2022 Vol. 43, No. 2

Display Method:
The early environment of childhood promotes the healthy development of children's gender role
ZOU Zhiyong, DONG Yanhui
2022, 43(2): 161-164. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.001
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Early environment is associated with children's physical and mental development, personality and social adaptability.Recent stuties showed that the early environment such as family structure, parenting style, family socioeconomic status and endocrine disnuptors were closely associated with gender role development among children and adolescents.Policy makers and parents should pay attention to the early environment of chillnood development, which plays an important role in promoting the healthy development of children's gender role.
Interpretation of Technical Guide for Prevention and Control of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Children and Adolescents
Expert Group of Editorial Committee of Technical Guide for Prevention and Control of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Chinese Children and Adolescents
2022, 43(2): 165-170, 175. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.002
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In China, the prevalence of abnormal spinal curvature in children and adolescents is high, and the number of cases is increasing in recent years, which seriously threatens physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Prevention and control of abnormal spinal curvature in children and adolescents should be implemented in a systematic approach, requiring joint efforts of individuals, families, schools, medical institutions, as well as government agencies and society. In order to strengthen prevention and control against abnormal spinal curvature in children and adolescents, and to guide standardized and scientific implementation of comprehensive prevention and control measures, Technical Guide for Prevention and Control of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Children and Adolescents (hereinafter referred to as the Guide) was compiled by the National Health Commission Disease Control Bureau of the PRC. The guide shows important guiding significance for carrying out national normative epidemiological investigation, screening and prevention and control of abnormal spinal curvature in children and adolescents. In order to improve the understanding of the Guide for public health professionals and those concerned about the prevention and control of spinal curvature abnormalities in children and adolescents, this paper illustrates background, significance and main contents of the Guide.
Association between gender role and family factors among primary school students in Xiamen
GAO Di, LI Yanhui, WANG Xijie, YANG Zhaogeng, CHEN Manman, MA Ying, MA Jun, ZOU Zhiyong
2022, 43(2): 171-175. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.003
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  Objective  To analyze the association between masculine and feminine traits, gender role in students and family factors, and to provide a scientific basis for promoting the healthy development of children and adolescents' gender role.  Methods  Cluster random sampling method was used to selected 823 students from 2 schools of Xiamen in May, 2018, participants were asked to report individual masculine and feminine traits through the Child's Sex Role Inventory, and then gender role was divided into four types (masculine, feminine, androgynous, undifferentiated). Non-parametric tests, generalized linear model, and Logistic regression model were used to explore the association between masculine and feminine traits, gender role and family factors.  Results  Compared with the boys from the nuclear family, the masculine traits were lower in boys of other families by 0.282(95%CI=-0.452--0.110), and the feminine traits were also lower by 0.192 (95%CI=-0.369--0.014). Compared with boys of middle socioeconomic status (SES), the masculine traits of boys from low SES decreased by 0.157 (95%CI=-0.286--0.029), and the feminine traits decreased by 0.140 (95%CI=-0.274--0.005). The proportion of androgynous in boys from other families was significantly lower than boys from the nuclear family (OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.21-0.94), with the proportion of undifferentiated significantly higher than nuclear family 2.33 (95%CI=1.22-4.44). The proportion of androgynous in boys from low SES was significantly lower than boys from middle SES (OR=0.59, 95%CI=0.35-0.99), with the proportion of undifferentiated significantly higher than middle SES 1.62 (95%CI=1.00-2.65). Among girls, the differences in masculine and feminine traits and gender role of different family factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05).  Conclusion  The masculine and feminine traits and gender role in students are associated with family structures and socioeconomic status, especially in boys. Therefore, the family environment is an important factor affecting children's gender role, and the healthy development of children's gender role needs parents' attention and correct guidance.
Relationship between masculinity and femininity and parental rearing pattern in lower grade primary school students
CHEN Manman, GAO Di, LI Yanhui, YANG Zhaogeng, WANG Xijie, ZOU Zhiyong, MA Jun.
2022, 43(2): 176-180. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.004
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  Objective  To analyze the correlation between the scores of masculinity and femininity and parental rearing pattern in lower grade primary school students in Xiamen, and to provide a policy suggestions and reference basis for establishing a correct concept of gender role among children and adolescents.  Methods  A cluster random sampling method was used to select 823 students from two primary schools in Xiamen. Masculinity and femininity scores were assessed by Children's Sex Role Inventory(CSRI), while attitudes and behaviors of parental rearing pattern were obtained through EMBU. Regression analyses were used to analyze the correlation between masculinity and femininity scores and parental rearing pattern.  Results  Masculinity scored 2.82 (2.41, 3.24) and 2.82 (2.47, 3.18), femininity scored 2.87 (2.40, 3.20) and 3.13 (2.73, 3.47) among boys and girls, with no significant gender difference (P>0.05). Masculinity and femininity scores varied significantly by parental emotional warmth and understanding(father: Z/H=44.61, 37.24;mother: Z/H=41.68, 46.64, P<0.05). Among boys, increasing parental emotional warmth and understanding and paternal excessive interference were associated with higher masculinity and femininity scores. Increasing rejection and maternal deny were associated with lower masculinity scores. Among girls, increasing the understanding of emotional warmth of fathers was associated with masculinity and femininity scores, increasing excessive interference from mothers was associated with lower masculinity scores (P<0.05).  Conclusion  There are gender differences in the relationship between parental rearing pattern and masculinity and femininity scores. In particular, increasing parents' emotional warmth and understanding and reducing mothers' punishment and harshness, rejection and denial, and other negative parenting styles could facilitate healthy development of masculinity and femininity among primary school students.
Relationship between gender role attitudes and depression among adolescents
ZHANG Jiashuai, ZUO Xiayun, YU Chunyan, LIAN Qiguo, ZHONG Xiangyang, TU Xiaowen, LOU Chaohua.
2022, 43(2): 181-184, 189. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.005
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between gender role attitudes (GRA) and adolescent depression to provide evidence for the promotion of mental health among adolescents.  Methods  A total of 1 549 students from grades 6 to 8 in three public middle schools in Jing'an District of Shanghai were selected by stratified cluster sampling. The baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted by anonymous electronic questionnaire on mobile tablets from November to December in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The GRA Scale and the Depression Scale were used to collect subjects' attitudes towards traditional role assignment and power inequality between men and woman and depression in family and sexual relationships. The multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model was adopted to examine the relationship between GRA and depression.  Results  The mean score of the GRA Scale was (2.52±0.83) and (2.29±0.86), while the score of Depression Scale was (15.92±5.08) and (16.48±5.29), in the baseline and follow-up survey, respectively (P<0.05). After controlling the covariates of age, bullied experience, body image, social cohesion, etc., the multivariate GEE model indicated traditional GRA was significantly associated with a higher risk of depression among both boys and girls (βboys=0.38, βgirls=0.41, P<0.05).  Conclusion  Traditional GRA may increase the risk of depression in adolescents, suggesting that cultivating a positive and equal GRA among this population group may help to prevent depression.
