2021 Vol. 42, No. 7

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Comprehensive psychosocial support for better health and well-being in adolescents
SUN Ying
2021, 42(7): 961-963. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.001
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Gradual refinement of brain regions for processing social information during adolescence makes individuals particularly sensitive to social influence. This editorial summarizes the associations between social relations with adolescent health and well-being, and provides a brief review of effective psychosocial support interventions around the world. The dynamic changes and significance of social relations in adolescence emphasizes the importance of comprehensive psychosocial support for adolescents. More interventions aimed at improving health literacy, prosocial behavior and emotion regulation abilities hold promise in reducing the risk of poor mental health as adolescents navigate the changes in their social environment.
Logic and approach to the integration of supportive environment for children and adolescents' physical activities in China
ZHANG Wei, YU Jianping, QIANGBA Yangzhen, WANG Senlin, XIONG Jian, ZHU Luona.
2021, 42(7): 964-968. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.002
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Physical health of contemporary children and adolescents decreasing due to physical inactivity. After review of the implementation of physical activity promotion among children and adolescents at home, this paper analyzes the possible reasons of physical activities neglected, constrained and occupied by the family, school and community, and proposes an integrated supportive environment for physical activities among "family school community", so as to promote physical activity among children and adolescents and improve their physical health accordingly.
Effects of adolescent peer education psychological resilience of adolescents
DIAO Hua, YANG Lianjian, LI Ting, JIN Feng, PU Yang, WANG Hong.
2021, 42(7): 969-972. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.003
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  Objective  To verify the effectiveness of adolescent peer education on psychological resilience of adolescents, so as to provide a scientific reference for preventing adolescents' physical and mental health problems.  Methods  The non-equivalent comparison group design method was conducted involving 2 towns which were divided into an intervention group(n=732) and a control group(n=881). The intervention group received 1-year peer education. Their resilience and basic information was assessed by using a adolescent psychological resilience scale and a self-designed basic situation questionnaire.  Results  After the intervention, in the control group, target concentration, emotional control, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total psychological resilience were reduced by 0.96, 0.72, 0.63, 1.16 and 3.31, respectively(t=5.75, 3.91, 3.52, 5.86, 6.29, P < 0.05); in the intervention group, emotional control, interpersonal assistance, and total psychological resilience were increased by 1.05, 0.54 and 1.72, respectively(t=-4.89, -2.46, -2.76, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression showed that the intervention group's target concentration(B=0.38), emotional control (B=0.85), family support(B=0.29), interpersonal assistance(B=0.83), and total psychological resilience(B=2.40) increased higher than the control group(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Adolescent peer education is effective in improving the target concentration, emotional control, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total psychological resilience.
Relationship between pubertal knowledge-attitude-practice and quality of life among left-behind children
TANG Yinshuang, DIAO Hua, JIN Feng, PU Yang, ZHANG Jinglin, ZHAO Yingjian, WANG Hong.
2021, 42(7): 973-977, 982. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.004
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between pubertal knowledge-attitude-practice(KAP) and quality of life (QoL) of left-behind children in adolescence, and to provide a scientific reference for making measures to improve QoL of left-behind children.  Methods  In December 2017, 3 524 left-behind children from 5 primary schools and 5 middle schools in Chongqing were selected by stratified cluster sampling method carry out the Quality of Life Scale of adolescent children and the Questionnaire of Adolescent Knowledge and Belief.  Results  The scores of total QoL, physicaland social dimensions of left-behind children were lower than those of non-left-behind children (P < 0.05). Gender, School period, puberty timing, family rearing pattern and economic status had significant influence on the QoL of left-behind children (P < 0.05). The adolescent attitude and behavior had a positive effect on total QoL and the scores of physical, psychological, social and adolescent dimensions of left-behind children(B=0.62, 0.08, 0.11, 0.30, 0.13;0.77, 0.11, 0.20, 0.26, 0.19, P < 0.01); and knowledge had a positive effect on the adolescence of QoL(B=0.04, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The adolescent attitude, behavior and quality of life of left-behind children were positively correlated. Strengthening adolescent health education for left-behind children, focusing on conveying correct adolescent attitude to students, and promoting the transformation of correct attitude to positive practice, can improve the QoL of adolescent left-behind children.
Prevalence and influencing factors of health literacy among junior and senior high school students in Chongqing
JIN Feng, DIAO Hua, PU Yang, TANG Yinshuang, ZHANG Jinglin, WANG Hong.
2021, 42(7): 977-982. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.005
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  Objective  To understand the health literacy level and its influencing factors among middle school students in Chongqing, and to provide a basis for health promotion.  Methods  Using stratified cluster random sampling and a self-designed questionnaire, we conducted a survey among 8 449 junior and senior high school students from four districts and counties in Chongqing municipality from November to December 2019.  Results  The attainment rates of total health literacy, functional health literacy, interactive health literacy, and critical health literacy among middle school students in Chongqing were 67.96%, 75.12%, 50.24%, and 72.21%, respectively. Among the 12 factors, low rates were observed in health decision-making, reasonable nutrition, and communication (41.52%, 46.09% and 62.18%, respectively). After controlling for related confounding factors, the results of the multivariate Logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors affected the total health literacy of middle school students: the investigated region (OR=1.20); school segment (OR=1.35); relationship with mother (OR=1.52); relationship with teacher (OR=2.20); number of close friends (OR=1.68); and health education course (OR=1.52) (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The health literacy level of middle school students in Chongqing is relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on improving interactive health literacy in order to promote the healthy development of middle school students.
Relationship between peer attachment and quality of life among adolescents in Chongqing
ZHANG Jinglin, PU Yang, DIAO Hua, JIN Feng, TANG Yinshuang, ZHAO Yingjian, WANG Hong.
2021, 42(7): 983-986. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.006
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  Objective  To determine the relationship between peer attachment and quality of life among adolescents in Chongqing, to provide scientific basis for intervention of quality of life.  Methods  A total of 6 073 respondents were selected from 5 middle schools and 6 primary schools in a district of Chongqing in December 2017 by stratified cluster sampling method. The revised Chinese version of Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire (IPPA-R) Peer Attachment Subscale and Adolescent Children's Quality of Life Scale were used to conduct the survey.  Results  The total score of life quality of students with secure attachment type (144.97±17.39) was significantly higher than that of students with insecure attachment type(136.45±17.75)(t=18.90, P < 0.01). The scores of four dimensions of life quality of students with secure attachment were significantly higher than those of students with insecure attachment (P < 0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that peer attachment was correlated with physical, psychological, social, adolescent dimensions and the total score of life quality(B=0.28, 0.03, 0.05, 0.14, 0.05, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Adolescent peer attachment is positively correlated with the total score and specific dimensions of life quality. Improving the safety of peer attachment is helpful to improve life quality among adolescents.
