2022 Vol. 43, No. 4

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Improving physical activity levels of children and adolescents is an important guarantee for Healthy China
YIN Xiaojian, REN Shanshan
2022, 43(4): 481-485. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.001
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The health of children and adolescents is of great significance to the realization of a "Healthy China". However, the current health problems of children and adolescents are showing a trend of frequent, high incidence and younger age. Complex and diverging characteristics of the environment, family and personal life behavior patterns contribute to risks and problems for children and adolescent health prevention and improvement. The outbreak and spread of COVID-19 epidemic has brought even more severe challenges to the health promotion of children and adolescents. In view of the connection between physical activity and the health benefits, consistent focus on "Physical Activity" and innovative ways and methods of health promotion through physical activity, can help provide an important guarantee for achieving the goal of "Healthy China".
Prevention and control of smoking behaviors among adolescents in Macau
WONG Nimchi, CHAN Iteng, MAO Aimei
2022, 43(4): 486-490. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.002
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The smoking prevalence among population in Macau has been steadily declined in the past 10 years and Macau boasts one of the lower smoking prevalences in the world. However, the prevalence of adolescent smoking is relatively high. This article described the MPOWER anti-smoking package for adolescents in Macau. It also offered suggestions for future improvements in controlling smoking of the young people, including monitoring illicit tobacco trade and smuggling, raising the age limit to buy tobacco products, innovating the methods of health education on harms of tobacco smoke, and enhancing scrutiny on smoking behavior around school campuses. The smoking prevalence among adolescents can be reduced with comprehensive and inclusive anti-smoking programs which are tailored to behavioral and psychological characteristics of young people, in line with the local social-economic contexts, and take on advantages of scientific and technological developments.
Correlation between children and adolescents physical activity and socioeconomic status in China
CHEN Jun, YUAN Yong, YIN Xiaojian, WU Huipan, HOU Yuxin, ZHANG Xiang, LI Jiawei, KANG Xuye
2022, 43(4): 491-496. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.003
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  Objective  To understand the correlation between physical activity (PA) and socioeconomic status (SES) among Chinese children and adolescents, and to provide theoretical basis for physical activity promotion for Chinese children and adolescents.  Methods  By using stratified random cluster sampling, a total of 4 269 children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 were selected from six cities in China from September to December 2018. Physical Activity Level Evaluation Questionnaire of Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 7 to 18 was used to investigate PA and SES, and the height and weight were measured.  Results  In terms of different intensity of PA, the time spent on light-intensity physical activity(LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity(MPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity(MVPA)and total physical activity(TPA) in low SES group was 28.5(6.9, 57.1) min/d, 46.2(25.7, 79.2) min/d, 61.4(34.3, 101.9) min/d and 102.9(65.0, 145.8)min/d respectively, which was higher than that in middle SES groups [21.4 (4.3, 50.7), 37.1(18.6, 65.7), 50.3(27.1, 86.8), 85.7(49.3, 127.1) min/d] and high SES groups [24.3(5.0, 54.3), 40.0(21.4, 69.1), 54.3(32.9, 91.4), 89.6(55.7, 132.9) min/d](P < 0.01). In terms of different types of PA, the traffic PA [40.0(15.0, 68.6) min/d] and entertainment PA[4.3(0, 17.1)min/d] accounted the highest proportion in low SES group, while sports PA [36.4(20.7, 60.7) min/d] accounted the highest proportion in high SES group(P < 0.01).The compliance rates of MVPA in low, middle and high SES groups were 51.1%, 42.5% and 45.2%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (χ2=22.02, P < 0.05). After controlling for confounding factors, the detection rate of MVPA in the low SES group was 1.24 times higher than that in the high SES group (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The MVPA and TPA time of children and adolescents with middle SES group were the lowest. Physical activities spent on traffic and entertainment account highest in low SES group, while physical activities spent on sports account highest in high SES group.
Physical activity of Chinese children and adolescents: age, gender and regional characteristics
WU Huipan, ZHANG Ming, YIN Xiaojian, LI Jiawei, DENG Ting, ZHANG Xiang, WANG Jinxian, KANG Xuye
2022, 43(4): 497-501. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.004
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  Objective  To explore age, gender, and regional differences in physical activity among children and adolescents in China, and to provide a scientific reference for enhancing physical activity promotion.  Methods  A total of 4 269 children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years were selected from six administrative regions of China (East China, Northwest China, North China, Central China, Southwest China and South China) using a stratified random cluster sampling method from September to December 2018.A questionnaire was administered to evaluate the physical activity level of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7 to 18.  Results  The overall detection rate of MVPA insufficiency in children and adolescents in China was 53.8%, of which the detection rate of MVPA insufficiency was 50.8% among boys and 57.1% among girls.Gender differences were statistically significant (χ2=17.10, P < 0.05).Among the different age groups, the lowest detection rate of MVPA among 10-12 year olds was 43.6%, whereas the highest rate among 16-18 year olds was 63.0%, with significant differences between gender (χ2=4.33, 30.79, P < 0.05).The P50 values of total physical activity (TPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate intensity physical activity (MPA), vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 92.9, 24.3, 41.4, 7.1 and 55.7 min/d, respectively.The P50 values of physical exercise, housework activities, entertainment activities and transportation activities were 34.3, 2.1, 2.3 and 30.0 min/d, respectively, and the difference in age groups was statistically significant (H=95.03, 74.99, 300.26, 64.16, P < 0.05).There was a statistically significant difference in the detection rate of insufficient MVPA among children and adolescents in different regions (χ2=83.91, P < 0.05).The lowest rate was 44.0% in North China, and the highest was 65.9% in East China.  Conclusion  The detection rate of MVPA insufficiency among Chinese children and adolescents firstly decreased and then increased with age.Boys participated in higher levels of physical activity than girls.
Relationship between physical activity screen time and sleep duration and overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
LYU Zixin, LI Tao
2022, 43(4): 502-506. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.005
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  Objective  To investigate the relationship among physical activity, sleep duration and screen time and overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and to provide reference for children and adolescents in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to maintain healthy physique.  Methods  In November 2019, 4 262 primary and secondary school students in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were surveyed on physical activity, sleep status and screen time according to the physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents, and the relationship between overweight and obesity was analyzed by Logistic regression.  Results  The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was 22.03%. The positive rate of overweight was 12.01% and obesity was 10.02%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in male students (26.09%) was higher than that in female students (17.88%), the difference was statistically significant (χ2=41.77, P < 0.01). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban children (24.09%) and Han children (22.74%) was significantly higher than that in rural areas (21.05%) and ethnic minorities (17.70%) (χ2=5.00, 7.63, P < 0.05). The proportion of children who met physical activity, screen time and sleep duration guideline was 24.85%, 38.69% and 57.09%, respectively. A total of 21.68% of children and adolescents did not meet the guideline of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration, among which 42.80% and 28.77% met the guideline for one or two out of three behaviors, respectively. Only 6.76% of children and adolescents met the guideline of all three behaviors. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of overweight and obesity was negatively correlated with sleep duration (OR=0.72, 95%CI=0.52-0.98). The risk of overweight and obesity was lower in patients with 2 criteria than in those with less sleep duration and less screen time (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.36-0.87).  Conclusion  Percentage of sufficient physical activity among children and adolescents in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is low, and ensuring sufficient sleep duration is helpful for overweight and obesity prevention. The impact of sleep duration and screen time on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents should be considered in childhood obesity prevention and control.
