2021 Vol. 42, No. 2

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Prevention and control of children and adolescents myopia needs more high-quality research evidence
HE Xiangui, PAN Chenwei
2021, 42(2): 161-164, 169. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.001
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In recent years, the state has paid greater attention to the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents, as well as to the issuance of corresponding policies, which means that this issue has once again become the focus of work in the fields of school health and ophthalmology. It should be noted that the prevalence of myopia has continued to rise for many years and it has reached a very high level. Therefore, reducing its prevalence requires long-term evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies, and a shift from "quantitative change" to "qualitative change". However, there is still a lack of high-quality research evidence regarding many aspects of myopia prevention and control. This paper summarizes the existing evidence and identifies limitations, proposes a direction for future efforts, and puts forward some suggestions regarding key aspects, such as the selection of evaluation indicators for myopia prevention and control, interventions that aim to increase the time spent on outdoor activities, standardized screening and closed-loop management, and the exploration of effective prevention and control measurements, so as to provide a referential framework that can be used to scientifically develop and implement myopia prevention and control strategies, as well to evaluate their efficacy.
Introduction of intervention programs on cyberbullying abroad
DING Xinfang, ZENG Ke, DUAN Zhixuan, ZHANG Manhua
2021, 42(2): 165-169. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.002
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With the growing popularity of electronic devices, cyberbullying has gradually become a common form of bullying. Compared with traditional bullying, cyberbullying is more likely to cause serious psychological problems of its victims, leading to school absences, depression, even self-inflicted injury and suicide. Unfortunately, psychological intervention and prevention for cyberbullying and cyber victimization is rather sparse in China. This paper summarizes some foreign cyberbullying intervention projects, aiming at providing reference localized and specific interventions.
Efficacy and safety of 0.05% atropine eye drops for retarding myopia progression in Chinese primary school students
ZHU Qin, ZHOU Yuan, ZHANG Xiaofan, ZHANG Jieying, HU Min
2021, 42(2): 170-172, 176. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.003
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  Objective  To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 0.05% atropine eye drops for retarding myopia progression and ocular axial elongation in school children, and to provide a reference for the relevant prevention and control measures of myopia.  Methods  A total of 188 children with myopia were randomly assigned to the experimental group(93) or to the control group(95). During the phase (first 24 months) I, children received treatment in each eye once a day. During the phase II (from 25th to the 36th month), no treatment was given. Standardized eye examinations including spherical equivalent(SE), axial length(AL), intraocular pressure(IOP) and potential atropine-related side effect assessment were performed every 6 months.  Results  In phase I, the annual progression rates of equivalent spherical degree [(-0.35±0.21)D/year] and axial length [(0.11±0.07)mm/year] in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group [(-0.83±0.26)D/year and (0.37±0.22)mm/year] (P < 0.05). After withdrawal of atropine eye drops (phase II), the equivalent spherical degree progression rate [(-0.40±0.29)D/year] and axial length progression rate [(0.10±0.04)mm/year] in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group [(0.73±0.40)D/year and (0.30±0.11)mm/year]. No serious adverse events associated with atropine were found during the follow-up period. After the withdrawal of atropine, the pupil size, near visual acuity and adjustment gradually returned to the pre-treatment level.  Conclusion  0.05% atropine eye drops may not only maintain the efficacy and reduce potential side effects of atropine but also significantly increase the compliance of children, 0.05% atropine is a safe and effective treatment for retarding myopic progression in moderate myopia.
Pilot study on the efficacy and safety of 0.01% atropine school children with progressive myopia in Hefei
WANG Yong, JIANG Bo
2021, 42(2): 173-176. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.004
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  Objective  To investigate the clinical effict of 0.01% atropine for myopia progression in school children, and to provide a reference for probing into an effective methods of preventing myopia among children.  Methods  Thirty children, with a median age of 10 years (range 7-17), were given topical treatment with preservative-free 0.01% atropine eye drops in both eyes before going to bed every night, and the efficacy and safety were analyzed 12 months later. Efficacy was assessed every 6 months. In 10 children, treatment of the second eye was delayed by one day to allow for a controlled safety assessment of side effects such as dilated pupils, hypoplasia and decreased myopia.  Results  In terms of myopia treatment, after 12 months of treatment with 0.01% atropine, it was 0.43 D/year(t=8.66, P < 0.01). In terms of safety, in the 10 children's treatment of the second eye was delayed by one day, the measurable side effect was the induction of 1 mm pupil dilatation, and there was no other significant abnormalities were observed.  Conclusion  Topical low-dose (0.01%) atropine is safe and effective in school-age children, and it has certain clinical promotion value.
Clinical study of intermittent use of 1% atropine on retardation of myopia progression in Chinese school children
LIN Xiaojun, CHEN Qin, DUAN Wenhua, ZHU Qin, HU Min
2021, 42(2): 177-180. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.005
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  Objective  To evaluate the long-term ef efficacy and safety of topical 1% atropine for retarding pregressive myopia.  Methods  A randomized controlled study evaluating atropine and placebo in 570 Chinese children aged 8~14 years recruited from pediatric ophthalmology in Yunnan Provincial the Second People's Hospital during Jan. 2015 to Dec. 2019. In experimental group, patients received drops every two weeks for 24 months, then every three weeks for 12 months, followed by no drops for 12 months. In control group, all children wear single focus frame glasses. Spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure and atropine-related side effects were examined at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months for all children.  Results  At the end of stage Ⅰ, the myopia progression in the atropine treatment group (-0.27±0.81)D was significantly lower than that in the control group (-1.29±0.13)D, and the increase of axial length in the atropine group (0.11±0.13)mm was also significantly lower than that in the control group (0.41±0.19)mm (P < 0.05). At the end of stage Ⅱ, the average myopia progression in the atropine treatment group (-0.31±0.28)D was significantly lower than that in the control group (-0.80±0.66)D (P < 0.01). Similarly, the axial growth of the experimental group (0.14±0.09)mm was significantly lower than that of the control group (0.39±0.14)mm (P < 0.01). After the withdrawal of atropine eye drops (stage Ⅲ), there was no significant refractive regression in the experimental group. During the whole follow-up period, no serious adverse events related to atropine were found.  Conclusion  Local intermittent use of 1% atropine eye drops and the gradual reduction of atropine eye drops can ensure the effectiveness in the treatment of myopia, reducing the side effects of atropine, avoiding refractive regression after drug withdrawal, and improving children's compliance at the same time.