Effect of peer education on adolescent knowledge, attitude and practice among primary and middle school students in a district of Chongqing
JIN Feng, DIAO Hua, PU Yang, TANG Yinshuang, ZHANG Jinglin, WANG Hong.
2021, 42(7): 987-990. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.007
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  Objective  To analyze the effect of the peer education intervention model on improving adolescent knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among primary and secondary school students, so as to provide a basis for exploring adolescent-based health education methods.  Methods  A group of students from grades 4-5 and 7-8 were selected from two primary schools and two middle schools in a district of Chongqing. The sample was divided into an intervention group (n=685) and a control group (n=821), and the intervention group received peer education for one year. Basic information related to the pre-and post-intervention, and data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behavior were investigated using a basic situation questionnaire and an adolescent knowledge-attitudes-behavior questionnaire that were designed by the research group.  Results  The results obtained after the intervention showed that the scores of adolescent knowledge-attitudes-behavior and the total scores of the intervention group increased from (10.00±6.39) (39.19±5.79) (28.69±4.24) and (77.89±12.66) to (15.65±5.87) (42.06±5.95) (29.95±4.05) and (87.66±12.93), and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). After the intervention, increasing of adolescent knowledge-attitudes-behavior and the total scores of the intervention group were (5.64±5.61) (2.87±6.72) (1.26±4.55) (9.77±11.91), respectively, which were higher than those of the control group. Except for adolescent behavior, increasing of other scores were statistically significant (t=-4.39, -2.40, -1.73, -4.09, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Peer education shows certain effects on improving adolescent knowledge and positive attitudes, although similar effect on adolescent behavior needs further study.
Dietary diversity and determinants among left-behind children in rural area
DAI Yiming, DING Jiayun, GUO Jianqiu, ZHANG Jiming, ZHANG Lei, WANG Zheng, WU Chunhua, ZHOU Zhijun.
2021, 42(7): 991-995. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.008
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  Objective  To evaluate the status of dietary diversity and determinants among school-age left-behind children.  Methods  A total of 501 children aged 9-10 years in Sheyang Mini Cohort Study were enrolled from Sheyang City in Jiangsu Province during 2019. A questionnaires survey was administrated to collect left-behind and socioeconomic information. Twenty-four hour dietary recall survey was conducted, dietary diversity score (DDS10 and DDS) and food variety score (FVS) were computed according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Weight and height of children were measured and sex-and age-standardized body mass index was used to define obesity. Multivariable regression models were preformed to explore the determinants of dietary diversity in school-age left-behind children.  Results  The proportion of left-behind children was 40.9%. The mean value and standard deviation of three kinds of dietary diversity score (DDS10, DDS, FVS) in left-behind children were (5.69±1.31)(6.55±1.44) and (13.48±4.23), respectively. All of these were lower than that in non-left-behind children (DDS10: 5.99±1.29; DDS: 6.79±1.40; FVS: 14.15±4.22). Significant difference in DDS10 between left-behind and non-left-behind children was observed (P=0.01). The results of multivariable regression demonstrated that gender, passive smoking, family education level and family economic status were related to dietary diversity scores (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Dietary diversity in school-age left-behind children was not optimistic and gender, passive smoking, parental education level, family economic status and left-behind situation play a critical role in dietary diversity among these children.
Evaluation and associated factors of the responses to public health emergencies among college students in Shandong Province
WANG Na, ZHANG Wen, CAO Xiaohua, ZHANG Hongli, YU Liping, ZHAO Min, LIN Junchang.
2021, 42(7): 996-999. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.009
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  Objective  To evaluate response to public health emergencies in colleges and universities and associated factors, and to provide references for emergency response mechanisms in colleges.  Methods  Using stratified random sampling, recruited 7 719 students in 6 universities in Shandong Province during April-May 2020, and analyzed the data with SPSS 25.0 software.  Results  About 65.5% of college students reported response to public health emergencies in their college, 67.7% of the students reported that colleges have emergency plans, 53.9% of the students reported that colleges have carried out simulated emergency training, and 64.7% of the students reported that colleges have carried out health education. Evaluation from students for responding to public health emergencies in colleges and universities scored(24.15±4.59), of which measures and policies related to epidemic control were highest(4.05±0.81), while mental health education or counselling services were lowest (3.95±0.85). Gender, grade, major, type of household registration, emergency response measures, emergency response plan, emergency simulation training, health education were associated with the evaluation of the measures by college students(t/F=5.04, 43.83, 79.92, -3.40, 26.86, 34.83, 29.35, 35.01, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  While recognizing the overall performance on public health responses in universities, college students believe certain limitations still exist; colleges and universities should continuously improve the emergency prevention and control system of public health emergencies in response to the effectiveness and deficiencies in the prevention and control process.
Influence of long-term aerobic exercise sports on microcirculation function and maximum oxygen uptake on the lower limbs of college students
YANG Mei, ZHU Huan, XIAO Jiewen, PENG Yong, ZHANG Hui
2021, 42(7): 1000-1004. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.010
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  Objective  To explore the effect of long-term aerobic exercise on microcirculation function and VO2max of college students, and to explore the relationship between microcirculation function and VO2max.  Methods  Seventy sports major college students were selected as the exercise group, 70 sedentary non-sports major students were selected as the control group. PF6000 dual-channel laser Doppler blood flow detector was used to assess the skin microcirculation function on the quadriceps femoris muscle of the subjects' right lower limbs.The PFT Ergo cardiopulmonary function test system and the equipped power bicycle were used to measure the VO2max of the subjects.  Results  The baseline value of MBP in the exercise group was significantly lower than that in the control group (6.5±1.8 vs. 8.1±2.5), but the microvascular reactivity(1 666.3±588.6 vs. 1 165.2±407.1) was significantly higher than that in the control group(t=-3.42, 4.46, P < 0.01). The absolute value of VO2max (2 684.8±451.1 vs. 2 474.4±423.5) and relative value (42.7±4.3 vs. 35.1±4.8) in exercise group were significantly higher than those in control group(t=2.16, 3.25, P < 0.01). Multiple regression showed that there was a positive correlation between microvascular reactivity and VO2max (relative value) (β=0.40, P=0.03), but no significant correlation between percutaneous oxygen partial pressure and VO2max (relative value) (β=0.23, P=0.19).  Conclusion  Long-term physical exercise can decrease microcirculation perfusion volume, improve microvascular reactivity, percutaneous oxygen partial pressure among college students. Improvement of the microvascular reactivity may be a sport improving VO2max (relative) one of the most important peripheral physiological mechanism.