Diurnal variation of adolescents' physical activity
YAN Wenjing, LI Hongjuan
2022, 43(4): 507-509. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.006
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  Objective  To analyze diurnal variation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time among adolescents, to further explore the possible factors associated with diurnal variation of adolescents' physical activity and to provide reference for appropriate intervention strategies.  Methods  A total of 148 middle school and high school students in Beijing were assessed for daily MVPA and sedentary time by wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X three-axis accelerometers for one week. Height and weight were measured.  Results  The MVPA [(49.39±30.36)min/d] on weekdays was higher than that on weekends[(34.24±30.30)min/d](t=6.61, P < 0.05). The MVPA of boys on weekdays and weekends was higher than that of girls(t=4.42, 2.18, P < 0.05). The sedentary time on weekdays and weekends was(566.48±156.84) and (588.55±152.93)min/d, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant(t=-0.21, P>0.05). The sedentary time of boys was lower than that of girls(t=-8.20, -2.51, P < 0.05). The coefficient of variation of adolescent MVPA was lower on weekdays(0.39±0.17) than on weekends(0.59±0.46), and the difference was statistically significant(t=-3.23, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the coefficient of variation between weekdays (0.17±0.08) and weekends(0.15±0.13)(t=1.10, P>0.05). The coefficient of variation(0.52±0.18) of MVPA in adolescents was higher than that of sitting(0.18±0.07)(t=14.43, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Adolescents have higher level of physical activity on weekdays, and high level of physical inactivity on weekends. MVPA time variation is higher within a week, especially on weekends, sedentary time is steadily at a high level. The finding suggests that in addition to the active measures taken by schools to increase the physical activity of students, interventions for girls and weekends are particularly important to increase the overall level of physical activity for adolescents.
Current situation and demand of primary and secondary school health education in five areas across China
YAO Fang, HUANG Qiaoliang, KONG Fanlong, YANG Haibing
2022, 43(4): 510-513. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.007
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  Objective  To understand the current situation and demand school health education in five areas across China, and to provide theoretical support for further revision and improvement on school health education.  Methods  Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was adopted. A total of 4 052 students were selected from five areas across China [Urumqi(n=1 295), Haikou City(n=448), Shijiazhuang City(n=788), Chengdu City(n=728), Suzhou City(n=793)]. Online questionnaire survey was conducted by questionnair star.  Results  About 89.98% of the students used the use of uniform teaching materials, and 63.50% attended the health education classes once a week. The main sources of health knowledge, the use of uniform teaching materials, class schedule and the difference of teachers in different regions and periods were statistically significant (χ2=54.98, 40.97, 590.08, 1 061.12;50.70, 47.68, 356.09, 193.30, P < 0.05). The main source of health knowledge was from school/teachers(92.47%). Most health education teachers were classroom teachers(30.03%). Content of health education that students were interested in varied by gender and grade (χ2=20.91, 35.90, P < 0.05), but not by area (P>0.05). Demand for health knowledge of students varied by area and grade (χ2=177.29, 32.37, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The status quo of health education in schools is good. Further attention should be paid to cultivate high-quality health education teachers and provide targeted health education activities according to students' demand, and ultimately improving health literacy among students.
Analysis of coping capacity and influencing factors of public health emergencies among college students in Shandong Province
ZHANG Wen, CAO Xiaohua, DU Jie, WANG Na, ZHAO Min, LIN Junchang
2022, 43(4): 514-517. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.008
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  Objective  To understand the current situation and influencing factors of coping capacity in public health emergencies among college students in Shandong Province, and to provide reference for public health emergencies responses.  Methods  Using stratified random sampling method, 7 719 students from 6 colleges and universities in Shandong Province were selected and investigated with self-designed questionnaire from April to May 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of coping capacity in public health emergencies.  Results  The overall coping capacity of college students in Shandong Province to public health emergencies scored (46.22±8.47), with dimension from high to low being personal prevention before the event (15.65±2.75), post-event cooperation and disposal (15.18±3.08), incident personal precaution (15.01±3.23). Multiple linear regression showed that gender, major, only child, parental education level, knowledge of public health emergencies, emergency drill exercises, and health education for public health emergencies were associated with coping capacity among college students in public health emergencies (B=-1.53, -1.78, -2.08, 0.60, 0.81, 1.11, 1.38, 0.78, 1.65, 1.86, 9.14, 2.00, 2.62, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The overall coping capacity in public health emergencies among college students in Shandong is at a good level, but still needs to be improved through strengthening emergency education and family support.
Awareness of Internet-based sex education and associated factors among middle school students
XIA Ruihong, CHEN Jiajun, QU Xianguo
2022, 43(4): 518-521. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.009
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  Objective  To investigate the awareness of Internet-based sex education and associated among middle school students, and to provide scientific basis to improve sex education using online resources.  Methods  By using stratified cluster random sampling method, 449 students from 8 middle schools in Zhejiang Province were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire by Chi-square test, Logistic regression, and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA).  Results  The awareness of Internet-based sex education was 66.59%(299), among which 17.15%(77) chose "WeChat", 7.35%(33) chose "sex education website", and 42.09%(189) chose"video platform" as the primary resources of online sex education, respectively. In the sexual health literacy of middle school students, the correct rate in sexual safety and sexual assault was higher than 40%, with STD transmission and prevention higher than 70%. The correct rate was more than 80% when it came to sexual physiology and sexual development. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher score of sexual health literacy was associated with higher awareness of Internet-based sex education (OR=1.06, 95%CI=1.01-1.11, P < 0.05). According to the IPA, the teaching effect and content in area A (the dominant area) had higher scores of importance and satisfaction.The funniness of content in area B (retention area) had a lower importance score and a higher satisfaction score. The practicality and interactivity in area C (opportunity area) had low scores of importance and satisfaction. The curriculum model in area D (improvement area) scored higher in importance and lower in satisfaction.  Conclusion  The awareness of Internet-based sex education needs to be improved among middle school students. Efforts should be made to improve sexual health literacy. Online platforms providing sex education should focus on improving the relevant course model, strengthening the practicability and interactivity of the course, and continue to maintain the advantage of teaching effect, teaching content and interesting aspects of the course.
Risk perception and behavior status of college students' extracurricular jogging exercise
HU Degang, ZLIU Jihua, ZHANG Wulong
2022, 43(4): 522-525. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.010
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  Objective  To explore the relationship among jogging risk perception, jogging risk behavior and the incidence of jogging risk, so as to provide a feasible way to reduce the risk of college students' extracurricular jogging exercise.  Methods  The method of convenience sampling was used to conduct a follow-up survey among 470 college students at a university in Beijing participating in extracurricular jogging exercise and the sports world campus app was used to record and monitor jogging exercise. During the tracking period, the jogging related information was counted once a month, a total of 6 times. At the same time, three questionnaires were distributed in three stages to collect relevant information. SPSS 26.0 was used for the descriptive analysis, and AMOS 22.0 was used for correlational analysis.  Results  The risk rate of extracurricular jogging exercise of college students during the past academic year was 71.06%, score of knowledge on jogging risk was(3.68±0.59), was (3.25±0.91)for jogging injury, and was(3.23±0.96)for jogging-related disease. Significant negative correlation between college students' jogging risk perception and jogging risk behavior (r=-0.34), negative correlation between jogging risk perception and the incidence of jogging injuries (r=-0.27), and positive correlation between jogging risk behavior and the incidence of jogging injuries (r=0.28) were observed(P < 0.01). PE(physical education) class was the main way of obtaining the knowledge about jogging risks among college students(43.40%).  Conclusion  College students show high vulnerability for extracurricular jogging-related risks, and low level of perception of jogging risks and jogging injuries. Relevant measures need to be taken to improve the cognitive level of running risk among college students, so as to reduce the incidence of running risk.