Relationship between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of junior middle school students in rural areas of Jiangxi Province
DENG Lifang, LI Li, WANG Naibo, WAN Dezhi, WU Lei
2022, 43(2): 185-189. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.006
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  Objective  To understand the relationship between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of junior middle school students in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, and to provide a reference for specific strategies for healthy eating behavior.  Methods  Stratified cluster random sampling was used to investigate the health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of 4 311 students in grades 7 to 8 from 50 middle schools in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, the relationship between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior was analyzed by Chi-square test and Logistic regression.  Results  Health literacy of junior middle school students in rural areas (≥58 points) was 18.21%. Prevalence of unhealthy eating behavior was relatively high, among which irregular three meal time was the highest (62.33%), followed by high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, insufficient dairy products consumption, breakfast skipping ever day and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 54.60%, 50.38%, 36.23% and 19.53%, respectively. The risk of irregular meal time (OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.11-1.65), breakfast skipping every day (OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.01-1.49), insufficient dairy products consumption (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.07-1.55), insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.10-1.92) and high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (OR=1.39, 95%CI=1.15-1.68) was higher than students with high health literacy (P<0.05).  Conclusion  There is a correlation between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of junior middle school students in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, schools, families, governments and relevant departments can improve the health literacy level of junior high school students to improve their unhealthy eating behavior, so as to improve the health status of junior high school students.
Physical activity among senior primary school students on weekends in Beijing
LONG Xin, ZHANG Hongwei, JI Ying, ZHANG Xianan, XIE Lijing
2022, 43(2): 190-193. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.007
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  Objective  To analyze the duration and influencing factors of moderate and vigorous physical activity(MVPA) on weekends for primary school students in grades 4 to 6 in Beijing, and to provide a reference for formulating health education and promotion measures.  Methods  Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 2 515 students from grades 4-6 in 14 primary schools in Beijing, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to record MVPA on weekend, social demographic characteristics, other related health behaviors and knowledge. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of MVPA on weekends.  Results  The prevalence of insufficient MVPA on weekends in Beijing was 63.54%, and the prevalence was higher among girls (69.92%) than boys (57.81%) (χ2=39.65, P<0.01). Multiple Logistic regression analysis revealed that girls (OR=1.74), living in rural areas (OR=1.41), participants attending general schools (OR=1.34), from divorced family (OR=1.46), and short sleep duration (OR=1.50) were more likely to fail to meet the MVPA recommendations(P<0.05).  Conclusion  It is quite common that no sufficient weekend MVPA among senior primary school students, among them, the outer suburbs and schools with relatively weak teaching resources are the key places that need attention, and girls are the key groups that need attention.
Analysis of induced abortion among adolescents in Guangzhou from 2015 to 2019
ZHONG Yinli, LUO Huijia, TANG Liuying, FANG Jun
2022, 43(2): 194-197, 202. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.008
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  Objective  To explore trends of adolescent induced abortion in Guangzhou, and to provide a reference for female adolescents induced abortion prevention and reproductive health promotion.  Methods  A retrospective survey was conducted to collect information regarding basic characteristics, frequency of induced abortion and risk factors of 7 648 adolescents aged 12-24 years who received induced abortion in one maternal and child health care hospital during 2015 to 2019. Chi-square test and trend analysis were carried out for data analysis.  Results  Adolescents with first pregnancy, nulliparity and first abortion accounted for 61.28%, 81.63%, 71.82%, respectively; a total of 1 251 adolescents aged 12-19 had induced abortion, accounting for 16.36%, and 6 397 adolescents aged 20-24 had induced abortion, accounting for 83.64%, the number of pregnancy, parity, and induced abortion in aged 20-24 was higher than that in the aged 12-19, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The proportion of the aged 12-19 showed an overall downward trend in each year, while that of aged 20-24 showed an overall upward trend, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (χ2trend=22.99, P<0.01); the first pregnancy accounted for 61.28%, and the number of pregnancies showed an overall upward trend (χ2trend=9.06, P<0.05). The proportion of repeated abortion did not increase significantly, but the proportion of recurrent repeated abortion (within one year) showed an upward trend (χ2trend=6.69, P<0.05). The proportion of adolescents with reproductive tract infection showed a downward trend (χ2trend=4.91, P<0.01).  Conclusion  The proportion of induced abortion in first pregnancy and nulliparrous female adolescents is relatively high and showed an upward trend, which may be related to insufficient reproductive health knowledge and the lack of reproductive health education from society, school and family. Necessary resources should be devoted to adolescents with recurrent repeated abortion, as well as adolescent reproductive health education, post-abortion and medical care, the decrease in the rate of reproductive tract infection in adolescents suggests that the awareness of reproductive tract infection prevention has been improved.
Commonalities and differences in myopia prevention and control beliefs among primary school teachers and students in Hangzhou
GAO Mingjia, LIU Shumei, SUN Xin, SU Min, LYU Jiahao, ZHANG Ziyuan, TANG Guozhong, SHAO Sendi.
2022, 43(2): 198-202. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.009
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  Objective  To explore the commonalities and differences between primary school students and teachers in beliefs of myopia prevention and control, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the education programs of myopia prevention and control.  Methods  Convenient sampling method was used to select 14 students and 16 teachers from grades 3 and 4 in two elementary schools in Hangzhou for one to one in-depth interviews, and the results were coded and analyzed by using Nvivo 11.0 software.  Results  There were commonalities in the perceived severity, benefits and barriers of myopia prevention and control beliefs among students and teachers, and the common keywords had been mentioned for 114 times, the commonalities of perceived severity, benefits and barriers were more obvious among them; there were differences in the specific attributions of perceived susceptibility, severity and barriers among students and teachers, the difference keywords had been mentioned for 63 times, the differences of perceived susceptibility, severity and barriers were more obvious among them.  Conclusion  There were commonalities in the perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers of myopia prevention and control beliefs between students and teachers; there were differences in the aspects of perceived susceptibility, severity and barriers between students and teachers. Adverse health outcomes of myopia and associated prevention knowledge should be enhanced among students. schools should carry out health education activities to improve the ability of teachers and students to prevent and control myopia; the government should implement the "double reduction" policy and improve the safety insurance system for outdoor activities.
Association between sexting and mental health among secondary vocational school students
ZHENG Yujia, FANG Yuhang, ZHANG Jiashuai, LIAN Qiguo, ZUO Xiayun, YU Chunyan, LOU Chaohua, TU Xiaowen, LI Lihe, HONG Ping.