Effectiveness of comprehensive cognitive behavioral intervention on juvenile violent behavior
LI Yawei, ZHU Jingmin
2021, 42(7): 1005-1008. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.011
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  Objective  To explore the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on adolescent violent behaviors.  Methods  A total of 120 middle school students with violence or violence tendency were selected from Lianbei Middle School in Shijiazhuang and divided into intervention and control group(n=60). The intervention group received comprehensive cognitive behavioral intervention while the control group did not. The changes of violence, violent risk, impulsive behavior and explicit aggressive behavior before and after intervention were compared between the two groups.  Results  The scores of personality insult, relational aggression, self-abuse, suicide ideation, severe violence dimension and total violence in the intervention group decreased significantly compared to before intervention(t=6.32, 7.88, 10.05, 7.05, 9.27, 8.01, P < 0.05). No similar changes were observed in the control group(t=0.35, 0.24, 1.01, 0.78, 0.49, 0.53, P>0.05). The scores of personality insult, relational aggression, self-abuse, suicide ideation, severe violence and total violence in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P < 0.05). In the intervention group, the VRS-YV score after intervention was significantly lower than that before intervention, and the proportion of individuals with VRS-YV score≥27 after intervention decreased significantly compared to before intervention (P < 0.05) and the control group(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The comprehensive cognitive behavior intervention shows effectiveness in improving the empathy ability and reduce the level of violent risk.
Evaluation criteria of moderate to vigorous physical activity in overweight or obese adolescents
LIAO Jing, ZHU Lin, LIU Jingxin, LI Zhanquan, LIU Fuxian
2021, 42(7): 1009-1013,1019. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.012
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  Objective  To verify the current cut-off points of physical activity intensity for adolescents to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among overweight or obese adolescents.  Methods  The total activity counts, heart rate and steps indicators most commonly used to reflect physical activity intensity were adopted, and a total of 15 MVPA cut-off points standards for adolescents were included. Ninety-four overweight or obese adolescents were tested for walking and running at 3-7 km/h in a free state, while simultaneously wearing MetaMax 3B gas metabolism analyzer, polar belt and actigraph w-GT3x BT triaxial accelerometer to collect energy consumption and activities count, heart rate and steps. Kappa consistency test and paired χ2 test were used for statistical analysis.  Results  Kappa consistency coefficients (0.27-0.53) < 0.60 between all cut-off points standards and the "gold standard" and the P < 0.01, indicating that the consistency is varied and not strong. In the standard diagnosis of each cut points, low sensitivity (49.11-67.59), high specificity (92.50-97.65), high -LR (0.14-0.52, >0.1) and low DOR(8.26-25.19, < 30) indicated high rate of misdiagnosis. Low specificity (36.75-69.41), high sensitivity (84.82-96.36) and low +LR(1.52-9.83, < 10) indicated a high rate of misdiagnosis; AUC of 0.67-0.80 suggested lower diagnostic performance.  Conclusion  Existing physical activity intensity cut-off points for overweight or obese adolescents were not consistent with MVPA and have low diagnostic capabilities. The following criteria of MVPA for overweight or obese adolescents are supposed.
Development of core recommendations on physical activity for Chinese students aged 7-18 years based on Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process
ZHANG Jingshu, LUO Dongmei, YAN Xiaojin, MA Ning, LIU Yunfei, DANG Jiajia, ZHONG Panliang, LI Liubai, MA Jun, SONG Yi
2021, 42(7): 1014-1019. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.013
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  Objective  To construct core information about physical activities of Chinese students aged 7-18 years, so as to provide a reference for impoving the level of adolescents' physical activities.  Methods  Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth was used as a framework, the preliminary core recommendations on physical activity for Chinese students aged 7-18 years were developed based on qualitative research. Recommendations covered three scales, including physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Physical activity included four subscales of frequency, intensity, duration and type, while sedentary behaviour and sleep only included one subscale. Three rounds of consultation were conducted using Delphi method. In the second round of consultation, the results of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health were presented to experts for reference. In the third round of consultation, experts need to rank the importance of seven items of physical fitness under the physical activity type subscale by age group through analytic hierarchy process.  Results  Totally 25, 25, and 18 experts were consulted in three rounds respectively. The questionnaire response rates in 3 rounds were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. The authority coefficients were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91. The harmony coefficients were 0.63(χ2=237.10, P < 0.01), 0.63(χ2=242.60, P < 0.01), and 0.76(χ2=97.05, P < 0.01). It was recommended that students aged 7 to 18 years in China should do moderate to vigorous physical activity for a cumulative total of at least 60 minutes per day, and most of the 60 minutes or more per day should be either moderate-or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Of the daily physical activity, students should conduct vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days a week. At least 2 hours of daytime outdoor activity was recommended for primary school students and 1 hour for secondary school students. 7-12-year-old students should do more physical activities that enhance flexibility, coordination and agility, while 13-18-year-old students should do more physical activities that enhance strength, endurance and speed. Sedentary behaviour included one subscale, where students should reduce sedentary behaviour, break up long periods of sitting as often as possible, and limit recreational screen time and online study time. Sleep included one subscale of duration.Students should get sufficient and uninterrupted sleep per night.  Conclusion  The development of core recommendations on physical activity for Chinese students aged 7 to 18 might help improve physical activity levels and promote health of children and adolescents.
