Abstract: Objective To analyze the contents about the sex education in the textbooks and the curriculum standards of compulsory education,and to provide suggestions for the future development.Methods With "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" as a reference,the curriculum standards of compulsory education and the textbooks published by People's Education Press were studied,based on the method of Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) combined with textbook analysis and evaluation scheme of the University of Sussex.Results In general,seven courses including Chinese contained the contents of sex education,covering five concepts with 19 themes of sex education.Four important themes were not included,namely,sex,sexuality and the life cycle of sex,sex behavior and sex reaction,pregnancy prevention and long-term commitment,marriage and parenting.The discussions on each theme of the two core concepts concerning relationship and values,attitudes and skills were relatively insufficient in depth.The textbooks manifested unevenly to show different sex-related knowledge,focusing more on the relationship and body's growth,and more was shown in the political course and biology ones branched curriculum or arts courses,and a couple of super-standard situations could be found in five courses like biology.Conclusion "Primary and Secondary School Students Sexuality Education Guidelines" should be amended to strengthen the sex education by multi-disciplinary correlation under a clear unified education guideline.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the effect of paternal parenting style on behavior problems using child twins,and to provide clues for further exploring the causal relationship between paternal parenting styles and problem behaviors in children.Methods A total of 186 same-sex twins aged 6-12 years participated in this study.Behavior problems were assessed with the parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL) and paternal parenting style was assessed with Egma Minnen av Bardnonsna Uppforstran(EMBU).Results Paternal rejection(β=0.148,95%CI=0.011-0.327) increased risk of internalizing problems in boys;paternal control(β=0.185,95%CI=0.023-0.400),paternal rejection(β =0.173,95% CI =0.035-0.390),paternal overprotecting(β =0.214,95%CI=0.075-0.623) increased risk of internalizing problems in girls;Paternal punishment increased risk of externalizing problems both for boys(β=0.126,95%CI=0.035-0.371) and girls(β=0.135,95%CI=0.007-0.234).Conclusion Our study provides evidence of the effect of paternal parenting style on child behavior problems.To prevent and reduce children's behavior problems,we should pay attention to the effect of paternal parenting style.
Abstract: Objective To determine the framework and weights of indexes for assessing core competencies of public health students for injury prevention,and to establish a set of systematic indices for evaluating core campetencies of public health students for injury prevention.Methods A total of twenty-two experts in the field of injury prevention at home and abroad were invited to participate in 2-round Delphi process.The indices were selected in accordance with the result of each consultation.Then the weights of the final indexes were determined with analytic hierarchy process(AHP).Results According to Delphi expert consultation results,the final evaluation indexes included 5 first-level indicators and 31 second-level indicators.The first-level indicators' weights and the corresponding second-level indicators' weights were obtained by AHP.And the weights of the first-level indicators were as follows:the weight of "the ability to analyze and evaluate injury problems" was 0.298,the weight of "the ability to plan and implement injury prevention programs" was 0.237,the weight of "communication competence" was 0.199,the weight of "the ability to practice in community" was 0.169,and the weight of "leadership and systematic thinking ability" was 0.097.The weights of top five second-level indicators were as follows:the weight of "ability to describe what factors can lead to injury" was 0.051,the weight of "ability to access,collect,analyze,use and disseminate injury data and information" was 0.046,the weight of "ability to implement injury prevention measures and activity" was 0.044,the weight of "ablity to effectively disseminate injury prevention information to the community,key policy makers and other proficiency" was 0.044,and the weight of "ability to develop injury prevention program goals and objectives" was 0.041.Conclusion In terms of establishing a set of systematic indices for evaluating core competencies of public health students for injury prevention,the evaluation indices and their weights are objective and credible,which can be used to establish scientific injury prevention courses and corresponding curriculum assessment mechanism.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the breakfast frequency and consumption among primary students in poor rural areas of China,and to provide basic information for developing nutrition education and intervention strategies.Methods Randomized multi-stage clustering sampling method was used in the study.A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2 939 students from 15 primary schools in poor rural areas of five counties.Results The proportion of primary students reporting breakfast skipping was 23.2%.Grains(66.6%),followed by milk (35.6%),vegetables (33.3%),meat/eggs/fish (29.5%),beans(27.7%),and fruits (19.3%) were the most frequently eaten foods.About 75.3% of primary students had poor breakfast nutrition quality.Logistic regression analysis showed that boys,students in grade 4 and 5,students from Yunnan Province,and those with parents not working at present had lower rate of breakfast habit;students in grade 3 and 4,from Yunnan Province,and those boarding school students had lower breakfast quality.Conclusion The frequency and quality of breakfast need further improvement among primary school students in poor rural areas of China.It is important to educate students and parents about the importance of eating breakfast.