Myopia-related health belief and screen time of primary and secondary school students
WANG Limeng, HE Xiangui, XIE Hui, XU Wenyan, PAN Chenwei, WANG Xiangdong
2021, 42(2): 181-184. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.006
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  Objective  To understand the correlation between myopia related health belief and screen time of primary and secondary school students in Jing'an District of Shanghai, and to provide suggestions for reducing screen time and preventing myopia.  Methods  Using the method of cluster sampling, 1 585 students from grade one to grade eight of a primary school and a junior high school in Jing'an District were selected for a questionnaire survey regarding myopia related health belief, screen time and the correlation between them.  Results  About 18.8%-44.4% of the students perceived themselves as myopia susceptible, which increased with grade (χ2=33.25, P < 0.01), 51.5%-78.0% of the students were aware of the adverse health impart of myopia, 39.3%-55.6% of the students were aware of unhealthy behaviors associated with myopia and 48.7%-77.5% of the students. More than 47.6% of the students' daily screen time was more than 2 h/day, and daily screen time increased with grade (χ2=12.18, P < 0.01). Perceived susceptibility for myopia, awareness on adverse health impact of myopia and unhealthy behaviors associated with myopia, as well as self-efficacy associated with myopia prevention were associated with screen time of students.  Conclusion  The primary and middle school students in Jing'an District show low lever of knowledge on myopia susceptibility and threat, but higher lever of knowledge on myopia severity and self-efficacy of preventing myopia. nearly half of the students use electronic screens too long or too close to their eyes. Awareness on myopia susceptibility, myopia-related behaviors and health impacts of myopia and self-efficacy, combined with screen time reduction might help myopia prevention.
Analysis of myopia related factors among primary and secondary school students in Shanghai
LUO Chunyan, QI Wenjuan, HE Xiangui, YANG Dongling, WANG Jingjing, YAN Qiong, FENG Xiaogang
2021, 42(2): 185-189. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.007
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  Objective  To analyze myopia related factors among students in Shanghai, to explore associated risky behaviors associated with mild, moderate, high myopia, so as to provide the evidence for the implementation of home and school combination intervention measures.  Methods  Six primary and secondary schools (2 primary schools, 2 middle schools and 2 high schools) were selected from each district of Shanghai. The primary schools began to investigate from the fourth grade. All the students in the selected classes participated in the vision test and questionnaire survey. Chi square test was used for categorical data analysis. The relationship between myopia and related behaviors was analyzed by multivariate Logistic analysis.  Results  The prevalence of visual-related risky behaviors such as short outdoor time during the day, lack of sleep, long after-school reading and writing time, poor reading and writing posture, and longtime-using mobile electronic screen was higher in girls than in boys (P < 0.05), boys were more likely than girls to use computer for long time and read books/electronic screen in sunlight (P < 0.05). The group with 3 hours or more than of reading and writing compared with the less than 2 hours, the OR value of mild myopia model was 1.31(1.20-1.44), moderate myopia model was 1.78(1.62-1.96), severe myopia model was 2.37(2.07-2.71). In the model of moderate and high myopia, reading and writing posture, frequency of eye relax, outdoor activity time and watching TV time were also included.  Conclusion  The prevalence of myopia related behaviors among primary and secondary school students is high, and there are significant gender differences among different behaviors. Students' reading and writing time should be strictly controlled after school. Intervention strategies and measures should be carried out according to the characteristics of different ages and genders.
Impact of different myopia degree on sleep quality among adolescents in Baoshan District
WANG Yue, ZHENG Kangjie, XIE Hui, YI Min, PAN Chenwei, HE Xiangui
2021, 42(2): 190-194. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.008
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence of myopia and sleep quality among adolescents in Baoshan District of Shanghai, and to further analyze the association between different degree of myopia on sleep quality.  Methods  A total of 777 adolescents aged 9-16 years were selected by stratified cluster random method, and ophthalmology examination and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Chinese version scale and related factors questionnaire were conducted.  Results  The prevalence rates of myopia and sleep disorders were 68.08% and 13.77% respectively in Baoshan District of Shanghai. With the increase of age and grade, the prevalence of myopia and sleep disorder increased(χ2=139.58, 114.17;58.00, 56.41, P < 0.01).There were significant differences in sleep disorders among different degree of myopia groups (χ2=24.57, P < 0.01), including sleep time, progressive function and PSQI total score were statistically significant (F=9.65, 7.22, 4.38, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that moderate to high and high myopia were risk factors for sleep quality of adolescents (β=0.87, 0.95, OR=2.38, 2.59, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The prevalence of myopia and sleep disorder among adolescents in Baoshan District of Shanghai is high, myopia shows impacts on sleep quality of adolescents at a certain level. Adolescents with high myopia have a higher risk of sleep disorders.
Comparative analysis of standardized and non-standardized of myopia prevalence in Beijing students
MA Yuhan, WANG Lu, XIA Zhiwei, QIN Ran, GUO Xin
2021, 42(2): 195-197, 202. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.009
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  Objective  To clarify the importance and practical significance of the standardized rate in primary healthcare work by comparing the differences in the prevalence of myopia in districts in Beijing before and after standardization.  Methods  This study recruited a total of 41 029 students from 107 primary and secondary schools and 35 kindergartens from the 16 districts of Beijing municipality. All participants underwent distance vision and refractive testing. The presence of myopia was defined as naked eye vision of < 5.0 and non-ciliary muscle paralysis under computer optometry with a spherical equivalent objective refractive error of < -0.50 diopters (< -0.50 D). The student composition outlined in the 2018-2019 Beijing Education Development Statistics Summary was used as a standard group to standardize the prevalence of myopia in students from various districts of Beijing. The difference in the pre-and post-standardization rates was used to compare the change in myopia in each district before and after standardization.  Results  In 2018, the prevalence of myopia in students from Beijing was 57.3%. Stratified by school period, the prevalence of myopia in preschool, primary school, junior high school, ordinary high school, and vocational high school students was 12.1%, 38.4%, 77.2%, 88.3%, and 73.1%, respectively. Although the prevalence of myopia in Daxing District was the highest both before and after standardization, the difference in the prevalence rate was 13.8 percentage points. The prevalence of myopia in Miyun District was the lowest before standardization. However, after standardization, the prevalence of myopia was lowest in Huairou District.  Conclusion  The prevalence of myopia among Beijing students is generally high. Before and after standardization, the prevalence of myopia in different districts was quite different. The results show that, in practice, the standardized prevalence can reveal the true epidemiological characteristics of specific disease.
Lunch satisfaction and leftovers among students of Changsha compulsory education schools
XU Lingjie, QIU Fuping, CHEN Zhiqiu, ZHAO Haiyang, GUO Shiyin, MA Guansheng
2021, 42(2): 198-202. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.010
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  Objective  To understand lunch satisfaction and leftovers of Changsha compulsory education schools under different supply modes served by school canteens and specialized enterprises, and to provide scientific basis for the government to formulate school lunch improvement policies.  Methods  Multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to random select 2 203 students from 8 primary and secondary schools in Changsha who were administered with questionnair survey in April to May of 2018.  Results  For school lunch, the overall rate of satisfaction was 78.8%.The overall lunch satisfaction of female and primany school students were higher than that of male and junior high school students respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05). Totally 76.0% of students had the highest satisfaction in food hygiene and the lowest satisfaction rate was 60.0% in food taste. By comparing different supply modes, the overall satisfaction rate of meal quantity was higher (47.8%) under school canteens, and that of dining environment was relatively high (43.7%) under specialized enterprises. "Don't like some food" (63.8%) was the main reason for students' leftovers under the two supply modes. The lunch leftover rate of specialized enterprises (37.8%) was significantly higher than that of school cafeteria (30.6%)(χ2=12.81, P < 0.05).   Conclusion  The satisfaction of food taste and the rate of lunch leftovers need to be further improved. School canteens environment and management should be strengthened, as well as the flexibility and communication under specialized enterprises and family-school communication. The joint efforts by school and family are needed for healthy eating education.