Effectiveness of a sex education curriculum in seventh graders
YUAN Yuan, CHEN Minna, TANG Kun, SUN Xinying
2021, 42(7): 1020-1023, 1028. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.014
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  Objective  To assess the effectiveness of sexual education intervention among seventh-grade students, and to provide support tools for sex education for middle school students.  Methods  Seventh-grade students from six schools in Longnan, Gansu Province were randomly assigned to an intervention group (251 students) and a control group (222 students). After 8 weeks of school-based sex education in the intervention group, the results were compared before and after the intervention using self-assessment knowledge and attitude scales.  Results  The knowledge score in the control group decreased by (2.46±1.21) in the follow-up survey compared to the baseline survey. The intervention group scored (30.54±1.34) significantly higher than baseline (t=22.76, P < 0.01). After adjusting the sex ratio to 1∶1, the mean difference between the two groups after the intervention was (27.86±1.87) (t=14.90, P < 0.01). The interaction dit between time and intervention was (33.01±2.50) (t=13.19, P < 0.01) in difference analysis. The intervention effect size Hedge's g on knowledge in the intervention group was 1.27. The proportion of positive attitudes towards sex increased in the intervention group on 12 out of 14 questions, with percentage ranging from 7.5% to 25.9%. At the follow-up, the improvement in attitudes towards 12 questions was substantial for girls and 8 questions for boys in the intervention group. The attitude effect size Hedge's g was 0.99 in the intervention group.  Conclusion  The implementation of school-based sex education is capable of significant improving students' sexual knowledge and attitude in the short term.
Analysis of epidemic status and influencing factors of Mongolian children with autism in central and eastern Inner Mongolia
HAO Jinqi, FU Huiyuan, YANG Wenhan, HUO Jianxun, GAO Lei, YU Yanqin
2021, 42(7): 1024-1028. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.015
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  Objective  To understand the epidemic status and influencing factors of Mongolian children with ASD in central and eastern Inner Mongolia, so as to provide data support for formulating prevention and intervention strategies and improving the overall epidemiological investigation of ASD in Inner Mongolia.  Methods  Sixteen kindergartens and primary schools were selected from Chifeng City, Ulanqab City, Tongliao City, Hulunbuir City and Xilingol League cities in Inner Mongolia by means of random cluster sampling. Firstly, 7 108 children aged 3-14 were initially screened with the Kirschner Autism Behavior Scale(CABS), and then the children with ASD positive were given the autism behavior test scale (ABC). According to the diagnostic criteria, the professionals, including chief physicians and associate chief physicians from the major of child psychiatry, diagnosed ASD with the total score of ABC scale ≥62. Univariate and Logistic regression multivariate analysis were carried out among Mongolian children to find out the influencing factors related to the occurrence of Mongolian ASD in Inner Mongolia.  Results  The prevalence of Mongolian children was 0.37%. Mongolian ASD group and Mongolian normal children series in the household register, habitual twitch, hyperactivity, bite lips, families have extreme introverts, mothers age, father's cultural level, cultural degree of mother, father mother mild character, irritable, neonatal diseases, fetal gestational age distribution had statistical significance(χ2/Z=12.58, 16.68, 14.93, 64.43, -3.76, -2.86, 4.57, 11.12, 12.33, 16.66, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Measures such as shaping a healthy growth environment, adjusting parental style, paying attention to the level of early childhood language development, and preventing neonatal diseases might lower the risk of ASD in children.
Comparison of nutrition and visual health between Tibetan migrant students and local students in Gannan of Lanzhou New District
ZHANG Yonghua, MA Cuiling, ZHANG Xiaoling, SHI Ying, WANG Chunping, SU Junhai, ZHAO Ai
2021, 42(7): 1029-1032,1037. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.016
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  Objective  This paper studies the nutritional and vision health status of Tibetan migrant students and the differences between the local students in Lanzhou and them to provide a theoretical basis for nutrition intervention and vision protection for students.  Methods  Cluster sampling method was used to select 2 434 students migrating from Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to a boarding middle school, and 3 291 students from three middle schools in Qilihe District of Lanzhou from September to December 2020. All the students were administered physical and visual examination. Proportion of nutritional status, poor eyesight and myopia by gender and age groups between Tibetan migrant students and local students were analyzed.  Results  The detection rate of overweight and obesity in Tibetan migrant boys(2.8%, 5.7%) and girls(11.0%, 8.3%) was lower than that of local students of the same sex(5.6%, 8.3%;24.9%, 20.9%) (χ2=12.17, 7.21, P < 0.05; χ2=81.33, 91.34, P < 0.05); The detection rate of malnutrition in Tibetan migrant boys(9.9%) was higher than that in local boys(7.2%) (χ2=6.65, P < 0.05). The detection rate of poor vision in Tibetan migrant boys was lower than that in local boys (χ2=3.93, P < 0.05). The detection rate of myopia was significantly lower than that of local students (χ2=975.82, P < 0.01). The detection rate of abnormal color vision in Tibetan migrant boys was higher than that in local boys (χ2=8.38, P < 0.05). The detection rate of abnormal color vision in Tibetan migrant girls was lower than that in local girls (χ2=8.08, P < 0.05). The detection rate of mild and moderate visual impairment was lower among Tibetan migrant boys than local boys (χ2=3.88, 8.32, P < 0.05); the detection rate of mild, moderate and severe myopia was lower than local boys (χ2=13.72, 55.96, 338.50, P < 0.05). The detection rate of mild, moderate and severe myopia was lower among Tibetan migrant girls than local girls (χ2=7.62, 37.79, 424.00, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Tibetan migrant students was lower than that of local students. More attention should be paid to nutrition intake of Tibetan boys to prevent malnutrition. The detection rate of myopia in Tibetan migrant students is low, but the detection rate of severe poor vision among Tibetan students in the junior high school group is higher than that of local students, and attention should be paid to the visual health of Tibetan students in junior high school.
Correlation between unintentional injury and behavioral problems in preschool children
LI Mengyue, SHAO Ziyu, GUO Feng, YIN Gangzhu, SUN Yu
2021, 42(7): 1033-1037. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.017
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between behavioral problems and accidental injuries among preschoolers, and to provide evidence for the targeted prevention of children's accidental injuries.  Methods  During September to October 2019, parent of 2 062 children aged 3 to 6 selected from 8 kindergartens in Hefei through stratified clustering method were investigated. The prevalence of accidental injuries and behavioral problems among preschoolers was collected by questionnaire survey.  Results  The prevalence of accidental injury during the past year was 14.55%(300), and behavioral problems 14.21%(293). Total rate of behavioral problems and rate of each dimensions in children with accidental injury were 32.67%, 2.33%, 19.67%, 15.00%, 2.00%, 1.00% and 5.00%, compared to 11.07%, 0.45%, 6.41%, 4.88%, 0.40%, 0.17% and 0.79% in children without accidental injury (χ2=98.11, 12.54, 58.90, 44.12, 10.51, 6.08, 32.68, P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that psychosomatic problems(OR=3.13, 95%CI=2.11-4.66), learning problems(OR=2.73, 95%CI=1.86-3.99), abnormal hyperactivity index (OR=3.16, 95%CI=1.40-7.14) and left-behind children (OR=1.53, 95%CI=1.13-2.07) were associated with higher risk of accidental injuries(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Behavioral problems are significantly associated with unintentional injuries among preschool children, which deserved further attention and intervention when formulating prevention and control measures for childhood accidental injury.