Development of Infectious Disease-Prevention Health Literacy Scale for Chinese Middle School Students
LI Yuancheng, ZHU Fan, GUO Xueer, LIU Sichen, JIA Bibo, WANG Pei, ZHU Guiyin, MA Yinghua
2022, 43(4): 526-529. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.011
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  Objective  To preliminarily develop the Infectious Disease-Prevention Health Literacy Scale for Chinese Middle School Students, as an important measuring tool for assessment of comprehensive abilities in infectious disease prevention of Chinese middle school students.  Methods  The basic dimensional framework and item pool were established by literature review in the view of public health. Then Delphi method was used to modify the framework and item pool to scale 1.0. Panel discussion in middle school students was used to adjust the expression and structure of scale 1.0, turning it into scale 2.0. With the confirmation of theory-experts-subjects, the scale was preliminarily developed.  Results  Literature review suggested that the basic dimension framework included five longitudinal dimensions and seven horizontal dimensions. According to Delphi method (n=18), the Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) of the scale was equal to 0.14 (P < 0.01), the average importance, proportion of full marks, coefficient of variation and weight coefficient of all dimensions and items met the inclusion criteria. According to panel discussion, the scale was finally adjusted into scale 2.0 with 53 items.  Conclusion  This study preliminarily established the Infectious Disease-Prevention Health Literacy Scale for Chinese Middle School Students, which might be applied in both scientific research and practical use.
Association between parents' health literacy and health risk behaviors of middle school students in northeast Jiangxi Province
LIU Gang, LU Jinkui, LIU Yang
2022, 43(4): 530-535. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.012
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  Objective  To explore the association between parents' health literacy and health risk behaviors of middle school students, so as to provide theoretical basis for parental health literacy improvement and adolescent health risk behaviors prevention.  Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1 993 middle school students and their parents in northeast Jiangxi Province by multistage stratified random sampling during Jun. to Sept. of 2020. Spearman correlation and generalized linear model were used to explore association between parents health literacy with 5 types of unhealthy behaviors.  Results  Generalized linear model analysis showed that after adjusting household economic status and other covariates, parents' health literacy was associated with adolescent health risk behaviors, and the scientific health view (β=-0.05, 95%CI=-0.09--0.01), health information literacy (β=-0.06, 95%CI=-0.08--0.05) were associated with substance abuse and violence among middle school students; health information literacy (β=-0.03, 95%CI=-0.04--0.01) was associated with adolescent healthy eating behavior; health information literacy (β=-0.03, 95%CI=-0.05--0.02) was associated with breakfast and exercise in middle school students; chronic disease literacy (β=0.05, 95%CI=0.00-0.09), health information literacy (β=-0.02, 95%CI=-0.03--0.00) was associated with screen-related behavior of middle school students; scientific health view (β=-0.05, 95%CI=-0.09--0.01), basic medical literacy (β=-0.08, 95%CI=-0.13--0.04), health information literacy (β=0.02, 95%CI=0.00-0.03) were associated with middle school students' traffic safety behavior(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  There is a certain cross-sectional correlation between parents' health literacy and adolescent health risk behaviors. It is necessary to clarify the direction and intensity of the correlation in the cohort study.
Willingness and related factors of COVID-19 vaccination among middle school students in four cities of China
WANG Long, GUAN Mengying, LI Menglong, AMAERJIANG Nubiya, REHATI Palizhati, YANG Liping, XIAO Huidi, ZUNONG Jiawulan, HU Yifei
2022, 43(4): 536-539. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.013
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  Objective  This study aims to investigate the willingness and influencing factors of COVID-19 vaccination among Chinese middle school students, and to provide a reference for promoting the implementation of COVID-19 vaccination among middle school students.  Methods  An online survey was conducted among middle school students in Beijing, Anqing of Anhui Province, Xi'an of Shaanxi Province and Shenzhen of Guangdong Province, and 9 153 participants were enrolled in the present study. Single factor analysis and multinomial Logistic regression was used to determine the related factors of COVID-19 vaccination willingness.   Results  The prevalence of vaccine acceptance, vaccine hesitancy and vaccine refusal among middle school students were 60.05%, 31.59% and 8.36%, respectively. The results of Chi-square analysis showed there were significant difference of COVID-19 vaccination willingness among sex, school residence, grade, region, vaccination willingness of surrounding classmates, vaccination willingness of others, fear of SARS-CoV-2 and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection(χ2=8.43-1 059.43, P < 0.05). Multinomial Logistic regression analysis presented that, compared to "vaccine acceptance" group, those girls, non-resident in school, living in Beijing or Anqing, disagree or uncertain with influenced by peers, disagree or uncertain with influenced by others, uncertain with fear of SARS-CoV-2, disagree or uncertain with having risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to show vaccine hesitancy(OR=1.22, 1.21, 1.49, 1.69, 1.75, 2.54, 1.41, 2.32, 3.32, 1.99, 2.38, P < 0.05). And those non-boarding in school, living in Beijing or Xi'an, disagree or uncertainty influenced by peers, disagree or uncertainty influenced by others, disagree with fear of SARS-CoV-2, disagree or uncertainty in having risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to show vaccine refusal (OR=1.27, 2.29, 1.46, 3.88, 2.37, 2.31, 1.47, 2.14, 4.24, 1.47, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The willingness of COVID-19 vaccination among middle school students in four cities is low, and targeted interventions should be advocated to form herd immunity.
Association between sleep duration and social anxiety in children and adolecsents
MA Ying, MA Tao, CHEN Manman, CHEN Li, LI Yanhui, GAO Di, LIU Jieyu, DONG Yanhui, MA Jun
2022, 43(4): 540-544. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.014
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  Objective  To analyze the association between sleep duration and social anxiety in Chinese children and adolescents to provide evidence for promoting healthy lifestyle and mental health in children and adolescents.  Methods  A total of 1 145 children and adolescents aged 7-16 were recruited by cluster random sampling in Beijing in 2020, and received a series of body measurements and questionnaire survey. Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to evaluate the social anxiety symptoms and sleep duration of children and adolescents. T-test was used to compare the differences of social anxiety level in different groups, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and social anxiety.  Results  The average score of social anxiety was (5.47±4.18). The social anxiety score of girls, participants aged 13-16, with insufficient physical activity and insufficient sleep duration were higher (t=-4.34, -6.14, 3.35, 2.93, P < 0.05). The results of multivariate linear regression model showed that after adjusting confounding factors, social anxiety decreased by 0.78 for each additional hour of sleep duration (β=-0.78, 95%CI=-1.03--0.54, P < 0.01), with 0.60 in boys (95%CI=-0.95--0.25), 0.90 in girls (95%CI=-1.24--0.56), 0.75 among participants aged 7-12 (95%CI=-1.11--0.40) and 0.76 among participants aged 13~16 (95%CI=-1.11--0.41)(P < 0.01), respectively. Social anxiety among participants who were not overweight or obese decreased by 0.78(95%CI=-1.09--0.48) and 0.81 among overweight and obese group (95%CI=-1.22--0.41)(P < 0.01) for each additional hour of sleep duration, respectively.  Conclusion  Substantial differences in social anxiety are observed in children and adolescents by gender, age group and nutritional status. Sufficient sleep duration is significantly related to the decrease of social anxiety, and improve the overall level of student mental health.