Influence of carbohydrate and fiber intakes on age at menarche in Chinese girls
CHEN Yue, DUAN Ruonan, GAO Wanke, LIU Xueting, DUAN Ruotong, CHENG Guo
2021, 42(2): 203-206. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.011
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between premenarchal dietary carbohydrate and dietary fiber intakes and age at menarche in Chinese girls.  Methods  Based on dietary and menarcheal information on 750 girls from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, multivariate linear regression models and logistic models were used to analyze the influence of dietary carbohydrate and dietary fiber intakes before menarche onset and age at menarche. Carbohydrate intake was replaced by engergg ratio carbohydrate for a sensitivity analysis.  Results  Adjusting for residence, per capita household income, body mass index standard deviation score, and energy intake, higher intake and higher energy ratio of carbohydrate were associated with later age at menarche(P < 0.01). Compared to girls at the lowest tertile of carbohydrate intake level, those at the highest tertile had a 0.35 years(2.8%) delay in age at menarche, while 55% decreased[OR(95%CI)=0.45(0.30-0.69)]. Dietary fiber intake was not associated with age at menarche in any model(P>0.2).  Conclusion  Girls with higher premenarcheal carbohydrate intake experienced menarche later, while dietary fiber intake was not associated with age at menarche.
Nutritional of assessment school lunches for primary and secondary school students in the Pearl River Delta
WU Ximei, HUANG Weixiong, SHAO Yijuan, LI Hui, YANG Jinglan, GUO Deliang, MA Ruiqing, YUE Jingwen
2021, 42(2): 207-210, 214. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.012
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  Objective  To investigate nutritional quality of school lunch in some primary schools and middle schools in the Pearl River Delta, and to provide the scientific basis for improving the nutritional quality of students' lunch and formulating scientific and effective interventions.  Methods  Five-day lunch meal survey by chemical analysis were conducted, and students' lunch at school were recorded by meal review in three age groups from 8 primary and middle schools in the Pear River Delat area. The energy and nutrient content were obtained and compared with the reference intake of dietary nutrients of student.  Results  The average protein intake at lunch of all age groups had reached the recommended standard (80%-95%), the energy supply ratio of carbohydrate in the range of 38.3%-42.3%, the energy supply ratio of fat in 63% school meal exceeded the recommended standard. Vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, calcium, iron and other nutrients were seriously inadequate; while sodium intake far exceeded the recommended standard.  Conclusion  The main nutrients of school lunch of primary and middle school in Pearl River Delta can basically meet the growth and development needs, but there are still some deficiency and unbalanced diet nutrient content which are lower than the recommended intake. It is recommended to strengthen nutrition education of catering enterprises and school to improve the scientific combination of diets.
Risk perception and behavior analysis of Guizhou college students on COVID-19 epidemic
WANG Lingli, WANG Jiahao, AI Chunyan, YANG Yuli, ZHANG Wanzhu
2021, 42(2): 211-214. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.013
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  Objective  In order to provide guidance for the prevention and control of epidemic situations in schools, this paper explores the risk perception and prevention behaviors of college students after classes resume in the post-epidemic period of novel coronavirus pneumonia.  Methods  By using convenient sampling method, 835 college students who resumed classes were randomly selected from a university in Guizhou. Self-efficacy questionnaire, perceived social support questionnaire and self-designed questionnaire were adiministered.  Results  Totally 37.0% of college students believed that the risk of infection was high, 57.4% of college students believed the severity of infection was very high once get infected, meanwhile, 84.3% of them think that keeping away from crowded places was a better preventive behavior, 89.7% of college students often wear masks, 91.4% of college students wash their hands frequently. There was a significant positive correlation between general self-efficacy, perceived social support and preventive behavior (r=0.10-0.65, P < 0.01). General self-efficacy and perceived social support play both a partial intermediary role and a chain intermediary role between risk perception and preventive behavior.  Conclusion  Risk perception of Novel Coronavirus was moderate among college students, who can take active measures to effectively prevent it. Risk perception could not only directly affect the prevention behavior of college students, but also indirectly affect the prevention behavior of college students through understanding social support and general self-efficacy.
Investigation of drug-related cognition and education effect evaluation among college students in Beijing
WANG Xue, LI Wenjun, CHEN Shuaifeng
2021, 42(2): 215-219. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.014
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  Objective  To understand the current status and influencing factors of anti-drug ability of college students in Beijing, and provide suggestions for drug education in universities.  Methods  A total of 966 students from 11 universities in Beijing were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire. and the data was analyzed with quantitative statistical analysis method.  Results  The average types of drug college students are aware of was 6.64. Among the average cognitive drugs of college students in Beijing, the full score rate of drug resistance was 68.12%. Gender, different majors, and frequency of receiving drug prevention education were influential factors of drug knowledge and anti-drug ability of college students (χ2=41.38, 18.20, 11.02, P < 0.05). The commonest educational method was themed lectures (80.33%), and the Internet had played an increasingly important role in education (76.60%). Anti-drug short-movies was the most interesting education method for college students (79.30%), with a penetration rate of 42.44%. The number of drugs awared and the ability of anti-drugs improved significantly through the "6.27" project.  Conclusion  The anti-drug propaganda and education should be strengthened among the students majoring in sport arts, and the function of anti-drug videos should be greatly exploited to maximize the effect of education.
Evaluation of the effect of neck exercises on senior high school students
WEI Qian, LI Zhuping, HUANG Yingmiao, HUANG Zhixia
2021, 42(2): 220-223. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.015
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  Objective  To explore the effect of neck exercises on improving the shoulder and neck symptoms of senior high school students in Zhuhai.  Methods  From February 2019 to July 2019, 805 senior high school students from 20 classes in 10 middle schools in Zhuhai were selected by multi-stage random sampling method, and randomly divided into two groups based on the class. The final observation group consisted of 405 cases and the control group consisted of 400 cases. The observation group was intervened by neck exercise based with isometric contraction exercise for 12 weeks, while the control group was intervened by routine intervention. The changes of VAS, NDI and PSQI were compared before and after the intervention between the two groups, and the subjects who met the diagnosis criteria of cervical spondylosis were analyzed in subgroups.  Results  A total of 112 students met the diagnostic criteria of cervical spondylosis, the prevalence rate was 13.9%. among them, 58 cases were diagnosed in the control group and 54 cases in the observation group. After the intervention, the VAS pain level of the observation group was lower than that of the control group (Z=-3.37, P < 0.01), and the NDI score was significantly lower than that of the control group (t=-20.05, P < 0.01). After the intervention, the PSQI subjective sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, daytime dysfunction dimension scores and total scores of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (t=-10.36, -7.66, -12.39, -9.78, -9.06, -11.31, -16.56, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The incidence of cervical spondylosis is high in senior high school students in Zhuhai. The neck exercise focusing on isometric strengthening can effectively improve the symptoms and sleep quality of cervical vertebrae.