Development and application of the Adolescent Mental Health Literacy Assessment Questionnaire among medical undergraduates
LI Danlin, HU Jie, HUANG Xuexue, XUE Yanni, CHEN Sixian, WANG Shanshan, WAN Yuhui, TAO Fangbiao, ZHANG Shichen
2021, 42(7): 1038-1041. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.018
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  Objective  To develop the Adolescent Mental Health Literacy Assessment Questionnaire (AMHLAQ), and to evaluate its reliability and validity among undergraduates.  Methods  On the basis of the definition of mental health literacy (MHL) and the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) theory, this study constructed a total of 36 items consisting of four dimensions, and scores were measured according to a five-point Likert-type scale. Using a cluster sampling method, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 826 freshmen and sophomore students from two medical schools in Anhui Province. The items were screened by performing t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and factor analysis. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were evaluated using indicators including homogeneity reliability, the split-half reliability coefficient, and construct validity.  Results  Factor analysis revealed that the AMHLAQ consisted of 22 questions grouped into four domains. The variance cumulative contribution rate was 62.213%. The reliability result showed that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the total questionnaire was 0.897, the split-half reliability was 0.800, the Cronbach's coefficient of each dimension was 0.796 to 0.885, the split-half reliability of each dimension was 0.725 to 0.846, and the indicators had a high level of reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the model fit was good (χ2/df=19.319, P < 0.01; RMSEA=0.069).  Conclusion  AMHLAQ is consistent with the evaluation standard of psychometrics, has good reliability and validity, and can be used to estimate the level of MHL among undergraduates.
Association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent alcohol use
ZHANG Jiashuai, ZUO Xiayun, YU Chunyan, LIAN Qiguo, ZHONG Xiangyang, TU Xiaowen, LOU Chaohua.
2021, 42(7): 1042-1046. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.019
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adolescent alcohol use and to provide evidence for prevention and intervention.  Methods  A total of 1 550 students from grades 6 to 8 in three public middle schools in a district of Shanghai were selected by stratified cluster sampling method. The baseline and follow-up investigation were conducted by anonymous electronic questionnaire in mobile tablet from November to December in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The latent class analysis (LCA) was applied for the classification of ACEs, while the multivariate generalized estimating Equations (GEE) model was adopted to examine the association between ACEs and adolescent alcohol use.  Results  The ACEs was divided into 3 classes by LCA: high exposure (8.97%), abuse and neglect (38.97%), low exposure (52.06%). The multivariate GEE model indicates the risk of alcohol drinking among adolescents in high exposure and abuse and neglect classes were significantly higher than their counterparts in low exposure class (OR=2.65, 95%CI=1.72-4.07; OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.14-1.96, respectively).  Conclusion  The effect of ACEs on alcohol use may vary across different latent classes. Supportive childhood environment may contribute to decrease the risk of adolescent drinking behavior.
Relationship between daily physical activity and sleep quality among college students
JIAO Yang, LIU Zhou, ZHANG Xiaodan
2021, 42(7): 1047-1051. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.020
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the relationship between daily physical activity and sleep quality among college students during COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide scientific basis for improving physical health and sleep of college students.  Methods  A stratified random sampling method was used to select a total of 2 808 college students from two universities (one in each of sports and non-sports categories) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Wuhan in March 2020. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale and the Bouchard Physical Activity Diary were used to collect sleep status and sleep duration (SD), sedentary behavior (SED), low intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the variability of parameters among college students. Multiple Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality.  Results  During the epidemic, male students had higher MVPA times(0.5 h) than female students(0 h) (Z=-4.21, P < 0.01); students aged 18 and younger had higher SED times(11.1 h) than students aged 19 to 21 and older(9.3, 10.3 h) (F=7.90, P < 0.05). The SED was higher for students living in urban, combined urban-rural areas(10.5, 9.5 h) than for their rural counterparts(9.5 h) (F=9.56, 10.73, P < 0.01). Sport majors had higher LPA and MVPA times(3.9, 1.0 h) than non-sports majors(3.0, 0 h) (Z=-2.99, -4.73, P < 0.01), and lower SED and sleep times(8.3, 9.8 h) than non-sports majors(11.1, 11.1 h) (Z =-4.73, -2.42, P < 0.01). The LPA time of students with general sleep quality and sleep disorder was lower than that of students with good sleep quality (F=7.67, P < 0.05), and SED time was higher than that of students with good sleep quality (F=8.62, P < 0.05). After controlling for gender, age, place of residence, and specialty, multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that LPA time deficit was a risk factor for sleep quality (OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.71-0.99, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  During the COVID-19 epidemic period, college students generally suffer from excessive sedentary time and insufficient physical activity, which vary in sex, region and specialty. The overall sleep quality of students is not optimistic, and the lack of low-intensity physical activity may increase the risk of sleep disorders.
Association of drinking behavior and self-injury behavior in adolescents
GUI Bing, HE Ying, LU Wei, DONG Lingling, YANG Hong, ZHU Xingcai, WANG Renli.
2021, 42(7): 1052-1055. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.021
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the association between drinking behavior and self-injury behavior in adolescents.  Methods  A total of 9 247 students from 4 middle schools were investigated. Drinking behavior and self-injury behavior were collected from questionnaire survey. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between drinking behavior and self-injury behavior.  Results  Among the 9 247 middle school students, 52.8% reported ever drinking, 24.9% reported drinking behavior in the past 30 days, and 14.6% reported been drunk in the past year. The average age of drinking for the first time was 12.47±3.05. About 47.2% of the participants had self-injury behavior. Male with younger drinking age (OR=1.52), had been drunken (OR=1.35) and frequent drinking (OR=1.54) increased the incidence of self-injury. Female reported drinking at younger age (OR=1.69), had been drunk (OR=1.82) and lived in cities and towns (OR=1.20) had a higher risk of self-injury.  Conclusion  Drinking at younger age, heavy and frequent drinking are associated with higher risk of self-injury in adolescents in sex-specific fashion.