Abstract: Objective To understand second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and its influencing factors among middle school students in urban area of Guangzhou,so as to provide a scientific basis for effective intervention strategies.Methods A random sample of 3 575 middle school students from 7 schools was selected by using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling,and a questionnaire investigation was carried out.Results The overall prevalence of SHS exposure was 59.7%,and the prevalence in public places,homes and schools was 49.5%,34.5% and 10.7%,respectively.Multiple factors Logistic regression analysis showed that the SHS exposure in homes was associated with father smoking,good friend smoking,classmate smoking and home smoking bans.The SHS exposure in schools was associated with gender,classmate smoking,teacher smoking and good friend smoking.The SHS exposure in public places was associated with gender,pocket money,father smoking,good friend smoking and classmate smoking (P<0.05).Conclusion Public places and homes are the key places of second-hand smoke exposure among middle school students in Guangzhou,smoking from the surrounding population is the risk factor of SHS exposure.Reducing second-hand smoke exposure might benefit from home smoking cessation support.
Abstract: Objective To understand the mental health status of boarding middle school students by investigating the psychological status in Zhengzhou city,and to provide evidence for the prevention of psychological health of middle school students.Methods A total of 1 335 boarding middle school students were selected from one boarding senior high school and two boarding junior high schools in Zhengzhou city by stratified cluster sampling,and then they were investigated with Mental Health Inventory of Middle School Students (MMHI-60).Results The detection rate of psychological problems among boarding middle school students in Zhengzhou city was 45.0%.The incidence of psychological problems of boys(47.7%) was higher than girls(42.1%)(x2 =4.295,P<0.05),the incidence of psychological problems proportion of senior high school students(48.3%) was higher than junior high school students(41.6%) (x2 =5.927,P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that the students who felt family happy,felt happy to learn and had enough living expenses had a lower risk of psychological problems(OR =0.482,0.784,0.663,P<0.05).Conclusion The incidence of psychological problems of boarding middle school students is high in Zhengzhou city,sense of academic pressure is the most prominent psychological problem.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the prevalence of malnutrition among five ethnic minorities Chinese students aged 7-18 years,and to provide the evidence for the prevention and control.Methods Students aged 7-18 years from Mongolian,Hui,Uygur,Zhuang and Korean ethnic minorities were included,sampled from the 2014 Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health.Nutritional status was evaluated according to updating national health standard issued in 2014 (WS/T 456-2014).Age-,sex-and area-specific prevalence of malnutrition was computed and compared among five ethnic minorities.Results The prevalence of malnutrition among Mongolian,Hui,Uygur,Zhuang and Korean students was 4.5%,11.7%,13.3%,15.6% and 6.8%,respectively,while the prevalence of stunting was 0.8%,0.2%,5.2%,3.0% and 0.8%,respectively.Moderate-tosevere wasting was found in 1.0%,4.5%,2.5%,4.9% and 2.2% of students of Mongolian,Hui,Uygur,Zhuang and Korean ethnicity,respectively.The prevalence of mild wasting of Mongolian,Hui,Uygur,Zhuang and Korean students was 2.6%,7.0%,5.7%,7.6% and 3.8%,respectively.Conclusion Malnutrition has been greatly improved among Chinese students of ethnic minorities in 2014.However,students in Zhuang still have high prevalence of malnutrition,and growth stunting is worth noting among students of Uygur.