School adaptation and behavior of the first batch of college students returning to school during the COVID-19 epidemic
DU Mengxue, SHAO Zhimin, WU Nan, JIANG Minmin, WANG Jing, ZHU Lijun, FANG Zhengmei, JIN Yuelong, YAO Yingshui, CHEN Yan
2021, 42(2): 224-227,231. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.016
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  Objective  To analyze the school adaptation and behavioral performance of the first batch of students who return to school during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide a theoretical basis for further development of corresponding intervention measures.  Methods  The method of cluster sampling was adopted to conduct anonymous questionnaire survey on the first batch of college students who have returned to a certain university. The survey contents included the basic information of the students, the adaptability of the school after returning to school and the corresponding behavior performance.  Results  Male students reported high lever of satisfaction than female students on the dormitory environment health (t=10.28, P < 0.01), but low satisfaction on school security and logistical support (t=2.26, P=0.02), rural students marked higher score than urban students for the school closed management system (t=2.82, P=0.01), in terns of school security, Logistics, the degree of school's attention to the epidemic prevention and epidemic prevention, non only-child gave high score than the only children; In terms of their own behavior, the rate of seek medical treatment immediately when they develop COVID-19 related symptoms (68.1%) was lower than that of others (81.3%)(χ2=223.88, P < 0.01);In addition, the percentage of respondents who chose to report COVID-19 related symptoms (79.5%) was lower than that of others (88.7%)(χ2=97.49, P < 0.01). A total of 2 671 college students (98.9%) were able to wear masks every day and 2 457 (90.9%) chose to improve their diet to improve their immunity.  Conclusion  The first batch of college students who return to school have a high level of satisfaction on school management, and can take active measures to adapt to the life back to school and commit self-protection, however targeted measures to are still needed further strengthen students' health education.
Empirical study on health literacy improvement through grid model of health education in college students
LI Lili, LIANG Zhijing, YANG Haojie, SHE Jun, LIU Qingan, HAO Yan
2021, 42(2): 228-231. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.017
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  Objective  To explore the application of grid health education model in improving college students' health literacy.  Methods  The clustered stratified random sampling method was used among the pre-formative education freshmen in a Xi'an university, with 1 123 students randomly selected totally. The intervention group (578) received health literacy education based on grid health education model, while the control group (545) receuved the original health education model. The effect of gird model of health education on health literacy was compared between two groups of college students after one-semester intervention.  Results  Insufficient health literacy was found among freshmen participants in Xi'an(17.12%, 17.61%); health literacy on prevention and treatment of chronic diseases (15.92%, 16.70%) was significantly lower than the national average level of urban residents(22.73%). Health literacy of the two groups of college students was significantly improved(47.75%, 27.71%, χ2=20.50, 5.47, P < 0.05). The grid health education model had significant effects in improving health literacy among college students, except for health literacy on safety and emergency(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Health literacy of college students is insufficient compared to that of urban residents in China. Grid model of health education model is superior to conventional health education model, which is in line with the requirements of health education in colleges in the new era.
Nutrition literacy and school lunch awareness and satisfaction among parents of Bengbu students
ZHANG Jianjun, QIAN Qingwen, WANG Caihong, LI Huaijie, WANG Yuanming, LU Lu
2021, 42(2): 232-236. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.018
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  Objective  To investigate nutrition literacy among parents of students in Bengbu, China, and examine their awareness of school lunches and satisfaction, so as to provide a basis for improving students' nutrition.  Methods  Using a random cluster sampling method, this study carried out a survey among parents of students in grade 2, grade 5, and grade 8 from four primary and middle schools in the central and surrounding urban areas of Bengbu. A total of 2 051 parents were surveyed.  Results  The qualified rate of nutritional knowledge was 13.0% and the qualified rate of nutritional behavior was 63.0%. The qualified rate of nutritional knowledge behavior was 25.1%. The proportion of breakfasts consisting of at least three food groups was 28.3%. Nutritional knowledge was largely acquired through the Internet, accounting for 54.6%. The convenience of school lunches was identified as the main reason that parents opted for the school lunch program (86.7%). Parents' satisfaction with school lunches was 56.8%.  Conclusion  It is necessary to strengthen the nutritional knowledge education of parents, and to enhance communication between schools and parents, as well as between parents and children.
Eating behavior associated family factors of preschool children during the COVID-19 epidemic
HOU Fang, CHEN Yanlin, GUO Qing, TANG Xiaoyan, WAN Zihao, LI Li
2021, 42(2): 237-239,244. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.019
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  Objective  To investigate eating behavior and associated family factors of preschool children during the prevalence of Corona Virus Disease(COVID-19), and to provide scientific basis for healthy eating behavior for preschool children.  Methods  A total of 1 829 preschool children were investigated by electronic questionnaire from 5 kindergartens in Shenzhen from March 18-20, 2020. SPSS 19.0 was used to perform logistic regression analysis on the factors for eating behavior.  Results  The rate of unhealthy eating behavior during the prevalence of COVID-19 was 47.2%. The rate of unhealthy eating behaviors in boys and girls were 46.1% and 48.4%, respectively. And there was no significant difference between different genders(χ2=1.02, P=0.31). The rate of unhealthy eating behaviors of preschool children aged 3-, 4-, 5- and 6- were 56.6%, 56.8%, 42.3% and 29.9%, respectively, and the differences between different ages were significant(χ2=72.17, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that fathers' high education level, mothers' education level(OR=0.78, 0.77, 0.21), and parents' satisfaction with children's eating were associated with low nutritional problems of child, while parental permission to play while eating, criticize while eating, force child to eat more and force child to eat foods they do not like, and parental concerns about children's appetite, were associated with more unhealthy eating behavior(OR=6.29, 1.80, 2.20, 1.70, 2.16)(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The prevalence of unhealthy eating behaviors of preschool children during the prevalence of COVID-19 is lower than usual, but the health education of preschool children's families still needs to be strengthened.
Responses to child sexual assaults and associated factors among parents of young children
XU Ying, GUO Yanfang, LI Zhixue, LI Yiwen, MA Yan, ZHAO Rencheng, HE Xiangyang, DENG Xiao, PENG Ji, LEI Lin, LIU Zheng
2021, 42(2): 240-244. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.020
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the possible responses of parents of young children to Child sexual assault (CSA) and the potential influencing factors, so as to provide evidence for prevention programs of CSA.  Methods  Part of the data from "2016-2020 Child Injury Prevention Project" was used to analyze responses to CSA among parents of children younger than 3rd grade in primary school by chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis.  Results  A total of 4 072 parents were included in the analysis. Among them, 86.8% of parents chose "to solve problems together", 51.0% of parents taking children to a "psychologist", 4.9% of parents "scolding children for being too careless", 2.9% of parents "letting child not disclose abuse" and 6.5% of parents chose "other" coping methods. Parents with foreign nationality and lower education level (OR=0.26-0.64) tend to "blame" their children. Mothers, higher parental education level (OR=0.27-0.72) were more reluctant to encourage their children to keep quiet. Mothers, older children (OR=1.33-1.78) and parents with higher education level (OR=1.65-2.99) tend to "accompany". Parents aged 30 or more, and from high school/technical school/technical secondary school tend to take their children to see a "psychologist".  Conclusion  Parents universally pay attention to the physical and mental health of children after CSA, but some parents still take negative coping methods, e.g. "blame" and "not disclose". Parenting educational level, duration of parent-child communication and age of children are primary factors associated with parental responses to child sexual assault. This study suggests that prevention secondary injury following child sexual assault should be farther strengthened, while fully considering the characteristics of the educated objects.