Attentional bias of adolescent body image trouble
WANG Yuzheng, LIU Haiyan, XIAO Shaobei
2021, 42(7): 1056-1058,1063. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.022
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Abstract:
  Objective  To examine attentional bias in relation to body image problems among adolescents.  Methods  A total of 61 adolescent students from a junior high school in Qionghai City were selected as the research objects and divided into body image problems group(n=30) and non body image problems group(n=31). A 2×2 mixed design was employed to examine adolescents with body image problems and adolescents with no body image problems, as well as body images depicting high and low attractiveness. Point detection experiments were conducted to measure the participants' responses to the detection point. Two types of behavioral data were used including the reaction time bias index and the attentional disengagement index.  Results  A significant difference was observed in the group main effect of the reaction time bias score (F=175.64, P < 0.05). The response bias scores of adolescents with body image problems [The picture was high-medium(39.39±15.13)ms; The picture is low-medium(28.40±26.07)ms] were greater than those of adolescents with no body image concerns [(-18.31±16.57)(-17.83±9.19)ms], which indicated that the subject had a body image picture attention maintenance; the main effect of the attentional detachment index group was significantly different (F=38.21, P < 0.05). The attentional detachment indexwas higher among adolescents with a disordered attentional body image [Attention disengagement index of high volume image(18.42±13.95)ms; Attention disengagement index of low body image(15.84±19.62)ms] than among those who had no body image concerns [(-4.05±13.49)(-1.83±9.72)ms], indicating that the subject has a body image. When attending to the images, these participants had difficulties in disengaging their attention.  Conclusion  Adolescents with body image problems show an attentional bias towards body image pictures, and the results indicated an attentional alert-maintenance mode.
Relationship between study weariness, self-compassion and problem behaviors of left-behind adolescents
LUO Xiaoman, HE Hao, PAN Yangu
2021, 42(7): 1059-1063. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.023
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  Objective  To analyze the association of study weariness with self-compassion and problem behaviors among left behind adolescents, and to explore the moderating role of self-compassion in this association.  Methods  By using convenient sampling method, 1 285 middle school students from two ordinary middle schools in a county of Dazhou City, Sichuan Province were selected, including 895 left behind adolescents. Study weariness, self-compassion and problem behavior were assessed through questionnaire survey.  Results  The scores of self-compassion and externalizing behaviors in boys were higher than that of girls, while the scores of internalizing behaviors of girls were higher than that of boys (t=2.13, 1.98, -2.05, P < 0.05); the scores of study weariness and internalizing behaviors among left behind adolescents were higher than those of non-left behind adolescents, while the scores of self-compassion of non-left behind adolescents were higher than those of left behind adolescents (t=2.01, 2.08, -1.99, P < 0.05). The scores of externalizing behaviors among only-one child and junior high school students were higher than that of non-only-one children and high school students, while the scores of internalization problem behaviors of high school students were higher than that of junior high school students (t=1.95, 2.03, -2.02, P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between study weariness and problem behavior (t=0.37, P < 0.01), a negative correlation between self-compassion and problem behavior (t=-0.49, P < 0.01), and between study weariness and self-compassin (t=-0.46, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  There is a positive correlation between study weariness and behaviral problems among left behind teenagers. The cultivation of self compassion ability of left behind teenagers should be encouraged and promoted.
Influence of obesity and gender on the dynamic and static balance in children aged 8-10 years
HU Mi, WANG Jinjing, SONG Xu, ZHANG Yang.
2021, 42(7): 1064-1067,1072. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.024
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  Objective  To explore characteristics of dynamic and static balance of children aged 8 to 10 years, and to provide a reference for prevention of injuries caused by physical activities among obese children and the choice of facilities for physical activities.  Methods  Totally 100 obese children and 100 normal children were selected as the subjects by one-legged jumps from 5 primary schools in economic and technological development district of Hefei, the proportion of male and female children was 1∶1 in each group. IIM-BAL-100 balance tester was used to assess the static balance ability under double feet standing with eyes closed and right foot standing with eyes opened. The dynamic balance of double feet standing with eyes opened was measured by the Balance-check dynamic balance tester. Two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effect of obesity and gender on the dynamic and the static balance.  Results  In the static balance ability, when standing with both eyes closed, there was no significant difference in all static balance values between groups, genders and the interaction between the two factors(F=2.33, 0.42, 0.76, P>0.05). When standing on one foot with eyes opened, there was significant difference in the static equilibrium index between the groups and the gender(F=2.72, 3.07, P < 0.05). In terms of dynamic balance ability, all the dynamic balance indexes had statistically significant differences among the groups(F=43.67, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Obesity can significantly reduce the ability of single-leg static balance and dynamic balance in 8-10-year-old children. Sex can significantly affect the single foot static balance ability of 8-10-year-old children, but it has little effect on the dynamic balance ability of 8-10-year-old children.
Association between growth patterns and blood pressure in children and adolescents with different nutritional status: cross-sectional data from seven provinces and cities in China
CHEN Manman, CHEN Li, MA Ying, GAO Di, LI Yanhui, MA Tao, DONG Yanhui, MA Jun
2021, 42(7): 1068-1072. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.025
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the association between growth patterns and blood pressure in children and adolescents with different nutritional status.  Methods  A total of 38 839 children and adolescents aged 6 to 8 years old were included in this study by stratified cluster sampling. The American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 Guideline was used to evaluate the blood pressure, the US 2000 CDC standard was used to determine different growth patterns, and the WHO Child and Adolescent Growth and Development Standard issued in 2007 was used to evaluate nutritional status. Variance analyses were used to compare the levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and growth patterns by nutritional status, and χ2 test was used to compare the difference of prevalence. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between growth patterns and blood pressure.  Results  The proportion of normal growth, catch-up growth and catch-down growth was 33.2%, 41.6% and 25.2%, respectively. Under different growth patterns, systolic blood pressure (105.17±12.33) mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (66.55±8.75) mm Hg of catch-up growth were higher than those of normal growth and catch-down growth. In overweight and obesity, the prevalence of hypertension (24.9%), high systolic blood pressure (18.9%) and high diastolic blood pressure (15.0%) in catch-up growth were higher than those in normal growth and catch-down growth (P < 0.05). The risk of catch-up growth to hypertension was higher in overweight and obesity (OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31) than in normal children and adolescents (OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.05-1.27).  Conclusion  In catch-up growth children and adolescents, hypertension and high blood pressure are higher than normal growth and catch-down growth. Overweight and obesity than normal children and adolescents have a higher risk of hypertension.