2022, 43(2): 203-206, 210. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.010
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  Objective  To explore the prevalence of sexting among secondary vocational school students and to examine the correlation between sexting and mental health, so as to provide evidence for prevention and intervention on adolescents' mental health.  Methods  In April 2021, three secondary vocational schools from central urban area, outskirts and outer suburbs in Shanghai, among 1 580 students were selected by cluster sampling.  Results  The proportions of students who received and who forwarded others' private photos or videos were 11.96% and 2.78%, respectively. The proportion of students who sent others personal photos or videos was 2.54%. And the proportions of boys were higher than those of girls (χ2=45.89, 24.09, 6.66, P<0.01). The results of multivariable Logistic analysis showed that compared with those who had never sexted, students who had ever had any sexting were at higher risk of anxiety (OR=2.40, 95%CI=1.59-3.61), depression(OR=1.86, 95%CI=1.25-2.75), non-suicidal self-injury intention (OR=2.34, 95%CI=1.48-3.69) and suicidal intention (OR=2.96, 95%CI=1.83-4.79)(P<0.05).  Conclusion  There is a significant correlation between sexting and mental health among secondary vocational school students. The latent risks of sexting should be included in the curriculum of comprehensive sex education for teenagers to enhance their media literacy and decision making capability, so as to prevent sexual assault or abuse caused by sexting and promote sexual and reproductive health and as well as mental health of adolescents.
Effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention for childhood obesity on self-efficacy, weight perception, and behavior change
SHANG Lijia, GAO Aiyu, WANG Haijun, LIU Zheng.
2022, 43(2): 207-210. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.011
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  Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention for childhood obesity on self-efficacy, weight perception, and stage of behavior change, and to provide a scientific evidence for childhood obesity interventions.  Methods  The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary schools and 1 889 children (aged 7-11 years) from Dongcheng District in Beijing were recruited in September, 2013, and were administered a comprehensive intervention for childhood obesity. Six schools (930) were randomly allocated to the intervention group, and six schools (959) were randomly allocated to the control group. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out, R 4.0.3 software was used to analyze the data, and multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the intervention effect.  Results  After the intervention, mean (standard deviation) scores of self-efficacy among children in the intervention and control groups were (4.4±0.9) and (4.2±1.1), respectively. After the intervention, the proportion of children in the intervention group who underestimated or overestimated their body weight was 28.4% and 11.3%, respectively, while the figures in the control were 37.1% and 6.9%; compared with the control, the risk of underestimating body weight decreased among children in the intervention group(OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.52-0.80, P<0.01), while the risk of weight overestimation increased(OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.26-2.54, P<0.01). After the intervention, the proportion of children in the contemplation or action stage of behaviour change was 65.3% and 83.6%, while the figures in the control group were 59.8% and 69.8%, respectively; in comparison with the control group, more children in the intervention group were in comtemplation (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.03-1.59, P=0.02) or action stage of behaviour change(OR=2.59, 95%CI=2.04-3.27, P<0.01).  Conclusion  The comprehensive intervention for childhood obesity improved self-efficacy, weight perception, and facilitated behavior change, but may increase the risk of weight overestimation.
Correlation between self-health management, adaptation, and perceived stress among nursing interns in medical school
LYU Jianjun, XU Haixia, BA Teer, YOU Xiang.
2022, 43(2): 211-214, 220. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.012
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  Objective  To explore health self-management, adaptation, and perceived stress among nursing interns in medical colleges and universities under the normal prevention and control of COVID-19, and to provide a scientific basis for the health management of practice nursing students.  Methods  Medical colleges in the Inner Mongolia region were selected to study 263 nursing student interns by cluster random sampling. The survey was conducted using the Health Self-Management Ability Assessment Scale, the Chinese College Students Adjustment Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale.  Results  The total score of health self-management ability of nursing students during internship was (138.31±20.13). The total score of health self-management ability of nursing students with different educational backgrounds and different residence places was statistically significant (F/t=3.51, 2.46, P<0.05); the total adaptive score was (3.17±0.72); during the epidemic, the total score of perceived stress was (11.52±2.79), and the difference in the total score of perceived stress among nursing students with different educational backgrounds was statistically significant (t=4.05, P<0.05). Pearson analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between health self-management ability, adaptation, and perceived stress among nursing students during the epidemic period (r=-0.31, -0.35, P<0.01).  Conclusion  There was a close relationship between perceived stress of nursing students and health self-management and adaptation; the educators in medical colleges should actively explore strategies to improve the health self-management ability and adaptation level of nursing students to enhance the psychological adjustment ability of nursing students to maintain good physical and mental health.
Influence of three combined exercise programs on improving sleep quality among college students with sleep disorders
YUAN Shuai, GONG Mingjun, HA Jianwei, LU Chang, GUO Zhen, JI Yongwu, MENG Yu, ZOU Guofang
2022, 43(2): 215-220. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.013
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  Objective  To explore the improvement influence of three combined exercise programs on sleep quality among college students with sleep disorders, so as to provide reference for the construction of exercise intervention programs for sleep disorder.  Methods  A total of 35 college students with sleep disorders were randomly divided into AR group (n=10), AM group (n=8), RM group (n=9) and CG group (n=8). The three exercise groups were provided with exercise intervention for 8 weeks, 3 times/week, 60 min/time, and the CG group maintained previous lifestyle.Before and after the intervention, evaluation of subjective sleep quality and reduction rate of sleep disorder by PSQI, and Actigraph GT3X+ was used to monitor the changes in the objective sleep quality.  Results  After the intervention, the total score of PSQI (t=3.49, 2.31, 2.73), sleep quality score (t=2.71, 3.00, 5.29), sleep duration of AR group (t=2.74), daytime dysfunction of AM group (t=2.64) and sleep duration of RM group (t=2.29) significantly decreased (P < 0.05); The scores of sleep duration in AM group were significantly lower than those in AR group, and the scores of PSQI, sleep quality and daytime dysfunction in AM group were significantly lower than those in CG group (P < 0.05). After intervention, TST (t=-4.41, -8.37, -6.79) and SE (t=-4.40, -5.86, -4.91) of AR group, AM group and RM group significantly increased(P < 0.05), SOL (t=4.18, 9.93), WASO (t=2.91, 3.46) and NA (t=4.80, 3.37) of AM group and RM group significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The changes of TST, SE and WASO in RM group were significantly higher than those in CG group, and SOL was significantly lower than those in CG group (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The three kinds of combined exercise programs can improve the subjective and objective sleep quality of college students with sleep disorders, and reduce the incidence of sleep disorders; different combined exercise programs have different influence on the improvement of sleep quality of college students with sleep disorders, aerobic combined meditative movement exercise program has a prominent influence on the improvement of subjective sleep quality, and resistance combined meditative movement exercise program has a prominent influence on the improvement of objective sleep quality.