Family cohesion and adaptability among rural children with sexual abuse experience
SHAO Lijing, ZENG Jing, HE Qiuping, CAI Li, YANG Mei, XIANG Bing
2021, 42(2): 245-248. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.021
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  Objective  To understand the prevalence of sexual abuse among rural children and its association with family cohesion and adaptability, and to explore factors that may affect household functions of the victims.  Methods  A total of 1 666 rural middle school students in Hanchuan and Yunxi, Hubei were recruited with stratified cluster sampling method, multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze associated factors of the household functions of the victims.  Results  A total of 175 (10.50%) reported non-contact sexual abuse and 44 (2.64%) reported contact sexual abuse. Compared with control group, sexual abuse victims reported lower scores of family cohesion (F=8.97, P < 0.01) and adaptability (F=4.09, P=0.02). Among the victims, maternal absence was a risk factor for poor family cohesion(OR=0.20, P < 0.01), higher parental educational level and appropriate parenting methods(P < 0.05) were protective factors for family cohesion and family adaptability.  Conclusion  Household functions of children sexual abuse victims in rural areas are generally poor, especially for victims with mothers absence, low parental education and improper parenting style. More attention should be paid to such children to minimize the impact of negative events such as sexual abuse.
Relationship between behavior and lifestyle of left-behind children and anxiety symptoms in Shangrao City
HUANG Bo, FU Jianping, LIN Yanmin, SHA Mian, YANG Maolin, XU Yongsheng, WU Xiaoyan
2021, 42(2): 249-252. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.022
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  Objective  To analyze the correlation between behavior and lifestyle factors and anxiety symptoms of left-behind children, and to provide evidence for mental health intervention of left-behind children.  Methods  1 188 children aged from 13 to 18 (617 non-left-behind children and 571 left-behind children) in B County of Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province were evaluated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Meanwhile, physical activity, TV watching time, computer usage time, dietary behavior, sleep and other behavioral lifestyle factors of left-behind children were investigated by questionnaire.  Results  The detection rate of anxiety among left-behind children (66.0%) was higher than that of non-left-behind children (60.5%). The detection rates of mild, moderate, and severe anxiety were 26.3%, 15.4% and 24.3%, respectively. Under the condition of controlling age and gender, Logistic regression analysis showed that left-behind children's anxiety symptoms and computer usage time>3 h/d (mild anxiety, OR=3.00, 95%CI=1.27-4.16; moderate anxiety, OR=4.09, 95%CI=1.55-10.78; severe anxiety, OR=3.44, 95%CI=1.46-8.11), mobile phone usage time >3 h/d (mild anxiety, OR=4.93, 95%CI=2.71-8.94; moderate anxiety, OR=5.93, 95%CI=2.98-11.79; severe anxiety, OR=7.11, 95%CI=3.85-13.15), skipping breakfast behavior (moderate anxiety, often skipping, OR=6.09, 95%CI=1.59-23.36; severe anxiety, often skipping, OR=5.49, 95%CI =1.68-7.97, sometimes eat breakfast, OR=2.68, 95%CI=1.10-6.53) was positively correlated; with appropriate sleeping time (moderate anxiety, OR=0.28, 95%CI=0.13-0.60) was negatively correlated.  Conclusion  The unhealthy behavior and lifestyle of left-behind children may be a potential risk factor for anxiety symptoms.
Connectivity between visual brain regions and whole brain among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder
WANG Xiaomin, ZHAI Jinhe, REN Xiyun, XIA Wei, ZHANG Bishan, LI Yutong, LI Xiaoxue, WANG Jia
2021, 42(2): 253-256. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.023
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  Objective  To explore the functional connectivity between the visual brain regions and whole brain in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at resting state, and to further analyze the correlation with their clinical manifestations.  Methods  The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 34 boys with ASD enrolled from ASD designated rehabilitation institutions and 29 healthy boys enrolled from several kindergartens in Heilongjiang were collected. Based on the resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fc MRI) analysis, the BA17 of the primary visual brain region and the BA18/19 of the higher visual brain region were taken as the regions of interest (ROI) to calculate the functional connectivity level between the visual brain regions and whole brain, and the differences between the two groups were compared. Multiple developmental scales were used to evaluate the behavior of ASD children, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between functional connection strength and autistic behavior.  Results  The ASD group had decreased positive connectivity between BA17 and the right fusiform gyrus (FFG), and was negatively correlated with social interaction of ADI-R and the total scores of CARS (r=-0.41, -0.48, P < 0.05); ASD group had decreased positive connectivity between BA17 and the left FFG, there was a negative correlation with social motivation of SRS (r=-0.43, P < 0.05); ASD group had decreased positive connectivity between BA17 and the left posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG). Children with ASD had decreased positive connectivity between BA18/19 and left calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex (CAL), which was positively correlated with attention conversion of AQ, total scores of CARS (r=0.43, 0.40, P < 0.05), and the children with ASD had deceased positive connectivity between BA18/19 and right precuneus (PCUN).  Conclusion  In resting state, the functional connectivity of primary and higher visual brain regions and whole brain of ASD children is different from that in healthy children, and there is a significant correlation between abnormal level and autistic behaviors.
Study on HPV vaccine hesitation and associated factors among female college students in Weifang
LIU Min, YIN Wenqiang, XU Xiaofeng, LI Qiusha, SONG Yannan, YANG Chunxiao, HUANG Dongmei
2021, 42(2): 257-259, 263. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.024
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  Objective  To investigate HPV vaccine hesitation and associated factors among female college students in Weifang, and to provide a suggestions for improving the coverage rate of HPV vaccine among female college students.  Methods  The questionnaire of HPV vaccine hesitancy of female college students was designed. By adopting the stratified sampling method, the survey was conducted among female students at one medical university and three nonmedical universities in Weifang. Chi-square test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of vaccine hesitation.  Results  Female college students who had high risk perception toward vaccine (OR=4.15, 95%CI=1.55-11.10) and those who were angry about the sideeffects of the vaccine (OR=3.63, 95%CI=1.95-6.75) were hesitate to vaccinate against HPV. Female college students who believed long protection period of HPV vaccine (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.04-0.17), that women had a high probability of cervical cancer (OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90) and that the knowledge of HPV vaccine scored >6 (OR=0.31, 95%CI=0.15-0.67) were more likely to receive HPV vaccine.  Conclusion  High risk perception of vaccines and anger at vaccine adverse reactions are important factors affecting HPV vaccines for female college students. Our findings call for strategic role of the state, school-based health education as well as medical professional guidance in lowering HPV vaccination hesitation among fenale college sutdents.