A comparative study on physical fitness of primary and secondary school students in Maonan Ethnic Areas in 2014 and 2019
GUO Zhen, HE Jiangchuan, HE Lu, LAN Lan
2021, 42(7): 1073-1076. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.026
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  Objective  To provide reference for the overall education of Maonan primary and secondary school students by understanding the physical status.  Methods  Physical fitness test were administered in 1 107 boys and 1 236 girls in 2014, as well as 1 130 boys and 1 308 girls in 2019 of Maonan Nationality aged from 7 to 18 years old.  Results  Compared with 2014, the height of boys and girls aged 7-18 increased by 1.5 cm and 1.1 cm on average in 2019, and there were differences in boys' height among 6 age groups (P < 0.05) and girls' height among 5 age groups(P < 0.05). The increase of vital capacity was 126 mL, and there were differences in the vital capacity of boys in 10 ages (P < 0.05) and girls in 11 age groups(P < 0.05). The results of 50 m running are improved by 0.2 s and 0.4 s on average. There are differences in 7 ages of boys' 50 m running results (P < 0.05), and there are differences in 11 age groups of girls' 50 m running results(P < 0.05). The average 1 000 m score of male students increased by 3.7 s, and there were differences among 4 age groups(P < 0.05). The average 800 m score of female students increased by 12.8 s, and there were differences among 4 age groups(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Maonan primary and secondary school students' body shape, physical function and sports quality are on the rise as a whole, and fluctuate in some age groups.
Physical development monitoring of primary school students in the Oroqen Inhabited Area from 2013 to 2018
SUN Guilong, HU Mei, DING Rujia, WANG Aibo
2021, 42(7): 1077-1079,1082. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.027
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  Objective  To understand physical development of children aged 7 to 12 in the oroqen autonomous banner experimental primary school in the oroqen settlement area from 2013 to 2018, and to provide scientific basis for their physical fitness and health.  Methods  According to the standards of "National Student Physical Health Standards (2014 Revised Edition)" and the standards of "Overweight and Obesity Screening for School-age Children and Adolescents" issued by the National Health and Family Planning Commission in 2018, the Oroqen Autonomous Banner Experimental Primary School was 7-12 years old. The average value and growth rate of children's height, weight and BMI in the past 6 years.  Results  From 2013 to 2018, the height and weight of boys and girls aged 7 to 12 showed an increasing trend, with height growth values of boys were 1.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.6, 5.7, 5.9 cm, girls were 2.8, 4.5, 1.9, 1.8, 3.6, 2.9 cm.And the weight groups values of boys were 2.2, 2.5, 5.1, 6.3, 6.4, 7.2 kg, girls were 2.4, 3.6, 3.1, 1.3, 4.6, 3.0 kg. The growth rate of girls aged 7 to 8 was higher than that of boys, and the growth rate of boys aged 9 to 12 was higher than that of girls. With the increase of age, the average BMI of boys and girls aged 7 to 12 showed an upward trend, and the BMI of boys of the same age was always higher than that of girls. Among them, the average BMI of boys aged 7 to 12 in 2018 exceeded the critical value of overweight BMI.  Conclusion  The physical shape of children aged 7-12 years increases with age, but the development tends to be overweight and obese, which is related to the natural environment of life, lifestyle, and reduction in physical activity.
Relationship between soy isoflavone metabolites in urine and sexual development of adolescent girls
ZHANG Han, ZHAO Yuxia
2021, 42(7): 1080-1082. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.028
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between urinary soybean isoflavone metabolites and sexual development of adolescent girls.  Methods  Fifty girls of grade 5 from one primary school in Xingang City who met the inclusion criteria were selected. Sexual characteristic development was assessed and soybean isoflavone metabolites in urine was tested by ultra-high speed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).  Results  Levels of dye xylinone in girls with different stages of sexual development (advanced, normal, and delayed groups) varied significantly (F=3.53, P < 0.05), highest in advanced group. Urinary genistein was significantly higher in menarche group than that of non-menarche group (t=2.16, P < 0.05). Urinary genistein may be associated with early sexual development among adolescent girls.  Conclusion  High level of urine genistein may be related to the early sexual development of adolescent girls.
Rural school environment and sanitation in five provinces of western China
CHA Yu'e, FU Yuanzheng, YAO Wei
2021, 42(7): 1083-1087. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.029
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  Objective  To understand environmen and sanitation of rural schools in western China, and to provide data support and reference for improving school environmental conditions and facilities and promoting the healthy development of students.  Methods  Based on the "School Comprehensive Environmental Improvement Project", a total of 38 087 students from 60 primary school from were randomly selected from 5 provinces in western China from September to December 2018. Environment and sanitation of schools was investigated through interviews, on-site observation and inquiry, so as to obtain the survey data.  Results  All schools had water supply, 80.0% (48) could meet the needs of teachers and students, 91.7% (55) provided drinking water facilities, 93.3% (56) provided hand-washing facilities, and 66.7% (40) provided soap and other cleaning supplies for students. 71.7% (43) of the schools had sanitary toilets, 40.0% (24) toilets were qualified for femail, 86.7% (52) were clean and 58.3% (35) were odorless. The garbage disposal  Methods  of schools are mainly collected by professional institutions, supplemented by fixed-point stacking, accounting for 45.0% (27) and 35.0% (21) respectively. About 30% (22, 17, 20) of school sewage is discharged by open ditch, underground ditch and pipeline. 93.3% (56) of schools offered health education courses, 91.7% (55) had sanitation system, 70.0% (42) had drinking water sanitation management system, and 41.7% (25) had toilet management system.  Conclusion  The basic environmental sanitation facilities in the school are well equipped, and there are some problems to be improved in the establishment of environmental sanitation management system and the provision of hand washing and cleaning supplies.