Abstract: Objective To compare the experience of being bullied among students of different academic levels and analyze the correlation between the experience of being bullied and interpersonal sensitivity,and to provide a theoretical basis for research on interventions for bullying on campus.Methods A total of 1 963 students in two colleges (a comprehensive university and a vocational college) from Shanghai by cluster sampling method were investigated with anonymous questionnaires x2 test was used to compare the differences in the experience of being bullied of the students.Bivariate Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the correlation between the experience of being bullied and interpersonal sensitivity.Results Verbal bullying had the highest rate (24.5%) in both of the two colleges.The reported rates of threats,physical bullying and extortion were higher in the comprehensive university than those in the vocational college(x2 =19.27,6.08,7.46,P<0.05).Among the surveyed students,the reported rates of bullying decreased over time,while the possibility of having interpersonal sensitivity increased(P<0.05).Students who had the experience of being bullied at primary school were more likely to suffer apparent interpersonal sensitivity at college(OR =2.532,95%CI=1.183-5.417).There were no significant difference in obvious symptoms of interpersoual sensitivity between college students with or without bullying victimization experience during high school.Conclusion An experience of being bullied at school during childhood has adverse impact on the mental development of students,and it is reasonable to take active actions to handle bullying on campus.
Abstract: Objective To understand knowledge and attitudes of AIDS among young students in Jiangsu Province,and to explore effective measures to improve awareness of AIDS prevention.Methods A total of 3 422 young students were selected randomly from six pilot colleges.Risk warning education video playing and health education prescriptions were given to the participants.Changes in knowledge and attitudes were compared before and after education.Results After education,the awareness of the basic knowledge of AIDS in all students increased from 69.1% to 82.2% (x2 =147.335,P<0.01);Overall increases in ranged between 3.8% to 16.6%.The awareness on "AIDS-related knowledge is more important through health education in school","Antibody test when having HIV infection risk","condom use in sexual activity" each increased to 91.53%,88.5% and 56.37% to 94.99%,92.8% and 60.92% (x2 =31.151,34.895,20.862,P<0.01).Conclusion Knowledge and attitudes of AIDS prevention need to be improved among college students in Jiangsu Province.AIDS-related video playing and AIDS prevention prescription is proved to be effective and could be implemented in a large-scale HIV/AIDS prevention in colleges.
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of oral health education among primary school students in Haikou,and to provide evidence for developing oral health education.Methods All the 1 300 students of grade 2 to 6 from 4 primary schools in Haikou were chosen by cluster sampling method,a structured questionnaire on oral health knowledge and related behaviors was implemented and compared before and after 2 months' health education.Results After oral health education,the awareness of "proper way to brush teeth"(64.92%),"healthy food for teeth"(76.12%),"teeth bleeding is abnormal"(82.30%),"bleeding gums treatment at home"(72.36%),"the importance of oral health examination"(83.48%),"dental plaque is the main cause of gingivitis and dental caries"(57.87%),"fluoride toothpaste can prevent dental caries"(76.74%) and " pit and fissure sealing" (57.40%),as well as the rate of "vertical brushing"(67.89%),"brushing teeth twice a day"(76.27%),"changing toothbrush every 2-3 months"(73.45%),"brushing teeth for at least 3 minutes"(63.51%),"using fluoride toothpaste"(47.69%),"flossing regularly"(36.26%),"rinsing after meals"(68.36%),"oral health examination"(71.73%) increased significantly(P<0.01).The rate of unhealthy dietary behavior such as "eating too much sweet foods" (17.54%),"frequent carbonated beverages drinking" (8.85%),"eating before sleep"(6.42%) decreased significantly(P<0.01).Conclusion The oral health education significantly improves oral knowledge and health behaviors among primary students,as well as prevents unhealthy eating habits.