Analysis of network usage and influencing factors among college students returning to a vocational college during COVID-19 epidemic
JIANG Minmin, WANG Yang, WANG Jing, WU Nan, DU Mengxue, FANG Zhengmei, ZHU Lijun, CHEN Yan, JIN Yuelong, YAO Yingshui
2021, 42(2): 260-263. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.025
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  Objective  To understand the current situation and influencing factors of Internet addiction among college students after returning to school during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide scientific basis for timely intervention measures to adjust the risk factors of Internet addiction.  Methods  A cluster sampling method was adopted to conduct a questionnaire survey among 2 700 college students who firstly returned to college using general condition questionnaire and Internet Addiction scale.  Results  The detection rate of Internet addiction disorder was 32.4% among returning college students, moreover, the detection rate of Internet addiction in male students(36.0%) was higher than that in female students (31.2%) (χ2=5.42, P < 0.05). The degree of Internet addiction was negatively correlated with the physical health score (rs=-0.20) and mental health score (rs=-0.24) of college students (P < 0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with introversion, neutral (OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.55-0.82) and extroverted college students (OR=0.59, 95%CI=0.48-0.74) were protective factors for Internet addiction; compared with no exercise, physical exercise ≥3 times or more per week (exercise 3-4 times: OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.51-0.87; ≥5 times: OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.50-0.90) were the protective factors for Internet addiction among college students; family loss during the epidemic was a risk factor for Internet addiction among college students (OR=1.34, 95%CI=1.12-1.60); the risk of Internet addiction was 2.13 times higher for college students who actively sought psychological help than for those who did not seek psychological help (95%CI=1.14-3.96); college students who did not want to go back to school had 1.50 times the risk of Internet addiction as those who did (95%CI=1.26-1.77).  Conclusion  The current situation of college students' online behaviors during COVID-19 is not optimistic, and should arouse sufficient attention from society and universities. In addition, college students returning to school should take more physical exercises and psychological counseling to detect and intervene in psychological problems in time, reduce their psychological burden, and enhance their psychological quality.
Delay on care-seeking and influencing factors among adolescent tuberculosis patients in Dongguan City from 2009 to 2018
LI Wenhui, FENG Hanyang, ZHONG Minghao, DAI Yanjie, YAN Li, ZHONG Xinguang, YE Xiaohua
2021, 42(2): 264-268, 272. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.026
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  Objective  To analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of care-seeking delay of adolescent tuberculosis patients in Dongguan City from 2009 to 2018, so as to provide theoretical basis for the tuberculosis control.  Methods  The study participants were 8 899 adolescent tuberculosis patients in Dongguan from 2009 to 2018. The Rank-sum test and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of care-seeking days, and the χ2 test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of care-seeking delay.  Results  The median care-seeking days among adolescent tuberculosis patients were 18(6-46) days in Dongguan City from 2009 to 2018, and the prevalence of the care-seeking delay was 56.6%. Multiple linear regression indicated that care-seeking delays were positively associated with being women (B=0.20), living in rural areas (B=0.10), pathogen-positive patients (B=0.69), patients from 2014 to 2018 (B=0.21), and junior school students (B=0.98). Multivariate Logistic regression indicated that care-seeking delay were positively associated with being women (OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.23-1.47), living in rural areas (OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.37), pathogen-positive patients (OR=2.51, 95%CI=2.26-2.79), patients from 2014 to 2018 (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.14-1.35), junior-school students (OR=7.58, 95%CI=1.45-39.65), high-school students (OR=5.26, 95%CI=1.04-26.52), university students (OR=7.06, 95%CI=1.39-35.99), and non-students (OR=5.23, 95%CI=1.05-26.08)(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The prevention and control of tuberculosis among adolescent patients in Dongguan urgently needs to be strengthened. In the future, attention should be paid to the prevalence of care-seeking delay among female, rural, and student tuberculosis patients, and a reasonable prevention and control policy for adolescent patients should be formulated.
Sleep duration and associated factors among 3-6-year-old children in Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Junfei, CHEN Qian
2021, 42(2): 269-272. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.027
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  Objective  To explore sleep duration and associated factors among children aged 3-6 years old in Zhejiang Province.  Methods  A total of 7 034 children aged 3-6 years from 24 kindergartens in Zhejiang province were selected through clustered sampling method. Through parental questionnaire, child sleep duration and associated factors were colleted. Possible influencing factors of sleep insufficiency were analyzed by logistic regression model.  Results  The rate of insufficient sleep was 56.1%, with 57.1% for boys and 55.1% for girls in Zhejiang Province. The rate of insufficient sleep increased with the increase of age, which was 46.7%, 49.8%, 50.2%, 55.2%, 64.0%, 65.8% and 68.1% for 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 years old group (χ2=45.71, P<0.01), respectively. The rate of insufficient sleep was 59.9%, 54.7% and 45.6% for children with <1 h/d, 1-2 h/d and ≥2 h/d outdoor physical activity (χ2=67.10, P<0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression model showed that children older than 4.5 years old, whose caregiver was other than parents, outdoor activity time< 1 h/d and 1-2 h/d, maternal education below junior middle school and senior high school were positiviely associated with sleep insufficiency.  Conclusion  Sleep insufficiency among preschool children is associated with multiple factors, increase of age, insufficient outdoor activity and overdose screen time in particular. The finding calls for outdoor physical activity promotion among preschool children, especially for those whose caregivers are those other than parents.
Assessment of transmission capacity of influenza and effect evaluation of suspension measures in schools and nurseries
XU Yucheng, ZHANG Ruiyin, ZHOU Zhifeng, ZHONG Jianming, CHEN Haochuan, ZHAO Menglan, LI Xueyun
2021, 42(2): 273-276. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.028
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  Objective  To estimate the transmission capacity of influenza clustering in schools and nurseries, and to evaluate the effect of suspension measures, providing a basis for formulating disease management strategies and control measures.  Methods  The SEIAR dynamics model was used to simulate the epidemic data, calculating the basic regeneration coefficient R0 of the epidemic to evaluate the epidemic transmission capacity, and calculating the cumulative incidence rate of the epidemic to evaluate the prevention and control effect of the suspension measures.  Results  The basic regeneration coefficient R0 was 8.44(8.01, 8.89) without intervention. There were statistically significant differences in R0 of influenza epidemic among different types of school(F=9.52, P < 0.01). The R0 of influenza epidemic in primary and secondary schools were higher than that in nurseries(P < 0.05). R0 of influenza A was higher than that of influenza B(t=2.71, P < 0.01). R0 of influenza A(H3) was higher than of influenza B(Victoria)(P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence of the outbreaks which were suspended for 4 days and 7 days was significantly lower than that in the non-suspensions(P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of the outbreaks between the 4-day suspension and the 7-day suspension(P>0.05).  Conclusion  Transmission capacity of school-based influenza epidemic is high, especially among primary and secondary schools. When the epidemic situation of infected class meets the suspension standard, it is recommended to suspend classes for 4 days.