Effect of behavioral activation therapy on depressive mood and behavioral characteristics among subliminal depressed students
QIN Tao, ZHONG Qingling
2022, 43(2): 221-224. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.014
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  Objective  To explore the effect of behavioral activation (BA) therapy on depressive mood and behavioral characteristics among subliminal depressed nursing students, and to provide a reference for effective mental health education to nursing students.  Methods  A cluster sampling method was used to select 614 sophomore nursing students from a medical college in Jiangxi Province. Sixty subjects who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study, and divided into a control group and an intervention group using a random number table method, with 30 participants in each group. The control group received general mental health education, and the intervention group participated in a BA intervention on the basis of general mental health education. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Beck Depression Inventory-II(BDI-II) and the Behavioral Activation For Depression Scale Short-Form (BADS-SF) were used to evaluate students' depression status before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention, respectively.  Results  The time effect, group effect, and time-group interaction of the CES-D, BDI-II and BADS-SF scores of the two groups of students were all statistically significant (F=82.78, 9.65, 69.92; 42.19, 10.52, 13.50; 15.59, 19.61, 8.49, P < 0.01). Immediately after the intervention and 1 month after the intervention, the CES-D and BDI-II scores of the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group, and the BADS-SF score of the intervention group (14.63±4.63, 14.80±4.85; 11.23±4.98, 11.13±5.53) was significantly lower than that of the control group (22.67±6.70, 22.13±5.66; 17.57±9.59, 18.37±7.91); the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  BA shows lasting effects on alleviating depressive symptoms among nursing students with subthreshold depression, improve their behavioral activation level, and have a lasting effect. Nursing educators can improve the depression of nursing students and improve their mental health through individual BA.
Correlation between mental health problems with bullying behaviors among primary and middle school students
HAO Yibin, WU Ke, QUAN Juqing, YUE Wenjuan, MA Jing, ZHANG Wensen, ZHANG Hengzhen, ZHAO Mingyang, TIAN Zhuoyang, WANG Biyao, WANG Panpan, ZHANG Qiang, QIN Ying, SUN Changqing
2022, 43(2): 225-228. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.015
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  Objective  To analyze epidemiological characteristics of campus bullying among primary and middle school students in central China to explore its relation with mental health problems, and to provide a reference for the campus bullying prevention.  Methods  Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select primary and middle school 10 581 students from Anyang, Nanyang and Xinxiang cities of Henan Province, Middle School Students' Mental Health Scale and the Self-designed Scale of Adolescent Bullying Behavior were used to analyze the relationship between mental health problems with campus bullying behavior.  Results  The total report rate of bullying penetrator was 12.5% among students in the three cities. Among primary and middle school students with mental health problems such as hostility, interpersonal stress, academic pressure and emotional imbalance, the detection rate of bullying behavior was 24.2%, 20.3%, 19.4% and 20.1%, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis showed that hostility symptoms (OR=3.78, 95%CI=1.71-8.32), interpersonal stress (OR=3.50, 95%CI=1.62-7.57), academic pressure (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.21-2.16) and emotional imbalance (OR=2.80, 95%CI=1.41-5.56) showed a significant impact on campus bullying (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Mental health problems of primary and middle school students are closely related to the occurrence of bullying behavior. It is necessary to pay attention to the mental health education of bullies and intervene bullying behaviors from the source.
Association between parent-child relationship and rebelliousness in boarding school students
CAI Yuyu, ZHOU Zhengsheng, ZHANG Mengyan, ZHANG Shuhan, SU Puyu, SHAO Shanshan
2022, 43(2): 229-233. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.016
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between parent-child relationship and rebelliousness of junior middle school students in boarding schools and to provide a scientific basis for preventing the occurrence of youth rebellion.  Methods  A cluster sampling method was used to investigate parent-child separation, family intimacy, and rebellion among 1 790 junior high school students in one boarding middle school in Lujiang County, Hefei City, Anhui Province in January 2020, and the influence of parent-child relationship on students' rebelliousness was analyzed by Chi-square test and binary Logistic regression.  Results  The detection rate of rebelliousness among participants was 21.45%(384/1 790). Junior middle school students who were in senior grade (second and third grades), reported higher household economic status and no communication with parents during the past month were more likely to have rebelliousness(OR=1.83, 1.89, 1.80, 1.77, P < 0.05); Junior middle school students with higher parental warmth and intimacy were less likely to have rebelliousness(OR=0.52, 0.71, P < 0.05); Gender, length of boarding, maternal education, frequency of meeting parents during boarding, and childhood experience of separation with parents showed no statistical significance on rebelliousness(P>0.05).  Conclusion  The detection rate of rebellious psychology among junior high school students in boarding schools is high, and good parent-child relationship is the protective factor of rebellious psychology. Parents should pay attention to contact with their boarding children and strengthen communication to reduce rebelliousness among them.
A survey of sleep problems and influencing factors among preschoolers
XU Geng, LIU Yang, LIU Jijie, CHU Ying, GENG Menglong, TAO Fangbiao, PENG Lei
2022, 43(2): 234-237. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.017
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence of sleep problems and influencing factors among preschoolers, so as to provide a reference for healthy sleep behaviors among preschoolers.  Methods  From December 2017 to June 2018, a questionnaires study was administered to parents of 8 456 preschoolers from kindergartens in Yangzhou, Zhenjiang and Xuzhou by using random cluster sampling method. Demographic characteristics, screen time, sleep patterns and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) were colleted.  Results  The average night-sleep duration was (9.91±0.64)h, the rate of sleep deprivation was 51.7%, which increased with age (χtrend2=34.19, P < 0.01). The total scores of CSHQ were (49.46±5.02), and the prevalence of sleep problems was 95.0%, with the prevalence of specific sleep problems ranged from 2.3% to 76.4%. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that only-child, mothers' age, parental education, and household economic status was significantly associated the sleep problems (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The prevalence of sleep problems among preschool children is more prominent, varies by only-child, parental education and household economic status. Parents and society should raise awareness of sleep problems.
Neglect among preschool non-only-child in urban area of Nantong City
DAI Qianqian, LOU Haiqin, LIU Weiwei, CHEN Sihan, WANG Ruifeng, SHAN Lingling, XU Zhanbin
2022, 43(2): 238-241, 246. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.018
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  Objective  To understand the neglect status among preschool non-only-child in Nantong, and to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and intervention of non-only child neglect.  Methods  Using the method of random cluster sampling, a total of 1 141 parents of children from 9 kindergartens in the main urban area of Nantong were investigated with National Neglect Norm Scale for Children aged 3 to 6 years.  Results  The neglect rate of preschool children in Nantong City was 28.6%, with neglect score being (40.21±6.67). The neglect rate of non-only-child was 32.6%, with neglect score being (41.14±6.73). The total and physical neglect rate of non-only-child were higher than that of only child, and the total neglect score and physical, emotional, educational, safety, medical neglect dimensional scores were higher than that of only-child, the difference were all statistically significant (χ2/t=6.21, 17.57; 3.95, 4.98, 3.45, 2.70, 2.01, 3.11, P < 0.05). In non-only-child, univariate analysis showed that there were no significant differences in neglect rate and scores among children by gender and family types (P>0.05); There was no significant difference in the child neglect rate between different age groups and children in different families (χ2=3.59, 2.99, P>0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the degree of neglect (t=2.79, 3.04, P < 0.05). The neglect rate and score of non-only-child with high level of family income, parental education and parental relationship was relatively low, while the neglect rate and score in non-only-child whose grandparents serving as primary caregiver were higher (P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that family monthly income less than 5 000 yuan was associated with 2.73-times higher risk of neglect compared to children with family monthly income more than 12 000 yuan. The risk of neglect among children whose grandparents serving as caregivers was associated with 2.17-times higher than children with parental care. The risk of neglect of children with poor parental relationship was 2.29-times higher than that of children with good parental relationship (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The neglect among preschool non-only-child in Nantong City is common. Improvement in family economic status, parental care and parent relationship might help reduce neglect among preschool non-only-child.