Abstract: Objective To comprehensively evaluate the anxiety disorders detection rate before college entrance examination among Chinese students of grade 3 in senior high school,and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of anxiety disorders.Methods CNKI,WanFang Data,VIP and EBSCO-ASC+BSC,Science Direct,PubMed Central,and Springer database were systematically retrieved to collect the literatures about anxiety disorders among Chinese students of grade 3 in senior high school during 2002 to 2015.A Meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the incidence of complication,and a subgroup analysis,publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed.Results A total of 20 literatures were screened out.Among a total sample size of 13 662 students,the detection rate of anxiety disorders was 34%(95%CI=27%-42%,P<0.01).The subgroup analysis revealed that the detection rate of anxiety disorders of Chinese students of grade 3 in senior high school was on the rise.The rates of mild anxiety disorders (23.37%),moderate anxiety disorders (8.52%) and severe anxiety disorders (1.65%) showed the tendency of gradient descent.The detection rate of anxiety disorders before college entrance examination anxiety among female of grade 3 in senior high school (30.94%) was higher than that of the male (23.26%).The detection rate of anxiety disorders before college entrance examination anxiety of the eastern China (38.35%) was the highest,followed by those of the western region (29.81%) and the central region (24.46%).The detection rate measured by non-random sampling method (36.80%) was higher than that by random sampling method (32.34%).The detection rate measured by the TAS scale (55.36%) was higher than that by the SAS scale (23.54%) and other scales (42.53%).Conclusion The detection rate of anxiety disorders among students of grade 3 in senior high school show an upward tendency,thus,the mental health education should be furthur strenghtened.
Abstract: Objective To understand the bone growth and development of students aged 7-16 in poor rural area of northern Guangdong,and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of osteoporosis.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 951 students aged 7-16 in poor rural areas of northern Guangdong to perform a bone strength test by ultrasound.Resuits The speed of round(SOS) of male and female increased with age.Boys grew faster (3 784.25-3 891.21 m/s) during 14-16 years old,and the SOS:16 years old group> 15 years old group> 14 years old group> 13 years old group.The differences between the two groups were statistically significant(P<0.05).Girls grew rapidly during the 12-15 years old (3 730.81-3 908.21 m/s),.and the growth slowed up after the age of 15:15-year-old group> 14-year-old group> 13 years old group> 12-year-old group(P<0.05).During the 7-8 years old,boys' bone strength(SOS) was higher than that of female of the same age,SOS of the girls aged 13-15 was higher than that of male of the same age (P<0.05).The students had a very low level of bone strength,and the proportions of male and female bone with normal bone strength were 56.31% and 56.20%,respectively.The percentages of male and female with low bone strength were 11.99% and 9.50%,respectively.The highest percentage of abnormal bone strength could be found among the boys of 14 years old (29.20%),while the highest percentage of abnormal bone strength could be found among the girls of 13 years old(22.73%).There were no statistically significant differences in bone strength between different genders(P>0.05).Conclusion The bone strength of children and adolescents increased with age,and the developmental rate of bone mass is different in different age groups.The students in rural poor mountainous areas are genreally evaluated with lowbone mass,and are found with no gender differences.We should always pay attention to the development of bone strength among children and adolescents,especially in the 13-14-year-old students.
