance of college hospitals in Shandong Province. It is necessary to clarify the functional positioning of the college hospitals, improve both software and hardware facilities, strengthen talent construction, innovate health education, in order to effectively improve the service level of college hospitals.
Research progress on food literacy assessment tools for children and adolescents
QIAN Jinwei, TONG Yingge, PAN Xiang, YAO Lan, NI Ke, XIN Mengyu, CHENG Wenqian, HU Yuying
2024, 45(6): 891-894. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024193
Abstract(61) HTML (29) PDF(10)
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As dietary issues of children and adolescents become increasingly complex, the assessment of food literacy (FL) is increasingly importance. FL involves a comprehensive cognition and practical ability concerning food among children, playing a key role in fostering healthy eating habits and improving health levels. The article explores the definition and connotations of FL, and introduces eight FL assessment tools in terms of theoretical foundations, dimensions, assessment methods, and their reliability and validity. Moreover, it provides a comparative analysis of these tools by examining their dimensional design, evaluation indicators, strengths, and weaknesses, as well as their applicable subjects and scenarios, aiming to offer references for implementing relevant policies and developing more comprehensive and effective FL assessment tools.
Pathogenic microorganism monitoring in the food processing of school canteens
NIU Huimin, JIAO Qiang, LI Ruohan, LIU Zhiyong
2024, 45(6): 895-898. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024194
Abstract(34) HTML (16) PDF(3)
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  Objective   To analyze the key control points of pathogenic microbial contamination during the food processing of school canteens, so as to provide a basis for effectively preventing the occurrence of campus food safety incidents.   Methods   In March 2023, 10 school canteens from Zhengzhou City, Henan Province were selected by convenient sampling method. A total of 300 samples were collected from the storage equipment of raw materials, production tools, staff hands, infrastructure, dining utensils and other facilities in the school canteens during the food processing process.The rapid detection method of foodborne pathogens based on isothermal multiple self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) technology was used to analyze the possible risk of pathogenic microorganism contamination. Fisher exact probability method was applied for the statistical analysis.   Results   Among the 300 samples collected, pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 5 samples, distributed in the food preparation utensils such as cutting boards, operating tables, knives and staff hands, while no pathogenic microorganisms were detected in dining utensils, raw material storage equipment and canteen infrastructure.There was no statistically significant difference between the IMSA rapid detection method and the national standard method for testing Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes(P>0.05). Compared to international method, the positive coincidence of pathogenic microorganism detected by IMSA rapid inspection system was 83.3%(5/6), the negative coincidence was 100%(n=294), and the overall consistency rate was 99.7%.   Conclusions   The key control points of pathogenic microbial contamination in the food processing process of school canteens mainly are the utensils in the food production process, such as cutting boards, operating tables, knives and staff hands in the food processing process of the school canteen, which could be accurately identified by the rapid detection method of pathogenic microorganism established based on IMSA technology. The quality and efficiency campus food safety supervision should be promoted to prevent the food safety events in school canteen.
Research progress of alleviating depression among children and adolescents based on 24 h movement behaviors
GUO Liang, ZHANG Jing, ZENG Sai, LI Tiangeng, DENG Xinghua
2024, 45(6): 899-903. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024195
Abstract(62) HTML (24) PDF(18)
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Gurrently, healthy behaviors are the cornerstone of both physical and mental well-being, and more researches are focusing on improving behaviors to alleviate depression among children and adolescents. Based on the concept of 24 h movement behaviors proposed in recent years, the study examines the relationship among physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. The research suggests that physical activity could effectively alleviate depression among children and adolescents, and its effectiveness is influenced by factors including type, intensity, duration and frequency of physical activity. Excessive sedentary behavior may increase depressive symptoms, and the impacts of different types, durations, and frequencies of sedentary behavior on depressive symptoms among children and adolescents vary. In addition to its direct impact on depression, sleep could also serve as a mediator among physical activity, sedentary behavior and depression, and there is also a crowding-out effect of time between physical activity and sedentary behavior. Future research should focus on the mechanisms and pathways underlying how 24 h movement behaviors affecting depression among children and adolescents, in order to provide more accurate solutions for the prevention and treatment of depression.
Impact of social media on adolescent suicide and countermeasures
QIU Yafei
2024, 45(6): 904-907. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024173
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In recent years, much attention has been paid on possible impact of social media on adolescents' suicidal and self-injurious behaviors, and their relationship and mechanism of action which would be clarified are crucial for suicide prevention work of adolescents. The review mainly summarizes the conceptualization of social media and suicide/self-injurious behaviors, as well as the directions and mechanisms of their associations. It points out further steps to prevent suicide for those internet aborigines among adolescents, aiming to provide a theoretical basis and practical direction for future suicide prevention work.
Research progress of cardiovascular disease prevention commencing in childhood
WANG Jiayu, ZHANG Jialing, GUI Yonghao
2024, 45(6): 908-912. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2024171
Abstract(43) HTML (27) PDF(5)
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have imposed a substantial disease burden in China. Recently, the significance of childhood in CVD prevention has gained a significant attention. Prospective cohort studies have provided conclusive evidence that various risk factors during childhood are associated with the risk of CVD in adulthood. Furthermore, randomized controlled trials have made noteworthy advancements, demonstrating that healthy lifestyles during childhood could significantly promote cardiovascular health. The paper reviews the prevalence characteristics of CVD risk factors in Chinese children, the association with the risk of CVD development in adulthood and the progress of intervention research in childhood, in order to provide a scientific reference for the prevention of CVD from childhood.