Relationship between family rearing style and 3-6-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems
HUANG Yongling, LI Ruoyu, FANG Liang, WU Shudong, WAN Yuhui, HE Haiyan, PENG Chunyan, WANG Xinzhu
2022, 43(2): 242-246. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.019
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  Objective  To explore the relationship and gender difference between family rearing styles with emotional and behavior problems in preschool children aged 3-6 years, so as to provide reference for early prevention and intervention of children's emotional and behavior problems.  Methods  Using the method of stratified cluster sampling, 9 647 children aged 3-6 years old from 36 kindergartens in Wuhu, Lu'an and Fuyang of Anhui Province were selected in June 2021. Primary caregivers were investigated with self-designed questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (parents version) and Parental Rearing Style Scale.  Results  The detection rate of elevated SDQ total difficulty score was 6.5%, with boys (7.1%) higher than that of girls (5.8%). The detection rate of abnormal emotional behavior were significantly higher in children with high scores on doting, laissez faire, autocracy and inconsistency of family rearing style, compared with those in the low score group (χ2=210.32, 203.87, 102.70, 212.69, P < 0.01), and the detection rate increased with the increase of score. However, the detection rate of abnormal emotional behavior in the high score group of democracy was significantly lower than that in the low score group (χ2=156.24, P < 0.01), and the detection rate decreased with the increase of score. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-level doting (OR=4.31), laissez faire (OR=4.16), autocracy (OR=3.36) and inconsistency (OR=4.76) of family rearing style were associated with high risk of children's emotional behavior problems, while high-level of democracy (OR=0.34) in family rearing style was associated with low risk of emotional behavior problems. The comparison between boys and girls showed that the risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the indulgent rearing style of boys was significantly higher than that of girls (OR=1.90, 2.13) (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Family rearing styles are associated with emotional and behavioral problems among preschool children. Boys are sensitive to the negative impact of doting rearing style. Good rearing styles is beneficial to the prevention and control of children's emotional and behavioral problems.
Feasibility and reliability of the Brockport physical fitness test among visually-impaired adolescents in China
LIANG Shuang, TAO Ruiyuan, PAN Ning, SHEN Chao, ZHANG Chunhua
2022, 43(2): 247-250, 255. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.020
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  Objective  To investigate the feasibility and reliability of the Brockport physical fitness test in visually-impaired adolescents in China to determine its applicability in clinical practice and research.  Methods  A total of 41 visually-impaired adolescents 10-17 years of age were included. Body mass index (BMI), dominant grip strength, modified curl up, trunk lift, shoulder stretch, back-saver sit-and-reach and PACER were tested twice with a 1-week interval by the same tester using the same instrument.  Results  Each item in the Brockport physical fitness test was completed. The intraclass correlation coefficients for height, weight, BMI, dominant grip strength, modified curl up, trunk lift, back-saver sit-and-reach (left/right leg straight), and PACER in all subjects were 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 0.94, 0.75, 0.78, 0.90, 0.87, 0.89, respectively. In blind subjects, the corresponding values were 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 0.97, 0.80, 0.92, 0.89, 0.87, 0.87, respectively. In low-vision subjects, the corresponding values were 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 0.90, 0.71, 0.40, 0.89, 0.85, 0.85, respectively. The Cohen kappa values for shoulder stretch (left/right hand on top) were 0.79 and 0.78 in all subjects, 0.72 and 0.64 in blind subjects, and 0.87 and 1.00 in low-vision subjects.  Conclusion  The Brockport physical fitness test is a feasible and reliable physical fitness test for visually-impaired adolescents in China, however, trunk lift is not recommended for adolescents with low vision.
Effects of changes in family structure on depressive anxiety and stress-related symptoms among college students
WANG Feng, ZHANG Yuancai, QIU Jianhua, LIU Gang, SU Fan, WANG Cuimei, WANG Liang, WU Xiaoyan
2022, 43(2): 251-255. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.021
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  Objective  To investigate the effects of major family structure changes on depression, anxiety and stress symptoms of college students, and to provide theoretical basis for mental health promotion and prevention.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted among 9 779 college students from 6 universities, including Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Shangrao Normal University, Gannan Normal University, Fujian Polytechnic Normal University, and Changjiang University, by using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21).  Results  The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among college students were 27.4%, 42.0% and 17.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that family structure was associated with anxiety and stress symptoms (χ2=8.40, 13.08, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that specific family structure other than single-or two-parent family was positively correlated with anxiety(OR=1.89, 95%CI=1.05-3.42) and stress symptoms (OR=2.48, 95%CI=1.36-4.50), family structure changes due to parental divorce was positively correlated with stress symptoms (OR=1.53, 95%CI=1.05-2.20)(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms of college students is related to the type of family structure and the changing factors. Colleges should pay more attention to the mental condition of college students with family structure changes, and deliver various mental health promotion services including psychological counseling and health education.
Incidence, mortality and trends of drowning among children aged 0-14 years in China, 1990-2019
DAI Mengna, XI Yan, YIN Wenqiang, CHEN Zhongming, FENG Zhiqiang, TANG Changhai
2022, 43(2): 256-259, 264. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.022
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  Objective  To understand the incidence and mortality of drowning and secular trend among children aged 0-14 from 1990 to 2019 in China, so as to provide reference for drowning intervention among children in China.  Methods  Based on data of drowning incidence and death in 0-14 years old children in China in 1990-2019 years Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2019) database, the standardized rate was calculated by the world standard population, and the trend of incidence rate and mortality rate was fitted by Joinpoint regression model respectively.  Results  From 1990 to 2019, the overall incidence of drowning among children aged 0-14 years in China decreased from 37.17/100 000 to 12.54/100 000, a relative decrease of 66.26%; the standardized incidence rate decreased from 21.78/100 000 to 14.98/100 000, a relative decrease of 31.22%. The incidence rate and standardized incidence rate of drowning in children showed an increasing-after-decreasing trend, with decreasing mortality and standardized mortality rate. Joinpoint regression showed that the incidence rate of standardized AAPC for child drowning was -1.3, -2.5 for males and 0 for females. The overall standardized mortality rate of drowning was -3.9, male was -3.6, female was about -4.5, the trend changes were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The incidence rate and mortality rate of male were higher than that of female, and there was significant difference between male and female groups (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Significant progress has been made in child drowning prevention and control, with substantial decreasing in the incidence rate of child drowning. However, considering recent slight increase in drowning incidence, effective measures should be developmed including risk factors, vulnerable population to further control the incidence and mortality of child drowning.