Abstract: Objective To investigate gender identities among adolescents and the influencing tactors,and to provide basis for education and health service.Methods Participants were selected from middle and high schools in Hunan province.Gender identity,awareness and attitudes towards danmei literature character and homosexuality were assessed.Multivariate logistic regression model was established to explore the associated factors with adolescents' gender identities.Results A total of 1 260 valid questionnaires were collected.There were 2.7% of the adolescents self-reported as homosexuals,9.0% self-reported as bisexuals,and 13.7% not sure about gender identity.The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents who were longing for the same-sex love as danmei(OR =127.410,95%CI=15.407-1053.654),knowing someone who is homosexual (OR =8.071,95%CI=1.460-44.630) were more likely self-reported as homosexuals.Students aged 12-< 15 years old (OR=2.051,95%CI=1.006-4.184),aware of danmei (OR=2.895,95%CI=1.692-4.954),longing for the same-sex love (OR =11.551,95%CI=5.773-23.112) or don't care (OR =3.264,95%CI=1.763-6.041),knowing someone who is homosexual (OR =3.934,95%CI =1.932-8.010) were more likely self-identified as bisexuals.Boys(OR=0.528,95%CI=0.307-0.909) were less likely to identify themselves as bisexuals.Boys aged 12-<15 years old (OR=3.448,95%CI=2.059-5.774) and 15-<17 years old (OR=1.993,95%CI=1.232-3.227),knowing someone who is homosexual (OR=1.498,95%CI=1.011-2.221),longing for the same-sex love (OR=4.250,95%CI=2.365-7.638),unsure of whether there are homosexuals among people they know (OR=1.719,95%CI=1.100-2.686) were more likely unsure of their own sexual identities.Conclusion There are certain proportions of adolescents perceive themselves as homosexuals or bisexuals.Gender,age,same-sex love literature,homosexual peers has significant impacts on adolescents' gender identity.
Abstract: Objective To explore the gender difference of health promotion lite style and the life quahty ot the rural middle school students,and to provide a scientific basis for the relevant intervention research.Methods The Quality of Life Scale and the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile were adopted to make a survey among 1 145 (male 595 and female 550) rural middle school students in Hebei Province.Results There were gender differences in health promotion life style and life quality of rural middle school students except social relations and comprehensive field (P< 0.05).The factors greatly influencing rural middle school students' life quality or health promoting lifestyle were as follows:physical exercise,stress management and nutrition behavior (contribution rates were 22.3%,17.1%,16.3%,respectively);The main factors influencing the quality of life of male students were doing 30-minute-exercises three times a week,doing planned exercises regularly and having enough sleep(t =3.259,2.871,2.369,P<0.05);As for female students,the factors were doing 30-minute-exercises three times a week,choosing low-fat and low cholesterol food and having the pulse within the expected range (t =3.145,3.029,2.674,P<0.01).Conclusion Health education in rural middle schools should pay more attention to gender differences,strengthen the education of behavior habits,establish a scientific and good life style,fully exploit the unique role of sports,promote and improve their quality of life.
Abstract: Objective To compare the effects of peer education and expert lectures on health education for AIDS prevention among college students,and to provide a basis for the selection of appropriate AIDS health education model.Methods Random clustered sampling method was applied to select 488 freshmen of different majors from four colleges in Xuzhou City,who were randomly divided into peer education group and expert lecture group.AIDS health education was taken in the peer education group and expert lecture group in two ways,and a questionnaire survey was conducted before and after education to analyze and compare the health education effects.Results There were no significantly statistical differences between the two groups in gender,age and professional composition before the education(P>0.05).After the education,the basic knowledge of AIDS increased with(2.77± 1.56) and (2.86± 1.54)(P<0.01).The positive attitude toward AIDS increased with(0.91±0.748) and (0.92±0.77).There was statistical difference between the two models before and after education(P<0.01).The effect of the lecture was better than peer education on the two issues that "There are more effective treatment plans to control the progress of AIDS currently" and "Giving gay or homosexual understanding"(P<0.05).There was no statistical difference between the two models in terms of the correct rate or the positive rate(P>0.05).Conclusion Peer education and expert lectures are effective ways to improve college students' knowledge and attitude towards AIDS prevention.Each has its advantages and disadvantages.In order to achieve better educational effects,colleges and universities can choose the right way according to the actual situation.