Influence of birthweight and delivery mode on obesity among primary school students in Guangzhou
ZHANG Guangchuan, LIANG Jianping, YANG Lun, HUANG Weihao, LU Shuang, AO Liping, LI Zhanglong, YANG Yi, LIU Li
2021, 42(2): 277-281. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.029
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  Objective  To explore the influence of birthweight and delivery mode on overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in primary school students, and to provide evidence for childhood obesity prevention.  Methods  After physical examination, questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 361 students and their parents from 3 primary schools in Guangzhou selected through stratified clustering sampling. Information about birthweight and delivery mode was collected. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of birthweight and delivery mode with overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. The multiplicative interaction term and the Delta method was used to explore the potential interaction.  Results  The prevalence rate of overweight and obesity for primary school students was 21.33%, and the rate of abdominal obesity was 12.08%. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that delivery by cesarean section was associated with 44% increased risk of overweight/obesity(OR=1.44, 95%CI=1.16-1.80), as compared to vaginal delivery. Higher birthweight was linked to increased risk of overweight/obesity(OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.09-2.42). There was no significant association of birth weight and delivery mode with abdominal obesity in multivariate analysis(P>0.05). Additionally, a positive additive interaction was seen between delivery mode and parental obesity for students' risk of overweight/obesity(RERI=0.33, 95%CI=0.02-0.65), as well as for the risk of abdominal obesity(RERI=0.39, 95%CI=0.12-0.65).  Conclusion  Cesarean section delivery and higher birthweight are linked to increased risk of overweight and obesity in primary school students. The synergistic effect of cesarean section and parental obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity.
Relationship between masked obesity and bone mineral density in various body parts among college students
WANG Mengdie, REN Hong, ZHAO Xinyi
2021, 42(2): 282-286. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.030
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  Objective  To investigate bone mineral density of college students with masked obesity, and to provide theoretical basis for bone density improvement and osteoporosis prevention in college students.  Methods  Participants were enrolled from universities and colleges. A total of 518 low-weight or normal-weight students were included and were classified according to the criteria of masked obesity, dual-energy X-ray test was used to detect the percentage of body fat and bone mineral density of college students in each group. The differences in bone mineral density between masked obesity and non-masked obesity groups of different genders were compared, and the correlation between body mass index, body fat percentage and bone mineral density was analyzed.  Results  Among the low-weight male college students, the whole body bone mineral density, t-value and Z-value of masked obesity group were lower than those of the non-masked obesity group [(1.82±0.04, 2.01±0.22)g/cm2; (-1.10±0.24, -0.02±0.15); (-0.94±0.64, -0.01±0.43)(P < 0.01)]. Among low-weight male college students, bone mineral density of the upper limbs, thighs, ribs, and pelvis of the masked obesity group was lower than that of the non-masked obesity group. Among low-weight female college students, body bone mineral density of masked obesity group was lower than that of the non-masked obesity group [(1.13±0.48, 1.31±0.29)g/cm2; (P < 0.05)]. Among low-weight female college students, bone mineral density of head, upper limbs, thighs, and trunk of masked obesity group was lower than that of the non-masked obesity group. In male college students, body mass index was positively correlated with bone mineral density, T-value and Z-value (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.61, P < 0.01) while body fat percentage was negatively correlated with bone mineral density, T-value and Z-value (r=-0.52, -0.51, -0.49, P < 0.01). In female college students, body mass index was positively correlated with T-value and Z-value (r=0.46, 0.26, P < 0.01), and body fat percentage was negatively correlated with T-value and Z-value (r=-0.22, -0.23, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Compared with normal-weight college students, depletion of bone mineral density among masked obesity students is observed. It is of great significance to pay attention to bone mineral density of college students with masked obesity and implement intervention to prevent osteoporosis timely.
Eating behaviors related to brucellosis infection in Mongolian middle school students in Abaga Banner, Inner Mongolia
YOU Xiang, Battle, HAO Wenli, LIU Ruijia, XU Haixia, LI Muting
2021, 42(2): 287-290. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.031
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Abstract:
  Objective  To understand current situation and associated factors of brucellosis infection among students in Mongolian middle school in Abaga Banner, and to provide basis for further development of prevention and treatment strategies.  Methods  Serological examinations were performed on pupils and middle school students in a Mongolian middle school in Abaga Banner. Questionnaire surveys were used to investigate students' knowledge of eating behaviors related to brucellosis infection.  Results  A total of 500 primary and middle school students were investigated, and 6 cases of brucellosis were confirmed, and the infection rate was 1.20%. There were 4 cases of male infection and 2 cases of female infection. The infection rate in boys (1.61%) was higher than that of girls (0.79%). Higher proportion was found in 14-year-old group (n=3), accounting for 17.40%. The residence period of 10-15 years includes 6 cases of all infected persons. The number of infections in Narenbaolige Town was 4, accounting for 23.40%. Univariate logistic regression analysis shows that frequent consumption of unsterilized dairy products, milking, processing lambs or slugs and infected cloth The disease was positively correlated (OR=11.80, 139.14, 8.02, P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that milking was positively correlated with brucellosis infection(OR=20.19, 95%CI=2.01-202.74, P=0.01).  Conclusion  The brucellosis infection of Mongolian primary and middle school students in Abaga Banner is related to a variety of related dietary factors, and its prevention and treatment should be strengthened.
Disinfection quality of secondary and primary schools and kindergartens in Wuxi
ZOU Yaming, LIU Yunhua, WANG Hesheng, YOU Yingqi, LAN Cejie, ZHU Ding
2021, 42(2): 291-293, 298. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.032
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  Objective  To comprehensively understand the disinfection quality of secondary and primary schools and kindergartens in Wuxi, so as to find out problems and to provide advice for improvement.  Methods  Stratified random sampling method was applied in the investigation to select 73 schools and classes. The qualities of room air, surface of object, hand hygiene of staff, tableware, ultraviolet lamp and disinfectant in use (including bacterial contamination and concentration of chlorine-containing) were all tested.  Results  A total of 2 563 samples were collected with the total disinfection qualified rate 88.02%. The qualified rates of kindergarten, primary and secondary schools were 87.89%, 90.67% and 85.83% respectively. The rates of Xishan and Jiangyin districts were 75.24% and 75.89% respectively. The quality of urban schools was better than the rural(χ2=16.57, P < 0.01). There was no statistical significance between public and private schools (χ2=0.01, P=0.92). The rank of qualified rates of different objects was: bacterial contamination (100.00%) > room air (93.13%) > tableware (91.87%) > surface of object (89.40%) > ultraviolet lamp (84.00%) > concentration of chlorine-containing (73.68%) > hand hygiene of staff (73.53%). The quality of secondary schools was lower than kindergartens and primary schools in the aspects of room air and surface of object.  Conclusion  The disinfection quality of secondary and primary schools and kindergartens in Wuxi is good in general. More attention should be paid on hand hygiene, concentration of chlorine-containing and ultraviolet lamp. The qualities of room air and surface of object of secondary schools need to be improved.