Association between locus of control and health risk behaviors among college students
YU Jincong, ZHAO Zhiya, TANG Xuemei, LI Wenzhen
2022, 43(2): 260-264. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.023
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  Objective  To explore the prevalence of health risk behaviors and the association between locus of control and health risk behaviors among college students, and to provide reference for the formulation of health risk behavior intervention for college students.  Methods  A multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 provinces from the east, central and west regions of China, respectively. Two universities were then randomly selected from each selected province. A total of 3 951 college students from 12 universities completed the electronic and anonymous questionnaires, which included demographic characteristics, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Questionnaire (MHLC) and Health Risk Behaviors Questionnaire. Chi-square test and binary Logistic regression were applied to analyze data.  Results  Totally 2 287(57.88%) students reported having three or more kinds of health risk behaviors. The prevalence of excessive screen time, insufficient physical exercise, poor eating behaviors, drinking and smoking were 97.34%(3 846), 74.72%(2 952), 72.21%(2 853), 13.62%(538) and 5.57%(220). Internal locus of control was associated with lower risk of three or more kinds of health risk behavior (OR=0.98) and inadequate physical activity (OR=0.93) and associated with higher risk of smoking (OR=1.07). The powerful others was associated with lower risk of three or more kinds of health risk behavior (OR=0.98), drinking (OR=0.95) and unhealthy eating behavior (OR=0.97). And the chance was associated with higher risk of three or more kinds of health risk behavior (OR=1.04), drinking (OR=1.04) and inadequate physical activity (OR=1.03)(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  College students have serious health risk behavior problems, the locus of control is associated with health risk behaviors among college students. Which might be helpful to prevent the occurrence of health risk behaviors, and improve overall health of college students.
Mental health status of middle school students from single parent families in urban area of Lishui City
WANG Junxia, YE Jianwu, WANG Yuan, ZHANG Lihong
2022, 43(2): 265-267, 273. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.024
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  Objective  To investigate mental health status and associated factors among middle school students from single-parent families in urban Lishui, and to provide reference for mental health education for adolescents from single-parent families.  Methods  In the urban area of Lishui City, a total of 160 middle school students from single parent families in four middle schools were selected by stratified random sampling, among 160 middle school students from two-parent families were selected matched for class, gender, age and family background, and Mental Health Diagnostic Test Scale (MHT) was used for testing.  Results  In terms of allergy tendency, physical symptoms, phobic tendency and total anxiety detection, middle school students from single-parent families were higher than those from two-parent families, and the differences were statistically significant (χ2=5.70, 5.34, 6.84, 4.30, P < 0.05). Among the 160 middle school students from single-parent families, the detection rate of girls in learning anxiety, anxiety towards others, self-blame tendency, allergic tendency, physical symptoms, terror tendency, impulsive tendency and total anxiety were higher than that of boys, and the differences were statistically significant. (χ2=12.26, 4.61, 7.34, 14.96, 20.53, 10.05, 16.19, 9.39, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender was positively associated with mental health of middle school students in single-parent families (OR=4.25, 95%CI=1.87-7.02, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  There are a higher prevalence of psychological problems among middle school students from single-parent families in Lishui city, especially among girls, which warrents further psychosocial services including mental health education.
Association between maternal pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery overweight with overweight and obesity of middle school students: a case-control study
LIANG Jianping, GONG Zijun, LIANG Yuelang, GUO Jiajia, YANG Jiewen, LIU Li, YAO Zhenjiang
2022, 43(2): 268-273. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.025
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  Objective  To explore the association between maternal pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery overweight with overweight and obesity among offspring during adolescence in Guangzhou, and to provide evidence for child obesity prevention.  Methods  Based on the routine physical examination of primary and secondary school students in Guangzhou, random sampling was used to 6 middle schools and questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 384 students and their parents. Students with overweight and obesity were included in the case group, and the other students were included in the control group. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was adopted to reduce selection bias. Logistic regression model and χ2 test were used to analyze the data before and after PSM.  Results  The result of univariate analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between overweight/obese group and the control group by gender, schooling stage (middle and high schools), picky eater, family history of obesity, family monthly income, delivery mode, high birthweight, and gestational weight gain before PSM(χ2=42.38, 10.64, 14.47, 26.85, 10.58, 13.59, 15.53, 20.64, P < 0.05). After PSM, results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between overweight/obese group and the control group in middle and high schools, and mother delivery mode(P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of overweight and obesity of maternal pre-pregnancy on adolescent offspring was 1.54 times higher than control group (95%CI=1.01-2.36) before PSM, and the overweight and obesity of maternal pre-delivery also increased the risk of overweight and obesity of adolescent offspring(OR=2.35, 95%CI=1.67-3.31). After PSM, maternal overweight and obesity pre-pregnancy (OR=2.17, 95%CI=1.41-3.34) and maternal overweight and obesity pre-delivery(OR=2.99, 95%CI=2.08-4.31) significantly increased the risk of overweight and obesity in adolescent offspring.  Conclusion  Maternal overweight and obesity pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity in adolescent offspring.
Correlation between motor skills and focused with shifting attention in preschool children
HU Jing, GU Jiayi, WANG Wenyuan, PANG Jianlan, MA Rui
2022, 43(2): 274-279. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.026
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  Objective  To investigate correlations between motor skills with focused and shifting attention among preschool children, and to provide basis for the overall development of preschool children aged 4-6 years.  Methods  During March to June 2020, a total of 165 preschool children aged 4-6 years were selected and investigated with subscales of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2nd Edition (BOT-2) for agility and limb bilateral coordination assessment, and subscales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-test-2nd Edition (MABC-2) for throwing and catching skill assessment, as well as balance subscale for the assessment of limb movement coordination, hand-eye coordination, agility, and balance. The Kansas Reflection-Impulsivity Scale for Preschoolers for Pre-schoolers (KRISP) and Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) were used to assess focused and shifting attention levels. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for statistical analysis.  Results  Except for one-handed throwing skills and shifting attention, there were statistically significant gender differences between boys and girls in total score of body movement coordination, total score of hand-to-eye coordination, hand-to-hand connection, total score of agility of movement, total score of movement balance, static support, walking on tiptoe, foot-to -foot jump and focused attention(t=-6.86, -2.00, -3.15, -3.75, -3.00, -2.95, -2.18, -2.11, -3.21, P < 0.05), and girls were better than boys; children's total score of body movement coordination, total score of hand-to-eye coordination, hand-to-hand connection, agility of movement, walking on tiptoe and focused attention improves with age(r=0.47, 0.41, 0.47, 0.51, 0.16, 0.31, P < 0.05); After excluding the interference of gender and age, total score of body movement coordination was significantly correlated with preschool children's focused attention(β=0.31, 95%CI=0.08-0.39, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Limb movement coordination and focused attention are significantly and positively correlated among preschool children aged 4-6 years. Therefore, preschool education and family activities should focus on designing and developing limb movement coordination-related games and courses to enhance the focused attention of and form favorable attention quality in preschool children aged 4-6 years.