Impact of sports activity tracking APP on physical fitness of college students
ZHANG Juanjuan, LIU Chentao, LU Jia, SUN Huaiyu
2022, 43(4): 545-547. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.015
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  Objective  To explore the impact of using sports activity tracking APP data recording and social fitness activities on physical and mental health of college students, and to provide theoretical support for using APP to participate in fitness.  Methods  A total of 96 students from Xi'an International Studies University and Northwest University were recruited and divided into the control group(35 students), the recording group (29 students)and the interactive group(32 students) by using random number table. The recording group and the interactive group used APP for 12 weeks of exercise intervention, while the control group receive no intervention. For any intervention, participants received physical fitness tests before and after the intervention.  Results  After the intervention, sit and reach [(19.36±4.55)cm], lung vital capacity [(2 929.93±422.52)mL], sit-ups for 1 minute(39.71±8.32) times, standing long jump [(165.14±14.73)cm] in girls of the recording group significantly increased compared with pre-intervention [(16.39±6.15)cm, (2 690.93±380.45)mL, (36.14±9.53) times, (157.64±14.93)cm](t=-3.34, -2.82, -3.52, -4.55, P < 0.05), and the BMI of boys[(22.79±2.18)(22.19±2.22)km/m2] significantly decreased, and pull-up of boys[3.50(2.00, 4.75), 4.50(3.25, 9.25)times] significantly increased(t=3.90, Z=-2.04, P < 0.05). After the intervention, sit and reach and pull-up of boys in the interacticve group [(13.08±2.23)cm, 6.00(0.00, 12.00)times], and sit and reach [(21.43±5.14)cm], lung vital capacity [(3 259.33±562.70)mL], standing long jump [(171.83±19.17)cm] among girls in the interactive group was significantly higher than that before the intervention [(9.78±3.96)cm, 1.00(0.00, 7.50)tims, (18.86±6.26)cm, (2 870.94±429.62)mL, (162.78±17.20)cm] (t/Z=-4.22, -2.02, -3.43, -2.68, -3.84, P < 0.05). After the intervention, compared with the control group, lung vital capacity and standing long jump scores of boys in the recording group were significantly improved, while the scores of sit-ups for 1 minute in girls were significantly improved; sit and reach and standing long jump performance of boys in the interactive group were significantly improved; sit and reach and lung vital capacity among girls in the interactive group were significantly improved(P < 0.05). Boys in the interactive group showed a significant improvement in sit and reach compared to the recording group (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Using sports activity tracking APP can effectively improve students' physical fitness, can promote student participation and persistence in physical activity.
Impact of group cognitive behavioral therapy counseling on cognitive control among college students with high obsessive-compulsive traits
QIAN Mengting, SUI Pengjiao, CAI Zhu, LIN Yanting, CHEN Lu, ZHU Chunyan
2022, 43(4): 548-552. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.016
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  Objective  To explore the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on cognitive control among college students with high obsessive-compulsive traits, to provide basic information for the psychological counseling intervention for college students.  Methods  From March to April 2019, 687 students were conveniently selected from 2 universities in Hefei. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 students with high obsessive traits were selected and divided into experimental group (n=29) and control group (n=29) by random number table method. The experimental group received cognitive behavioral group counseling for 4 weeks (1.5 h each time, twice a week), while the control group receive no intervention. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), Digital Span Test (DST), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT) were used to assess in two groups at baseline and 4 weeks later.  Results  After 4 weeks, the scores of OCI-R in the GCBT group (10.28±7.22) was lower than that of in the control group (15.90±10.20) (t=2.42, P < 0.05). Before and after intervention, compared with the control group [(21.89±6.63, 20.52±7.37)s, (8.62±4.43, 8.04±4.84)s] in Stroop C and Stroop interfere effects (SIE), the GCBT group [(22.14±4.92, 16.81±3.43)s, (8.36±3.87, 4.82±1.86)s], the interaction of time' group was statistically significant (F=14.60, 10.54, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group (6.21±1.35, 6.55±1.45)times, the scores of DST-reverse in the GCBT group (6.31±1.44, 7.24±1.38) times were statistically significant (F=3.96, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  It suggests that cognitive behavioral group counseling can improve the inhibitory control and working memory of college students with high obsessive-compulsive traits, but does not change the cognitive flexibility.
Effectiveness of personality-informed interpersonal group counseling intervention among obese students in medical colleges
WANG Yemei
2022, 43(4): 553-556. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.017
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  Objective  To understand the personality traits and the effects of personality-informed intervention among obese students in medical colleges, and to provide a scientific basis for better cultivating the healthy personality of medical students.  Methods  A total of 3 760 students in the class of 2020 from 5 medical colleges were randomly selected in Shanghai. Obesity was defined according to the National Physical Health Standard for Students. A total of 80 students were divided into experiment and control group(each 40). The experimental group received 6 interpersonal group counseling interventions for 3 months, once every 2 weeks for 120 min, while the control group received no intervention. 16PF test and Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire were used for pre-test and post-test experiment for data analysis.  Results  The overall obesity rate of students was 3.30%. Obesity rate of boys(8.07%) was significantly higher than that of girls(1.22%) (χ2=29.03, P < 0. 01), and obesity rate of rural students(3.72%) was higher than that of urban students(2.30%) (χ2=41.81, P < 0.01). Through psychological intervention, active communication, appropriate refusal, self disclosure in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group (t=2.48, 3.48, 2.29, P < 0.05); the scores of gregariousness, excitement, mental health, adaptation in new environment in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (t=2.31, 2.18, 2.10, 2.33, P < 0.05), sensitivity and suspicion, concern, tension, adaptation and anxiety were significantly lower than those in the control group (t=-2.20, -2.08, -2.17, -2.20, -2.14, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Personality-informed interventionshowed substantial effects on interpersonal communication ability and personality traits among obese college students.
Relationship between bullying victimization and perpetration, academic achievement and screen time among primary and secondary school students
LYU Jun, ZHENG Hao, FU Lin
2022, 43(4): 557-561. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.018
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  Objective  The study aims to determine the latent class of roles in bullying victimization and perpetration among primary and secondary school students and to explore its relationship with academic achievement and screen use, to provide a reference for developing preventive measures and intervention plans.  Methods  A total of 29 099 students at grade 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 11 from Shenzhen were surveyed through convenient cluster sampling method by Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The latent class analysis was used for classifying bully/victim category.  Results  The latent class analysis revealed three classes, the noninvolvement group (low response rate at all items, 80.9%), the bullying victimization group (low response rate at bullying and high response rate at victimization items, 15.9%), and the bullying victimization and perpetration group (high response rate at all items, 3.3%). Boys were more likely than girls to belong to the bullying victimization and perpetration at all study sections (OR=0.83, 0.74, 0.47, P < 0.05). Transfer students were at higher risk to be in the bullying victimization group in elementary and middle school (OR=1.21, 1.21), while they were more likely to fall into the bullying victimization and perpetration group in high school (OR=2.65)(P < 0.05). Students with poor academic performance were more likely to be in the bullying victimization group at all sections (OR=0.98, 0.98, 0.98) and in the bullying victimization and perpetration group at elementary and middle school (OR=0.97, 0.98)(P < 0.05). Students spending longer time on screen had elevated risk in the bullying victimization group (OR=1.06, 1.04, 1.08, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Students with poor academic achievement and prolonged screen time are at higher risks to be involved in bullying victimization and perpetration. Collaboration between home and school are needed to preventing bullying victimization perpetration.