Availability of school health staff and health equipment in primary and secondary schools in Jinan
YANG Liu, LIU Yueling, ZHANG Rui, XU Huaru, LIN Zhe
2021, 42(7): 1088-1092. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.030
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Abstract:
  Objective  To understand the situation of school health staff and the allocation of health equipment in primary and secondary schools in Jinan.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted in CDC and public primary and secondary schools to describe the situation of the school health staff and health equipment in primary and secondary schools.  Results  There were 23 school health staffs in CDC, among which 26.1% were full-time. The total staffing ratio of school doctors was 13.9%, with the compliance rate of 19.8%. The total allocation rate of health care teachers was 74.7%, 92.2% of them were part-time. The total staffing ratio of school doctors in boarding schools was 20.0%, with a staffing compliance rate of 12.5%. The total allocation rate of school doctors and health care teachers in boarding schools was 66.7%. 16.8% of public primary and secondary schools and 23.3% of public boarding primary and secondary schools did not have any health staffs. 27.6% of public primary and secondary schools are equipped with infirmary, 70.8% with health rooms, and 10.3% without any. The configuration of necessary equipment in infirmary and health care rooms were less than 100%.  Conclusion  There is a serious shortage of school health staffs and health equipment in primary and secondary schools in Jinan. Attention and investment in school health should be strengthened, and resources should be rationally allocated to ensure the health of primary and secondary school students.
Analysis on the Implementation of Comprehensive School Health Evaluation in Liaoning Province
YU Ling, LIU Jindong, ZHANG Jing, PAN Dehong, JIA Lihong
2021, 42(7): 1093-1096, 1100. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.031
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  Objective  To understand the Implementation of Comprehensive Evaluation of School Health (GB/T 18205-2012) and associated factors, so as to provide rationalization proposals for future revision of standards.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted on 436 schools, 56 health supervision agencies and 55 disease control agencies in Liaoning Province, and the main contents include the investigation of awareness rate, training, application, rationality and application of evaluation items and indicators.  Results  Totally 44 supervision agencies and 29 CDCs had independent school health departments, with significant differences in faculty equipment (t=8.53, P < 0.05). The standard was trained in 100% of municipal supervision agencies, 22.50% of district and county level, 46.15% of municipal CDC, 50.00% of district county CDC; 61.54% of municipal and 45.00% of district and county supervision agencies conducted evaluations in accordance with this standard, 53.85% of the municipal CDC, 60.00% of county CDC jointly completed the standard; 30.77% of municipal and 52.50% of district and county supervisory bodies informed the educational administration of the Results of the comprehensive evaluation.  Conclusion  The establishment of school health professional departments and the training of management objects affect the implementation of comprehensive evaluation of school health, so it is necessary to combine the actual work to modify some of the important indicators, and strengthen the application of comprehensive evaluation results.
Analysis of correlation between eye strain and eye health behavior in college students during the period of COVID-19 epidemic
ZHANG Xiayu, WANG Jingjing, SU Puyu, CAO Yawen, LIU Maojie, CHENG Zhao, CHEN Daojun
2021, 42(7): 1097-1100. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.032
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Abstract:
  Objective  To understand the relationship between eye strain and eye health behavior in college students learning at home during the period of COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide a scientific reference for improving the hygiene of using eyes among the college students.  Methods  A cross-sectional study and stratified cluster sampling was used to select 2 671 college students from 8 colleges in Anhui Province during the March 1st to July 1st in 2020, and an online questionnaire was survey included general information, eye strain, and daily eye health behavior.  Results  The prevalence of eye strain in college students was 69.64%. Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that eye strain was correlated with gender, myopia, siesta habit, staying up until 2:00 am, and the use of eye liquid, with OR values(95%CI) were 0.64(0.53-0.76), 1.77(1.42-2.20), 0.71(0.59-0.86), 1.39(1.17-1.65), and 2.18(1.71-2.79), respectively. There was no correlation among daily outdoor activity time, daytime reading time and the occurrence of eye strain(P>0.05).  Conclusion  During the period of COVID-19 epidemic, eye strain among college students is common. The daily eye health behavior is related to the occurrence of eye strain. Under the special learning context, eye care measures should be encouraged specifically.
Research progress on the relationship between early life phthalate exposure and early pubertal timing in children
WEN Xing, XU Honglyu, TAO Fangbiao
2021, 42(7): 1101-1105. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.033
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Early pubertal timing has a significant impact on physical and mental health of children, and is associated with a variety of chronic non-communicable disease in adulthood. Risk factors for early pubertal timing are complex, including environmental and genetic factors. As one of the most common environmental pollutants, phthalates can act as endocrine disruptors to affect the body's endocrine system after being exposed to the body. Early life is a disease-prone period. Many studies have found that exposure to phthalates can promote adolescent development during perinatal and critical developmental periods. In this paper, the epidemiological studies and related mechanisms of the association between exposure to phthalates and early pubertal timing were summarized and discussed.
Research progress on parental control and adolescent aggressive behavior
CHENG Yaohui, HAN Hui
2021, 42(7): 1106-1109. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.034
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Adolescent aggressive behavior has become one of the public health problems, and is affected by factors such as society, school, and family.Parents play an important role in the growth of adolescents. Parental control is seen as one of the rearing style, and closely related with adolescent aggressive behavior. This article reviews studies on the concept and classification of parental control, the impact of parental control on the psychological behavior of adolescents, the concept and measurement of aggressive behavior, the influencing factors of adolescent aggressive behavior, the impact of parental control on aggressive behavior, and the influence of demographic factors on both by consulting the existing literature, with the goal of providing references for reducing adolescent aggressive behavior improving parenting ability.
Key issues in the identification and management of tuberculosis school outbreaks
HUANG Liqing
2021, 42(7): 1110-1115, 1120. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.035
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School tuberculosis prevention and control has always been the focus of social attention. In recent years, school tuberculosis outbreaks occurred frequently, which had a strong impact on the society. Scientific and accurate interpretation of epidemiological evidence, especially on the etiology, is of great significance to the diagnosis and management of the clustering epidemic of tuberculosis in schools. This paper reviews current reporting and management systems of school tuberculosis outbreaks in China, and discusss the application of genotyping in homology analysis of school tuberculosis outbreaks, so as to provide scientific basis for accurate identification of school tuberculosis outbreaks.
Application of six-minute walk test in the evaluation of children and adolescents' cardiorespiratory endurance
FENG Zhanpeng, TAN Sijie, LI Hui
2021, 42(7): 1116-1120. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.07.036
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Cardiopulmonary endurance is an important indicator of the physical health of children and adolescents. The 6-Minute Walk Test(6MWT) is an emerging method used to assess the cardiorespiratory endurance of children and adolescents, and has been applied in many countries and regions. This study aims to review the application of 6MWT in the assessment of cardiopulmonary endurance in children and adolescents, analyze the application prospects and precautions of 6MWT, and provide references for the application and promotion of 6MWT in the assessment of cardiopulmonary endurance in children and adolescents, as well as the formulation of related evaluation standards.