Comparative analysis of bone mineral content measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorption among children and adolescents
LU Keyuan, YAO Wanwen, AO Liping, LU Shuang, CHENG Hong, LIU Junting, ZHENG Yijin, CHEN Chao, MI Jie, YANG Yi, LIU Li
2022, 43(2): 280-283, 287. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.027
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  Objective  To compare bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body mineral content (BMC) of children and adolescents, and to provide a basis for BIA to accurately measure BMC in children and adolescents.  Methods  By using the convenience sampling method, among 1 469 children and adolescents aged 7-17 were recruited in Guangzhou from April to May 2019, the BMC was measured by DXA and BIA. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement between BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on log-transformed data. The BMC was categorized into age-and specific-tertiles, and the agreement between methods was evaluated based on the kappa coefficients. Treating the BMC with DXA as the dependent variable, a prediction model was constructed for correcting the BIA measure.  Results  The ICCs were 0.93 and 0.94 for boys and girls, respectively. In Bland-Altman analysis, the limits of agreements for the BIA-to-DXA ratio were wide in boys and girls, ranging from 0.27-0.76 and 0.17-0.72, respectively. The kappa coefficients for categorized BMC levels were 0.57 and 0.45 for boys and girls, respectively, showing a fair-to-good degree of agreement. When sub-grouped by BMI, the kappa coefficients for all BMI groups of boys and overweight girls were all >0.75, with an excellent agreement. The prediction models for boys and girls were as follows: BMCDXA=-0.51+0.44×BMCBIA+0.06×Age+0.02×BMI; and BMCDXA=-0.55+0.43×BMCBIA+0.06×Age+0.02×BMI, respectively. The R2 for models of boys and girls were 0.87 and 0.87, respectively.  Conclusion  The agreement between BIA and DXA was poor for measuring BMC, but acceptable when evaluating the categorized BMC levels, suggesting the BIA may be applied in assessment of the BMC levels when compared to the age-and gender-specific population. Additionally, the prediction model for correcting BMC by BIA fis well to the measurement by DXA.
Relationship between age at menarche and screening positive myopia among girls
WU Xiaoyan, WAN Yuhui, TAO Shuman, XU Shaojun, TAO Fangbiao
2022, 43(2): 284-287. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.028
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  Objective  To assess screening method for myopia among Chinese school-age children and adolescents, and to provide scientific evidence for an appropriate protocol for vision screening.  Methods  According to technical protocols of 2014 Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health, a total of 1 725 primary and middle school girls aged 9 to 13 years old from Suzhou, Hefei and Chizhou of Anhui Province were selected. Basic information and menarche were collected by questionnaires. Distance visual acuity and subjective refraction were used for screening myopia. And multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between menarche and screening myopia.  Results  The detection rate of screening positive myopia of girls aged 9-13 years in Anhui province was 62.5%(1 078). The ratio of screening myopia was significantly higher in urban girls (71.0%) compared with suburban girls(54.6%), and higher in girls with homework time >2 h compared (70.8%) with homework time 1-2 h and < 1 h (68.4%, 54.9%) groups (χ2=49.50, 37.88, P < 0.01). The detection rate of screening myopia between different menarche groups was only statistically significant among girls aged 9 and 13 years (χ2=4.75, 11.22, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that menarche was significantly associated with screening myopia (OR=2.06, 95%CI=1.68-2.52). After controlling age and BMI, the association remained (P < 0.05). After further controlling family residence background and homework time, the association diminished (P>0.05).  Conclusion  Menarche is closely associated with screening myopia among girls in selected age groups, future cohort studies are needed to focus on prevention and control of myopia during pubertal development.
Relationship between urinary metals and lung function in college students
RONG Suying, LIU Jiajia, YANG Wenqi, ZENG Hao, ZHANG Lei, FANG Bo, XU Houjun, WANG Qian
2022, 43(2): 288-291. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.029
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  Objective  To explore the association between urinary metals and lung function among college students, and to provide a theoretical basis for related research on metal exposure and lung function injury.  Methods  A total of 45 healthy college students were recruited from North China University of Science and Technology in Caofeidian between 2017-2018. During the four seasons, information was obtained from questionnaires and physical examinations, lung function parameters were assessed, including FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75, and morning urine samples were collected simultaneously. The urinary levels of 15 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); a Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare differences in urinary metals during the four seasons; and a mixed effect model was used to assess correlations between urinary metals and lung function.  Results  There were significant differences in the levels of urinary chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony and lead from 15 metals over the four seasons (H=9.79-20.61, P < 0.05). The differences observed in five lung function parameters over the four seasons were statistically significant (F=61.72, 45.30, 47.61, 25.47, 35.13, P < 0.05). The linear mixed effect model analysis showed that urinary concentrations of vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and antimony were negatively correlated with FEV1(B=0.202, 0.192, 0.181, 0.154, 0.131, 0.283); urinary concentrations of aluminum, vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and antimony were negatively correlated with FVC (B=0.252, 0.290, 0.292, 0.271, 0.201, 0.180, 0.171, 0.163, 0.381); urinary concentrations of manganese and antimony were negatively correlated with PEF (B=0.291, 0.354)(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The increase of multiple metal concentrations among college students was related to lung function decline, the long-term metal exposure might lead to lung function damage. So environmental metal pollution should be controlled.
Epidemiological characteristics and influencing factors of scoliosis in primary and secondary school students in Guangdong Province
LI Meng, QU Yabin, SUN Yi, GAN Ping, SHEN Shaojun
2022, 43(2): 292-295. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.030
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  Objective  To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and associated factors of scoliosis in primary and secondary school students in Guangdong, and to provide guidance for scoliosis control.  Methods  Using a stratified cluster random sampling method, a total of 38 649 students aged 9-18 were selected from 132 primary and secondary schools in the Pearl River Delta and non-Pearl River Delta cities for scoliosis screening and related associated factors questionnaire survey from September to October 2020.  Results  A total of 1 440 students were detected with scoliosis, with a detection rate of 3.73%. The detection rate of girls was 4.90%, which was higher than that of boys at 2.66%(χ2=386.89, P < 0.01). The detection rate in the Pearl River Delta region was 4.09%, which was higher than the non-Pearl River Delta region at 3.38%(χ2=13.22, P < 0.01). The detection rate in urban areas was 4.51%, which was higher than counties at 2.79%(χ2=78.70, P < 0.01). The detection rate increased with the increase of the school period, high school (5.94%)>junior high school (4.50%)>elementary school (1.35%)(χ2=386.89, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that region, urbanicity, gender, educational stage, exercise, using electronic mobile devices, nutritional status are the influencing factors for scoliosis (OR=0.41-3.78, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The detection rate of scoliosis in primary and secondary school students in Guangdong Province varies by gender, urbanicity and educational stages. Female students, as well as junior and senior high school students should be paid more attention.