Current situation and influencing factors of positive psychological wellbeing of outstanding impoverished college students
YU Qiong, WANG Yanna, LIU Lin
2022, 43(4): 562-565. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.019
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  Objective  To explore positive psychological wellbeing of outstanding impoverished college students, and to provide reference for targeted mental health education.  Methods  By using in-depth interview, twenty-two outstanding impoverished college students from an undergraduate university in Dongguan were recruited and interviewed during April to May 2021.  Results  Qualitative analysis showed 9 characteristics in positive psychological wellbeing among these outstanding impoverished college students: gratitude(n=20), independence(n=15), sincerity(n=13), hard-working(n=12), friendliness(n=11), studious(n=11), self-cognitive adjustment(n=11), self-discipline(n=11) and persistence(n=11), among which gratitude and independence were the core attributes. Factors associated with these positive psychological wellbeing mainly included the following aspects: family-related factors [family function(72.7%), family teaching(63.6%), family emotional support(59.1%), parental attention in education(36.4%)], and family function scored the highest; peer-related factors [peer influence(45.5%) and peer emotional support(45.5%)]; and teacher-related factors [teachers' emotional support(40.9%) and teachers' teaching(27.3%)]. In addition, other factors such as personal practical experience, national policy support and school atmosphere also had certain impacts.  Conclusion  Outstanding impoverished college students demonstrate positive psychological wellbeing. It should pay more attention to the positive psychological characteristics of impoverished college students, to explore factors associated with positive psychological qualities from various aspects, to pay attention to the role of social and emotional support, and to implement education to enhance positive psychological traits among impoverished college students.
Revision of the Chinese version of Multidimensional Bullying Victimization Scale
HE Zhuang, YUAN Shuli, ZHAO Fuguo
2022, 43(4): 566-569. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.020
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  Objective  The Chinese version of the Multidimensional Bullying Victimization Scale (MBVS) was revised, and its reliability, validity and cross-gender equivalence were tested in Chinese adolescents.  Methods  A total of 2 279 adolescents were investigated by using convenient cluster sampling method from April to May 2021, 1 500 adolescents were followed to complete the retest of Chinese version of MBVS after 4-6 weeks. Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire-Victim (OBVQ-V) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used as the criterion-related validity instrument.  Results  Exploratory factor analysis extracted 4 factors with a cumulative variance interpretation rate of 58.34%. Results of CFA supports the hypothesis of 4-factor model(χ2/df=8.64, CFI=0.93, TLI=0.92, RMSEA=0.06), and the 4 dimensions included direct bullying, indirect bullying, evaluative bullying and relationship bullying. The correlation coefficient between MBVS and OBVQ-V was 0.59, between MBVS and CES-D was 0.32. The internal consistency reliability was 0.92 and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. The cross-gender equivalence hypothesis of the scale was valid.  Conclusion  The Chinese version of MBVS has good reliability and validity, as well as gender equivalence and could be recommended for adolescent bullying screening.
Impact of overweight and obesity on knee joint biomechanics during running in children
YANG Haiying, FU Changxi, HE Ruibo, MA Gang
2022, 43(4): 570-573. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.021
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  Objective  To investigate the impact of overweight and obesity on knee joint biomechanics during running in children and to provide theoretical support for scientific exercise prescription and reduced risk of exercise injury in overweight and obese children.  Methods  Fifteen children aged 7-11 years old with normal weight (healthy group) and overweight/obesity (overweight/obesity group) were selected from June to August 2020. Participants ran through the force measuring platform at a speed of [3.5×(1-5%)~3.5×(1+5%)]m/s. The kinematic and dynamic data of the knee joint were collected simultaneously by the Simi Motion motion capture system and the Kistler three-dimensional force measuring platform, and the surface area and density of the tibial plateau were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The difference of knee joint angle, impact mechanics and knee joint torque based on tibial plateau dimension were compared between the two groups.  Results  The knee abduction peak angle of the overweight/obesity group[(6.14±4.16)°] was higher than that of the healthy group[(2.57±1.36)°] (t=-3.16, P < 0.05). Based on the standardization of tibial plateau dimension, the impact mechanics (peak vertical ground reaction force, peak impact force, maximum load rate and average load rate) and knee joint torque (knee flexion, extension, adduction peak torque) in the overweight/obesity group were higher than those in the healthy group (t=-4.26, -4.52, -2.97, -2.74, -2.17, -4.27, -3.70, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Overweight/obese children show abnormal running mechanics and knee joint load. Higher joint load may indicate increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury among overweight/obese children.
A follow-up study on academic pressure and Internet addiction of college students in Jiangsu
ZHANG Jinjian, CHEN Hong
2022, 43(4): 574-577. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.022
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  Objective  To examine the longitudinal relationship between academic pressure and Internet addiction of college students and to provide reference for the development of college students' mental health.  Methods  In October 2016, a longitudinal 4 waves (T1 to T4) of follow-up study was conducted among 5 372 college students from a university in Jiangsu, with an interval of 1 year each time. Academic pressure and Internet addiction were derived from the College Students Mental Health Screening Scale. A cross-lag analysis was used to explore the relationship between college students' academic pressure and Internet addiction.  Results  Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the main effect of time for academic pressure was significant[F(3, 16 113)=767.28, P < 0.01, η2=0.13]. The academic pressure of college students showed a downward trend over time, with the highest at T1 stage and the lowest at T4 stage. The main effect of time for college students' Internet addiction was significant[F(3, 16 113)=165.22, P < 0.01, η2=0.03]. The Internet addiction of college students showed a trend of decreasing after increasing over time, with the highest stage T2 and the lowest stage T4. The cross-lag analysis showed that academic pressure of T1 could significantly predict the Internet addiction of T2, and academic pressure of T3 could significantly predict the Internet addiction of T4, and the path coefficients are 0.07 and 0.07(P < 0.01). In addition, the pre-test (Tn) Internet addiction can significantly predict the post-test [T(n+1)] academic pressure, and the path coefficients were 0.06, 0.06, 0.08(P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Academic pressure can partially predict Internet addiction among college students, while Internet addiction can also significantly predict academic pressure. Colleges and universities should strengthen the construction of learning style, reduce the academic pressure of students, and reduce the Internet addiction of college students through various ways, so as to promote the healthy development of college students.