Relationship between neck circumference and hypertension of primary and middle school students: a Meta-analysis
ZHAO Mengjuan, ZHANG Yueqi, ZHAO Chunshan
2021, 42(2): 294-298. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.033
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  Objective  To systematically evaluate the relationship between neck circumference and hypertension of primary and secondary school students.  Methods  Web of science, PubMed, Scopus, CNKI and WanFang databases were searched by computer, and the retrieval time was from inception to December 2019. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data and evaluated the quality, and then performed Meta-analysis using Stata 14.0 software.  Results  A total of 8 studies were included, including 20 475 subjects. Meta-analysis results showed that the risk of hypertension increased by 35% in people with a high neck circumference compared with the normal population(OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.20-1.51, P < 0.01). The results of subgroup analysis showed that the correlation between neck circumference and hypertension of obese primary and secondary school students was 1.41 times higher than that of normal weight students(OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.23-1.61, P < 0.01). The correlation between the neck circumference and the risk of hypertension of primary and secondary school students in Europe and America was more significant than that in Asia(OR=1.31, 95%CI=1.11-1.53, P=0.01). When the mean value of neck circumference was greater than 28.5 cm(OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.02-1.64, P=0.03), it was associated with the incidence of hypertension.  Conclusion  The neck circumference of primary and middle school students is related to the risk of hypertension, especially in obese people. Blood pressure monitoring and health education should be strengthened to prevent hypertension.
Physical fitness of college freshmen in one college in Xi'an during 2005-2018
LI Hongyi, QIAN Zhangzhi, HE Li, MAO Yan, GUO Haixia
2021, 42(2): 299-301. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.034
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  Objective  To understand changes of physical fitness, among college freshmen in one college in Xi'an from 2005 to 2018.  Methods  Body mass index (BMI), vital lung capacity and cardiorespiratory endurance test data from 47 047 freshmen from 2005 to 2018 were included and analyzed. BMI, vital lung capacity, and cardiorespiratory endurance were classified according to the National Student Physical Fitness and Health Standard. Descriptive statistics, t test was used in the data analysis.  Results  Mean BMI, vital lung capacity and cardiorespiratory endurance for male and female were (21.69±3.26) (20.88±2.65) kg/m2, (4 189.87±788.57) (2 815.06±572.07) mL, (246.17±24.09) (239.97±20.23) s, respectively, all of which had significant statistical differences (t=29.48, 218.87, 28.70, P<0.05). Physical fitness indicators showed significant differences over the years (F=104.82, 185.43, 40 891.99, P<0.05). Mean BMI and vital lung capacity in male and female freshmen showed nonlinear increase trend across the past 14 years, while endurance showed a "V"-shaped change with a significant inflection point in the year of 2009.  Conclusion  From 2005 to 2018, BMI and vital lung capacity showed an upward trend, and cardiorespiratory endurance quality continued to decline since 2009 among college freshmen.
Effects of isotonic muscle exercise on body shape and neck-shoulder muscle activity of college students
JING Lanxiang, YIN Zhaoyou, GAO Jing, ZONG Xuekai
2021, 42(2): 302-306. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.035
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Abstract:
  Objective  The purpose of this study was to investigate effects two kinds of isotonic muscle contraction training on muscle body shape and neck-shoulder muscle activity among college students with physical inactivity and poor body posture, to provide appropriate exercise options for these college students.   Method   Thirty subjects with typical sedentary behavior and upper-cross syndrome were randomly divided into no load isotonic training(IT), resistance isotonic training(RIT) and health education control(C) groups. Two training groups were trained for 12 weeks. All subjects were tested their heath-carter anthropometric somatotype, cervical spine angle, range of cervical spine extending and scapula adduction, surface electromyography data of neck and shoulder musle activity were measured before/after training.  Results  After training, three factors value in IT, RIT, C groups were[(3.68±1.01)(5.68±1.05)(3.17±0.54), (2.84±0.84)(5.87±1.45)(1.34±0.10), (3.82±0.18)(4.83±1.03)(3.30±0.22)] respectively. After training, cervical spine angles were(32.70±9.20)(20.78±2.24)(11.24±3.21)°; extending angles of cervical spine were(3.21±1.82)(2.24±0.60)(1.24±0.01)°; ranges of scapula adduction were(3.44±1.28)(3.08±1.35)(6.08±1.57)cm in IT, RIT, C groups respectively. Three parameters in two training groups significantly increased(F=8.43, 7.29, 8.04, P < 0.05). Antagonistic muscle co-activation in neck and shoulder in three groups were(0.11±0.01) and(0.34±0.02)(0.31±0.01) and(0.56±0.03)(0.36±0.11) and(0.69±0.04) respectively, which significantly decreased in two training groups(F=27.39, 5.45, P < 0.05). There were more obviously changes of neck and shoulder muscle-bone system in IT group(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Musculoskeletal system improved while body fat reduced after resistance isotonic training. No load isotonic training was more superior in adjusting and correctingg upper-crossed syndrome posture than resistance isotonic training. College students with sedentary behavior and upper-cross syndrome can choose no load isotonic training preliminarily for muscle strength and concordance increasing before adding load.
Influence of physical activity patterns on academic performance in children and adolescents
QI Ziyi, WANG Jingjing, HE Xiangui
2021, 42(2): 307-311. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.036
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Abstract:
Physical activity promotes the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, and a growing body of research has demonstrated the positive effects of physical exercise, including better academic performance. This review presents a retrospective analysis of the existing literature in order to explore the relationship between physical activity patterns and academic performance in children and adolescents. This study analyzes the impact of differences in the duration, frequency, intensity, and type of physical activity on the academic performance of children and adolescents, which provides a basis for improving the quality and effect of such physical activities. High-quality evidence supports the view that long-term, high-frequency, aerobic physical activities of moderate-to-vigorous intensity have a positive impact on children and adolescents' academic performance. This study provides a reference to help families, schools, and society to scientifically and rationally promote physical activity among children and adolescents.
Research progress of screening for vertebral column defects in children and adolescents
JIANG Zhicheng, XU Huiqiong, WAN Yuhui, TAO Fangbiao
2021, 42(2): 312-315,320. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.037
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Abstract:
Vertebral column defects can have adverse effects on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Early screening and diagnosis is conducive to the correction of the disease, which can effectively slow down or stop the process of abnormal spinal curvature in children and adolescents. However, in terms of cost-effectiveness, there are different opinions around the world on the inclusion of school screening for abnormal spinal curvature into routine health services. This article reviews the concept and classification of vertebral column defects in children and adolescents, the epidemic situation, screening methods and significance by consulting the relevant literature at home and abroad, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of the disease.
Current insights into the aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
SHI Dongdong, CHEN Qianfen
2021, 42(2): 316-320. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.02.038
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Abstract:
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with multiple physical and mental health problems among adolescent patients. This is a multi-factor, multi-system process of disease evolution. Patients with mild scoliosis can choose to receive conservative treatment with braces and regular follow-up. Once scoliosis progresses, surgical correction is often required. With the development of surgical pedicle screw technology, surgical correction has achieved good results, but other negative effects of long-term follow-up of scoliosis are not clear. This paper summarizes the existing AIS pathogenesis from the aspects of heredity, hormone, nervous system, skeletal system and biomechanics.