Modification effect of overweight and obesity on the association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and high blood pressure in adolescents
MA Tao, HUO Jiakang, WU Lijuan, LI Weiming, LIU Xiangtong, WEN Bo, CHEN Li, DONG Yanhui, GUO Xiuhua, MA Jun
2022, 43(2): 296-299. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.031
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  Objective  To analyze the association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and high blood pressure in adolescents and its modification effect of overweight and obesity, and to provide a reference for the refined management of students' physical health and the scientific prevention and controlling of air pollution.  Methods  A total of 148 956 junior high school students and senior high school students who passed the annual physical examination data of middle school students in Beijing from 2017 to 2018 were selected; The inverse distance weighted interpolation method was used to get the meteorological elements and air quality of the research area; Linear mixed effect model was used to estimate the cumulative lag effect of short-term PM2.5 exposure on systolic and diastolic blood pressure within 7 days, and analyze the modification effect of overweight and obesity on the association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and high blood pressure in adolescents.  Results  From September 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018, the average concentration of PM2.5 was (56.53±45.85)μg/m3; The detection rate of overweight and obesity was 34.22%, and the detection rate of high blood pressure was 8.03%. The cumulative lag effect of PM2.5 on systolic blood pressure in overweight and obesity group was the largest at lag07, that is, the daily average concentration of PM2.5 increased by 10 μg/m3 was significantly correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03-1.07); the cumulative lag effect of PM2.5 on systolic blood pressure in non overweight and obese group was the largest at lag05, that is, the daily average concentration of PM2.5 increased by 10 μg/m3 was significantly correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.02-1.06). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 did not affect the high diastolic blood pressure in adolescents. Overweight and obese adolescents were more susceptible to high blood pressure caused by short-term PM2.5 exposure within 3 days of cumulative lag (lag01-lag03).  Conclusion  The short-term exposure of PM2.5 has a significant positive correlation with adolescent blood pressure, and shows a lag effect. Overweight and obese adolescents have higher blood pressure after PM2.5 short-term exposure.
Relationship between overweight, obesity and high blood pressure among middle school students in Kaifeng City
CHEN Yongmei, FAN Mingming
2022, 43(2): 300-303. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.032
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the association between overweight, obesity and high blood pressure among middle school students in Kaifeng city.  Methods  A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 4 058 middle school students in Kaifeng City to measure blood pressure, height and weight, and to analyze the relationship between overweight and obesity and high blood pressure from September to October 2019.  Results  The prevalence of high blood pressure in middle school students in Kaifeng was 11.78%. Compared with normal weight group, overweight (OR=1.65) and obesity (OR=3.32) were significantly correlated with the risk of high blood pressure (P < 0.01). The risk of high blood pressure in overweight and obese boys was 1.87-and 4.16-times higher than that in normal weight boys, respectively. The risk of high blood pressure for overweight and obese girls was 1.55-and 2.69-times higher than that for normal weight girls, respectively. The risk of high blood pressure in high school and normal weight group, middle school and overweight/obesity group, and high school and overweight/obesity group were 1.90, 2.85-and 3.39-times higher than that in middle school and normal weight group, respectively (P=0.02).  Conclusion  The prevention of high blood pressure in middle school students should start from the prevention of overweight and obesity, especially among overweight and obese boys. Risk of high blood pressure increases with grade among overweight/obese middle school students.
Analysis of health monitoring results in the teaching environment of primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province from 2017 to 2021
LUO Qingwen, TAN Xiaodong
2022, 43(2): 304-307, 311. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.033
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the current situation of teaching environmental sanitation in primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province from 2017 to 2021, and to provide basis for the development of teaching environmental sanitation intervention measures in Sichuan Province.  Methods  A total of 7 510 primary and secondary schools were supervised and sampled from 2017 to 2021 according to the unified questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis method was used to analyze the monitoring results.  Results  The overall pass rate from 2017 to 2021 is only 51.70% (3 883), a total of 2 282 were sampled in 2017 and 1 414 were qualified, with the pass rate was the highest (61.96%), a total of 1 768 were sampled in 2019 and 750 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (42.42%). The pass rate of different testing items in each year from 2017 to 2021 and the pass rate of the same test item in different years from 2017 to 2021 were statistically significant (P < 0.05). A total of 2 095 samples were inspected in rural areas in five years, and 1 177 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (56.18%). In urban areas, a total of 2 124 samples were inspected in five years, and 1 040 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (48.96%). In the five-year period of primary school, a total of 4 867 schools were sampled, and 2 626 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (53.93%). There were statistically significant differences in the qualification rate of desks and chairs, classroom lighting, blackboard illumination, per capita area of classrooms, and per capita area of student dormitories in different regions (χ2=9.87, 17.51, 37.69, 75.43, 11.22, P < 0.05), and there were statistically significant differences in the pass rates of classroom lighting, per capita area of classrooms, per capita area of student dormitories, and ventilation of classrooms and student dormitories between different school sections (χ2=9.16, 39.37, 79.56, 31.37, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The teaching environment of primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province needs to be improved continuously, the qualified rate of classroom lighting and desks and chairs is low, and the investment in weak links should be increased.
Effects of schoolbags use on musculoskeletal health among adolescents
KONG Lingjun, ZHOU Xin, FANG Min
2022, 43(2): 308-311. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.034
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Abstract:
Previous epidemiological studies indicated that weight of schoolbag in most countries is far higher than that recommended guidelines. Heavy schoolbags seriously affect the healthy development of the musculoskeletal system of adolescents, which not only leads to abnormal posture e.g. rounded shoulders, hunchback and head forward, but also is one of the main causes of adolescent musculoskeletal diseases such as cervical spondylosis, low back pain and scoliosis. However, adolescents and their parents do not fully understand the harm of heavy schoolbags, let alone the health knowledge regarding the choice and use of schoolbags. Therefore, the review introduces current evidence regarding the association between schoolbag and adolescent musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as schoolbag selection and use, with the aim to arouse the attention of teenagers and their parents and relevant health education departments.
Environmental controllable factors of adolescents' depression
SONG Lingling, WU Jing, SU Puyu
2022, 43(2): 312-315. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.035
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Abstract:
Depressive symptoms among adolescents are common in the world, depressive symptoms could increase the risk of physical and mental health, interpersonal relationship, social adaption in later life. Hence, the prevention of depressive symptom among adolescents have been valued by scholars and plenty studies have been conducted from the perspective of gene, environment and the inter-connectivity between gene and environment. The environment adolescents faced can be divided into family environment, school environment and social environment. This study reviews the controllable factors in three environments and provides references for the prevention and control of depressive symptoms among adolescents.
Impact of microplastics on children's health
LI Mingju, LI Zhuo, BAI Yinglong, JIA Lihong, SUN Wei, PAN Guowei, YAN Lingjun, YANG Zuosen
2022, 43(2): 316-320. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.02.036
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Abstract:
As a new type of pollutant, microplastics have attracted extensive attention. Children in a critical stage of growth and development are vulnerable to microplastics. Summarzing the relevant laws and regulations and the source of microplastics, the paper demonstrates the ways of microplastics entering human body, some toxic effects of microplastics found in recent experimental studies and their potential hazards to children's health are introduced in detail.