Analysis of mental health status of students in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
WANG Shaojun, ZHANG Wei, DELI Geer
2022, 43(4): 578-581. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.023
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  Objective  To analyze and evaluate the mental health of students in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, so as to provide a reference for conducting mental health education in schools.  Methods  A total of 18 867 students aged 9-22 were enrolled from 65 primary and secondary schools and 4 universities in Inner Mongolia that participated in the 2019 National Students' Physical Fitness and Health Survey. From September to November 2019, in conjunction with the national student physical health survey, a questionnaire-survey of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale(K10) was carried out.  Results  The K10 average score of the survey subjects was (21.96±8.67). The score of the Mongolian nationality(22.57±8.59) was higher than that of the Han nationality(21.53 ±8.70)(t=8.18), the score of rural area (22.42±8.32) was higher than that of the urban area(21.40±9.05)(t=8.04), the primary-school students had the lowest score (19.56±8.61) and the senior high school students had the highest score(23.30±8.75)(F=183.26)(P < 0.01). In the overall survey subjects, the detection rates of the four levels in good, fair, poor and poor mental health were 25.62%, 28.82%, 26.44% and 19.12%, respectively, and the detection rate of psychological problems was 45.57%. The comparison of the detection rates of mental health problems among attributes showed that the rates of the Han and Mongolian nationalities were 43.27% and 48.85%, respectively(χ2=101.25); the rates of urban and rural areas were 41.70% and 48.80%, respectively(χ2=183.44); the rates of the male and the female were 44.88% and 46.26%, respectively(χ2=19.24)(P < 0.01). The prevalence psychological problems among students in primary-school, junior high school, senior high school and college were 33.60%, 49.78%, 52.85% and 47.43%, respectively(χ2=803.63, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that the detection of psychological problems of Mongolian nationality, urban area, the female and high school students was relatively high. Nationality, urban or rural areas and school stages were the influencing factors of K10 scores[B(B 95%CI)=0.78(0.05-1.04), 0.81(0.06-1.06), 0.93(0.08-1.03), P < 0.05)].  Conclusion  Mental health problems are prevalent in adolescents in Inner Mongolia. The government, society, parents and schools should pay more attention to the construction of the software and hardware environment of students' mental health, strengthen mental health education and services, and effectively promote the development of students' mental health.
Correlation between lipid metabolism and heart rate deflection point among Tibetan primary school students in Ganzi high-altitude area
DENG Li, YANG Ke, DEJI Yuzhen
2022, 43(4): 582-585. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.024
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  Objective  To understand the relationship between lipid metabolism and heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in Tibetan children in the high-altitude area of Ganzi, and to provide reference for effective obesity prevention and physical exercise intervention for Tibetan children.  Methods  From September to October 2019, 284 Tibetan primary school students living in Ganzi area were randomly selected. HRDP and deflection point speed with different body mass index (BMI) by increasing load method, as well as serum lipid metabolism were assessed. The correlation between the HRDP and lipid metabolism level was analyzed.  Results  There were statistically significant differences in serum leptin, adiponectin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels among the first-and second-grade Tibetan primary school students in the Ganzi high-altitude area with different nutritional status (F=22.16, 10.12, 11.24, 4.35, P < 0.05). The heart rate values at the HRDP in the first and second grades, the third and fourth grades, and the fifth and sixth grades under different nutritional status were compared, and the differences were statistically significant (F=3.35, 4.76, 4.68, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were statistically significant correlations between HRDP and serum leptin in the obese, overweight, normal, and lean groups in the first and second grades of primary school (r=0.66, 0.14, 0.45, 0.65, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  There is a close relationship between HRDP and lipid metabolism of Tibetan children in the high-altitude area of Ganzi, and the heart rate at the deflection point can be used as an effective reference intensity for exercise intervention in plateau children.
Association between body mass index with premature eruption of second permanent molars in children aged 9-12 in Bengbu City
LI Yang, HUANG Chuanlong, TANG Ziqing, FANG Jiao, WANG Shihong, SUN Ying, CHEN Xin
2022, 43(4): 586-589. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.025
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  Objective  To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of premature eruption of permanent molars and its aasociation with body mass index (BMI), to provide a reference for childhood oral health promotion.  Methods  A total of 861 children aged 9 to 12 years from two primary schools in Bengbu City were selected by cluster sampling method. Parental questionnaire was administered to collect socio-demographic information. The eruption of second permanent molars were examined. Data was analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression model and margins command.  Results  The detection rate of premature eruption of second permanent molars was 26.5%(228), 27.5% in boys and 24.9% in girls(χ2=0.73, P=0.39). Early detection rate of second permanent molars (39.0%) was significantly higher in obese group than normal weight group (21.5%)(χ2=21.85, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity was positively correlated with the risk of premature eruption of second permanent molars(OR=3.55, 95%CI=2.14-5.87, P < 0.01). Overweight was not associated with higher risk of premature eruption of second permanent molars(OR=1.64, 95%CI=0.95-2.81, P=0.07). Being female was associated with higher risk of premature eruption of second permanent molars compared to age-matched peers(OR=2.19, 95%CI=1.42-3.39, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Childhood obesity is associated with higher risk for premature eruption of second permanent molars. Girls are more likely to have second permanent molar erupted in advance compared to age-matched boys.
Association between exposure to artificial light at-night and the occurrence of menarche in Han girls
SHI Di, DANG Jiajia, LI Xi, MA Ning, LIU Yunfei, ZHONG Panliang, LI Xue, SONG Yi, MA Jun
2022, 43(4): 590-593. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.026
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  Objective  To analyze the association between the occurrence of menarche and the exposure to artificial light at-night (ALAN) in female Han nationality girls aged 9-18 in China, so as to provide a reference for the research on the disturbance mechanism of ALAN on puberty, as well as provide a scientific evidence for controlling ALAN and making public sanitary policy.  Methods  A total of 74 483 Han girls aged 9-18 with complete records of menarche, height, and weight were included in the 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Pearson correlation was used to explore the correlation between the incidence of menarche and the exposure to artificial light at-night in 11-year-old Han girls, and the third quantiles of the area covered by outdoor night lights (0.16, 0.60) and the third quantiles of the average night light intensity [0.97, 5.91 nw/(sr ·cm)2] were used respectively to divide the study subjects into 3 groups, and the multi-factor Logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of artificial light at-night exposure on menarche.  Results  In 2014, the median age of menarche of Chinese Han girls was 12.18 years old, and the incidence of menarche in the 11-year-old group was 26.31%. After controlling for body mass index, local population and the logarithmic values of per capita GDP, the incidence of menarche of 11-year-old Han girls was positively correlated with the local outdoor average night light coverage area ratio and the night average light intensity logarithmic adjustment value(r=0.29, 0.30, P < 0.05).The higher the local outdoor night light coverage area ratio (OR=1.28, 1.52) and the average night light intensity (OR=1.47, 1.58), the higher the incidence of menarche in 11-year-old Han girls(P < 0.05).  Conclusion  There is a positive correlation between artificial light at-night exposure and the menarche rate of 11-year-old Han girls. Research on artificial light at-night exposure may provide scientific evidence on puberty onset and its effects on population health.
Age-related changes in cervical range of motion and its relationship with cervical spondylosis in school students aged 12-18 in Nanyang City
WANG Qing, XU Guochang, XU Fei, LIU Rongzhi, YIN Jinpeng, HUANG Yanyan
2022, 43(4): 594-597. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.027
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  Objective  To investigate the age-related changes in cervical range of motion (CROM) and its relationship with cervical spondylosis in school students aged 12-18 in Nanyang City, to provide reference for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment evaluation of cervical spondylosis.  Methods  Stratified sampling was adopted in 13 counties and districts of Nanyang City and 890 students aged 12-18 were assessed for CROM using the Coda Motion Analyzer. SPSS 19.0 was used to data analyze.  Results  A decreasing trend was observed in CROM among boys and girls aged 12-18 years in Nanyang. For boys aged 15 and 18 years old, higher anterior flexion (t=2.02, 2.70), posterior extension (t=2.01, 2.81), left flexion (t=3.51, 2.99), right flexion (t=5.07, 2.66), sinistral (t=2.28, 2.92) and dextral (t=2.91, 3.60) were found compared with younger age groups (P < 0.05). Similar findings were found in girls aged 15-and 18-years old [anterior flexion (t=2.38, 2.20), posterior extension (t=2.09, 2.02), left flexion (t=2.33, 2.55), right flexion (t=7.34, 4.60), sinistral (t=3.73, 2.35) and dextral (t=2.31, 3.99, P < 0.05). Except for the right flexion, the CROM of boys in was higher than that of girls at the same age group. The prevalence of cervical spondylosis showed an increasing trend (boys: χtrend2=13.93, girls: χtrend2=12.87, P < 0.05). Except for 14-year-old group, the prevalence of cervical spondylosis in girls was higher than that in boys, with significant differences observed in 15-and 17-year-old groups (χ2=10.35, 9.64, P < 0.05).  Conclusion  With the increase of age, the CROM of male and female students shows a downward trend in general. The prevalence of cervical spondylosis increases with the decrease of CROM. CROM measurement is conducive to the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of juvenile cervical spondylosis.
Relationship between myopia and frequency of high energy food intake among adolescents in Nantong
GUO Peirong, AN Na, WU Shangxi, HUANG Jianping, LU Qingyun
2022, 43(4): 598-602. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.028
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  Objective  To investigate the incidence of juvenile myopia and associated factors in Nantong, to analyze the relationship between food intake and juvenile myopia, so as to provide a reference for preventing and controlling myopia of adolescents.  Methods  Stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 13 schools in Nantong. A total of 3 437 students were selected for health monitoring and questionnaire survey, and the students' sociodemographic characteristics and diet related information were collected.  Results  The prevalence of myopia was 73.4%(n=2 522). The myopia rate of urban teenagers(74.1%) was higher than that in suburbs(72.4%), and the myopia rate of urban girls (78.2%)was higher than that of suburban girls(73.6%). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the frequency of high-energy food intake and myopia among urban adolescents (OR=1.50, P < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, e.g. age, parental myopia, participation in extracurricular classes, outdoor inter-class activities, the frequency of high-energy food intake was significantly positively associated with myopia (OR=1.29, P=0.03). Frequency of high-energy food intake was significantly positively correlated with myopia of suburban adolescents (OR=1.35, P=0.02). The association disappeared after adjusting for above-ment ioned covariates (P=0.60).  Conclusion  There are differences in the main risk factors affecting the incidence of myopia between urban and suburban adolescents in Nantong. Parents, schools and the society should pay attention to adolescent myopia and high-energy diet mode, pay attention to guide their reasonable eating habits, and prevent and control adolescent myopia from multiple angles.
Longitudinal study on the changes and correlation of height, weight and blood pressure among children in Shenzhen
HA Yongting, LI Xiaoyan, CHEN Dingyan, ZHOU Li, WU Yu, LI Xiaoheng, CHENG Jinquan
2022, 43(4): 603-606. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.029
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  Objective  To understand the changes of children's height, weight, blood pressure and gender differences, to explore the relationship between overweight, obesity and childhood hypertension, and to provide a scientific basis for childhood hypertension prevention.  Methods  Physical examination data during 2013 to 2018 of ten primary school students in Shenzhen were collected. Growth rate of height, weight and blood pressure by age and gender were calculated. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the association between overweight, obesity and hypertension.  Results  Weight, body mass index (BMI) and systolic pressure of boys and girls increased with age (t/Z=3.89-31.52, P < 0.05). The height growth rate of girls was higher than that of boys at the age of 8-11, and reaches the peak of height growth at the age of 10, while boys were two years later than girls(boys: 7.68 cm, gilrs: 7.42 cm). Weight and blood pressure growth rates were similar. At the same time, the growth rate of height and blood pressure had a synchronous trend, and the peak of the growth rate of blood pressure was also at the peak stage of height growth. The OR value of obesity on childhood hypertension was 1.62(1.48-1.81), and the OR value of overweight on childhood hypertension was 2.01(1.75-2.30), both P < 0.01.  Conclusion  There are gender differences in children's height, weight, and blood pressure, and the growth rate of height and blood pressure shows a synchronous trend. Overweight and obesity in children can increase the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension.
Poisoning caused by Coriaria sinica maxim among children in Guizhou Province during 2015 to 2020
ZHU Shu, WANG Yafang, LIU Lin, ZHANG Lili, TIAN Jigui, YANG Qi, ZHOU Yajuan
2022, 43(4): 607-609. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.030
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  Objective  To analyze the occurrence and epidemiological characteristics of acute poisoning caused by Coriaria sinica maxdim in Guizhou Province during 2015 to 2020, and to provide scientific basis for prevention of Coriaria sinica maxim poisoning.  Methods  A total of 176 cases of Coriaria sinica maxim poisoning were reported in Guizhou Province during 2015 to 2020, with all of the 505 affected were children and adolescents under 16 years old. No death was reported. Poisoning caused by Coriaria sinica maxim was most commonly reported in the year of 2020, with 97 reported incidents and 292 poisonings. Poisoning incidents were most freqently reported in the mature stage of Coriariasinica fruit during April to June, with 153 cases and 437 poisoning cases reported in May. The top three areas reporting Coriaria sinica maxim poisoning included Bijie, Anshun and Zunyi City, with the number of reported eventws being 57, 27, and 27, and poisoned children and adolescents of 160, 90, and 73. Most of the affected children were from rural areas. The median incubation period was 2 hours, and the primary clinical symptoms included vomiting(93.66%), nausea(58.02%) and abdominal pain(38.42%).  Conclusion  A large number of Coriaria sinica maxim poisoning incidents occur due to unsupervised access to Coriaria sinica maxim among rural children. The publicity and education of children, especially for rural left-behind children, should be strengthened to reduce the incidence of Coriaria sinica maxim poisoning.
Correlation between higher serum uric acid and glycolipid metabolism in college students
YAN Xiaoting, LI Chunsheng, GE Weiwei, LIU Haiyan
2022, 43(4): 610-613. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.031
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the epidemiological characteristics of elevated serum uric acid in college students and its association with glycolipid metabolism, providing reference for health care intervention and education of college students.  Methods  From September 2020 to November 2021, a retrospective study was conducted among 989 college students in Taizhou area by stratified cluster random sampling method, and a questionnaire was issued to all college students. Serum uric acid (SUA), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting plasma glucose(FPG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 hPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels were detected by urease immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  Results  Waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in higher serum uric acid group were higher than those in normal group (t=21.72, 5.74, 5.45, 12.23, P < 0.05). The SUA, FPG, TG, 2 hPG, LDL and TC in serum uric acid increased group were higher than those in normal group, while HDL was lower than those in normal group (t=13.85, 23.97, 10.24, 7.62, 34.91, 8.27, -8.15, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of FPG, TG, 2 hPG, LDL and TC were positively correlated with SUA levels (r=0.63, 0.72, 0.69, 0.16, 0.81, P < 0.01). HDL was negatively correlated with SUA level (r=-0.52, P < 0.01). The glucolipid metabolism indexes were included into the binary Logistic regression model analysis, and the results showed that FPG, TG, LDL and TC were positively correlated with higher serum uric acid. HDL was negatively correlated with the incidence of higher serum uric acid (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Male sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, and elevated blood pressure can contribute to higher serum uric acid, which has been found to be associated with glycolipid metabolism.
Risk assessment and control of infectious disease prevention and control in elementary and secondary schools in Tianjin
SUN Huajun, LAN Kunyi, ZHANG Xinyue, MA Lemeng, WEI Keshuai, ZHANG Yaxin, DU Zhuo
2022, 43(4): 614-617. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.032
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Abstract:
  Objective  To establish a risk assessment system for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in primary and secondary schools in Tianjin and reduce the risk of infectious disease prevention and control through risk assessment and control.  Methods  Based on the failure modes and effect analysis method, a quantitative risk assessment of infectious disease prevention and control in 45 primary and secondary schools in Tianjin was carried out. Risk-based supervisory process was assessed, while control effect was evaluated for contined improvement in the prevention and control of infectious diseases in the primary and secondary schools.  Results  The top three risk aspects found in the infectious disease prevention and control system in primary and secondary schools in Tianjin included failure to provide sanitation professionals (82.22%) in accordance with regulations, no hand sanitizer or disinfectant (35.56%) in wash basins, and drinking water-related products without approval (28.89%). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the three risk aspects with the highest risk priority number (RPN) included failure to provide health professionals(n=144), no morning and afternoon inspection arrangement(n=126), and low quality of morning and afternoon inspections(n=126). After optimizing the supervision measures for the risk aspects with a detectable degree≥7 points, a quantitative risk assessment was carried out again, the RPN values of all risk points fell below 125, indicating reasonable control effect.  Conclusion  Based on the failure mode and effect analysis method, the establishment of a risk assessment system for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in primary and secondary schools and regular risk assessments can timely detect risk aspects in the infectious disease prevention and control, to promote effective prevention of infectious diseases in schools.
Current status about school health department settings and staff building of the centers for disease control and prevention in China
LIU Yao, TANG Xiaozhe, ZHANG Yujing, YANG Han, LIN Lin, ZHANG Qian, XU Juan, LIU Dongshan
2022, 43(4): 618-621. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.033
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  Objective  To learn about the construction and staffing of the school health system in Chinese institutions for disease prevention and control, and to provide basic information for the school health system, team capacity building and work development.  Methods  Electronic questionnaire was used to collect the setting and staffing of school health departments (including school health centers and departments/rooms) at the provincial, prefecture and county (district) levels in the centers for disease control and prevention. Statistical analysis was made on the proportion of school health, the number of staff and the characteristics such as age, education, major and working years in the provincial, prefecture and county (district) levels.  Results  Among the 3 313 institutions, the proportion of independent school health departments was 10.8%, and those of the provincial, prefecture and county (district) levels were 74.2%, 15.0%, and 9.6%, respectively. Among the institutions with separated department, the average number of staff members was 4.4, while the number of staff was 2.5. The average age of school health workers was 40.4 years old, and the proportion of male and female employees was 45.2% and 54.8%. The proportion of personnel who have been engaged in school health work for less than 5 years on average was as high as 65.1%. The majors of the staff were mainly public health (40.4%), 54.0% of the provincial staff had a master's degree or above, and 47.8% and 58.7% of the staff at the prefecture and county (district) levels were junior college or below respectively.The proportion of provincial-level personnel with intermediate and senior titles was 69.6%, and the proportion of municipal and county-level personnel at the junior level and below was 52.2% and 56.2% respectively.  Conclusion  The proportion of independent school health departments within centers of disease control and prevention across China was low. There is a serious shortage of school health personnel, and there are problems such as low levels of education and professional titles, especially in county (district) level institutions. It is urgent to strengthen the construction of the school health system of the centers for disease control and prevention in China.
Epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies of infectious diseases in schools of Beijing from 2010 to 2020
SUN Xiumei, SUN Xingui, LIU Xiaofeng, ZHANG Yongqiang, LI Xitai, WANG Wei, MA Ning, NING Fang, WANG Dong, QIAO Hong, WANG Jinghui
2022, 43(4): 622-626. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.034
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  Objective  To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases at schools in Beijing from 2010 to 2020, providing evidence for the prevention and control strategies in school infectious diseases.  Methods  Information on public health emergencies was collected from Public Health Emergency Reporting System (the subsystem of Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System) reported from 2010 to 2020.  Results  A total of 146 public health emergencies and 138 public health emergencies of infectious diseases in schools were reported in Beijing from 2010 to 2020, including 4 291 cases with the rate of 2.32% and affected or exposed 185 179 cases. There were significant difference in mean annual incidence rates(χ2=782.46, P < 0.01). There were 71 events of respiratory infectious diseases and 66 events of intestinal infectious diseases, accounting for 51.45% and 47.83%, respectively. The annual incidence peaks of public health emergencies of infectious diseases were during March-June and October-December. The events mainly occurred in kindergartens and primary schools among each stage of school periods with 51 and 46 incidences respectively, which accounted for 70.29% of the total number of public health emergencies in schools. The leading infectious diseases among all the reported events in kindergartens and primary schools were hand-foot-mouth disease and varicella. Varicella and other infectious diarrhoeal diseases were at the top lists of infectious disease outbreaks at the secondary and university stages.  Conclusion  Infectious diseases events were the major type of public health emergencies at schools in Beijing from 2010 to 2020. Respiratory infectious diseases and intestinal infectious diseases were the keys to the prevention and control of public health emergencies related to school. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for public health emergencies especially for symptom surveillance. The prevention and control measures should be taken according to the characteristics of different age groups. At the same time, the prevention and control of school infectious diseases and the drill of the plan during peak periods need to be particularly strengthened.
Research updates on determinants of parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for juvenile
NING Jing, ZHANG Yongqin, JIANG Guanhua, CUI Na, ZHANG Shiyuan, ZHOU Yifan
2022, 43(4): 627-631. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.035
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Vaccination is the most effective prevenative measure against infectious diseases. As guardians of minor children, parental attitudes have a decisive influence on children's vaccination. Therefore, it is very important to understand parental attitudes and preference towards the vaccination of minor children in COVID-19 for the successful implementation of vaccination. In this study, the current situation and associated factors of parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children. It was found that parental vaccine hesitation was mainly influenced by factors related to parents, children, vaccination and information process. Parents should be guided to obtain information through authoritative channels and treat vaccination correctly. At the same time, medical staff should play an important role in health education, submit correct immunisation information, reduce vaccine hesitancy, and promote herd immunity.
Research update on association of physical activity with physical and mental health among children and adolescents
MA Yuanyuan, CHEN Qin, YIN Xiaojian, WU Huipan, KANG Xuye, HOU Yuxin, JIN Xueyu
2022, 43(4): 632-636. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.036
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In recent decades, there is a decreasing trend in physical activity, which might be associated with decline in physical and mental health among children and adolescents in China. The outbreak and spread of the COVID-19 further aggravated this trend. Under the background of normalized epidemic prevention and control, in order to deeply understand the relationship between physical activity and physical and mental health of children and adolescents, this study sorted out relevant domestic and foreign literatures, and analyzed the effects of physical activity on children and adolescents' health and fitness. The positive effects of physical activity, cognition, and mental health were found to be significantly different in the type, intensity, and time of physical activity in the related health effects.
Effect of media multitasking on cognitive function in adolescents
TAO Shuman, TAO Fangbiao
2022, 43(4): 637-640. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.04.037
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Media multitasking has become a novel type of social media use behavior in adolescents, and its negative effect on cognitive function has gradually attracted attention. Based on relevant literature review and summarization, this paper briefly reviews the prevalence and assessment of media multitasking in adolescents, and the effects of on cognitive function such as working memory, attention and inhibitory control. Moreover, potential neuropsychological mechanisms are provided. This study provides a scientific evidence for promoting the physical and mental health of adolescents.