Abstract: Objective To study the cure functions of Mandala drawing therapy on autistic children,and to provide basis for the special mechanism of action that Mandala form works with for autistic children.Methods A total of 52 autistic children were divided into experimental group (27 children) and control group (25 children).The experimental group accepted 10-month Mandala drawing therapy while no intervention was done to the control group.The ABC(Autism Behavior Checklist),CARS(Childhood Autism Rating Scale),ATEC(Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist),PEP-3 (Psycho-educational Profile third edition) and TheBehavior Observation was used for scoring,and the results will be analyzed and compared.Results In posttest,the experimental groups were lower than control group in the total scores and factor scores of CARS,ABC,ATEC,the difference was statistically significant(t =-2.832,-3.220,-2.145,-2.417,-2.901,-2.218,-2.079,P<0.01);The experimental group has got higher scores in " Painting will Imitation painting" "Colour painting" and "Propositional painting" than control group,the difference was statistically significant(Z=-2.688,-2.187,-2.251,-2.328,P<0.05).The experimental group has fewer numbers have "Stereotypic behavior" "Self injurious behavior Destructive behavior" "Abnormal mood" than control group,the difference was statistically significant(x2 =4.530,6.363,4.590,7.865,P<0.05).Conclusion The mandala drawing for autistic children have both effective and reasonable promotion of psychological function and behavior level.
Abstract: Objective To explore the influence of childhood trauma and depression on schizotypy and executive function,and to provide references for effectively improving the mental health among children.Methods Childhood trauma questionnaireshort form was applied to select 2 469 college students from Hunan university of Chinese medicine and Hengyang Normal College.Among the subjects,63 children with trauma was selected as abused group and 93 ones were taken as control group.What's more,they were asked to fill in four Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales (CPPS),Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A).Results Behavioral regulation index (BRI) and emotional abuse,physical abuse,emotional neglect,physical neglect,positive schizotypy,negative schizotypy and depression were positively correlated with depression(r=0.162-0.511,P<0.05);Metacognition index (MI) was positively related with emotional abuse,physical neglect,positive schizotypy,negative schizotypy and depression (r=0.180-0.386,P<0.05).In the prediction model of executive function,emotional abuse,positive schizotypy and depression had a significant predictive effect on BRI(β =0.306,0.329,P< 0.05) and MI (β=0.209,0.239,P<0.05),while all types of childhood trauma had no predictive effect on executive function(P> 0.05).Path analysis revealed that depression was the mediator between positive schizotypy and executive function.Conclusion Positive schizotypy and depression have influenced executive function.
Abstract: Objective To explore the mediation and moderation effects of anxiety and dysfunctional attitude in the relationship between stress life events and aggression,and to provide basis for aggression prevention among college students.Methods A total of 991 college students from 12 universities in Shangdong province were investigated with Beck Anxiety Scale (BAI),Dysfunction Attitude Scale (DAS-A),Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC),and Buss Perry Questionnaire-Chinese version (AQ-CV).The mediation/moderation tests were based on Hayes' method.Results There were significant sex differences in aggression(Z=15.903,P<0.01).While sex was controlled,the relationships between stress life events and aggression were partially mediated by anxiety and dysfunctional attitude.The standardized indirect effects was 0.09 via the anxiety,and 0.11 via dysfunctional attitudes).Anxiety was a moderator of the relationship between stress life events and aggression(△R2=0.010,P<0.01).Conclusion Anxiety and dysfunctional attitude should be considered as important associated factors for aggression among college students.Targeting stress life events alone is not sufficient enough for aggression prevention,equal attention should be paid to perceptual and emotional factors.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the trend of sports quality among Li Nationality students aged 7-18 from 2005 to 2014,and to provide a scientific reference for making effective measures for promotion of their physical health.Methods The data collected by "Chinese national survey on students' physique and health status" of Li Nationality in Hainan from 2005 to 2014 were used to analyze their quality of velocity,lower-limb explosive strength and endurance.Results In 2014,Li Nationality students' ports quality was improved in correlation with age,boys did better than girls,but girls attainted their best results of 50 m dash at age of 11-13 years old.From 2005 to 2014,the score of 50 m dash was improved significantly among Li Nationality girls by 0.43 s (P<0.01),no obvious increase was found among boys,while the results of 50 m dash improved significantly among students aged 7 to 12 (P<0.01,0.34 s' faster among boys and 1.04 s' faster among girls);the score of standing long jump was improved by 3.75 cm among girls,and no obvious increase was found among boys,,while boys aged 13 to 18 increase their result by 5.94 cm(P <0.01).As for endurance running,students aged 7-12 achieved less(P<0.01).Boys' speed was decreased by 3.43 s,while girls by 2.75 s.By contrast,an obvious decrease was found in endurance running among students aged 13-18(P<0.01,20.26 s' slower among boys and 6.12 s' slower among girls).Conclusion Primary and middle school students of Li Nationality in Hainan showed different changing trend in different sports indicators from 2005 to 2014.Velocity,lower-limb explosive strength are improved,but the endurance presented downward trend among students.
Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship between college students' understanding social support and depression and emotion regulation mode in one of the intermediary role,and to provide basis for maintenance and promotion of college students metal health.Methods Using the "understanding social support scale","self rating depression scale" and "GROSS way emotion regulation questionnaire to Zhanjiang to survey 1 080 college students.Results The girl college students' understanding social support (5.21±0.88) and depression score(1.95±0.34) were significantly higher than the boys' (5.05±0.92;1.89±0.36) (t =-4.52,-3.99,P<0.01),the city students' depression score(1.95±0.35) was significantly higher than rural students (1.92±0.34) (P<0.05),the liberal arts students' depression score(1.96±0.34) was significantly higher than science students'(1.91±0.34) (t=2.15,-3.47,P<0.01);About the emotion regulation strategies were significant difference in demographic variables(P<0.05).Zhanjiang students' understanding social support and depression levels had significantly negative correlation (r=0.38,P<0.01),and cognitive reappraisal strategy had significant positive correlation(r=0.22,P<0.01),and negatively correlated with expression suppression strategy(r=0.10,P<0.05);Zhanjiang college students' level of depression and cognitive reappraisal,had significant negative correlation(r=-0.25,P<0.01),and the expression suppression were positively correlated(r =0.10,P<0.05);the students' cognitive reappraisal in understanding with intermediary effect between social support and depression,their emotion regulation way in understanding had partial intermediary role between social support and depression.Conclusion The use of the college students' cognitive reappraisal strategy play the intermediary role between social support and depression.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the association among general obesity,abdominal obesity,combined obesity and blood pressure among primary and middle school students in Guangzhou in 2014,and to provide a reference for the prevention and control strategies of hypertension.Methods A total of 13 004 students aged 7-18 years seleted from 15 primary schools and 15 middle schools in 11 districts of Guangzhou were recruited in this study.Covariance analysis and Logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between obesity types and blood pressure(systolic blood pressure,SBP and diastolic blood pressure,DBP).Results Covariance analysis showed that SBP and DBP were significantly different among students with distinct obesity types by gender (P<0.01).In boys,the SBP and DBP of general obesity group or combined obesity group were higher than those of normal weight group (P<0.01).In girls,the changing trend of blood pressure in different obesity types was as follows:combined obesity > abdominal obesity > general obesity > normal weight.Logistic regression analysis showed that combined obesity was strongly associated with elevated blood pressure both for boys and girls (boys:OR =4.40,95%CI =3.61-5.36;girls:OR =5.25,95% CI =4.16-6.64).Boys with general obesity also showed a higher risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=2.68,95%CI=1.31-5.49) than boys of normal weight,but the association of abdominal obesity with risk of high blood pressure was not statistically significant.In girls,there were no significant associations among general obesity,abdominal obesity and elevated blood pressure.Conclusion Obesity is an important risk factor for elevated blood pressure in children.Students with combined obesity have the highest risk of elevated blood pressure,followed by those with general obesity or abdominal obesity.
Abstract: Objective To understand the current situation of stressful life events and explore its influencing factors among junior high school students in Shaoxing,in order to provide evidence for making intervention measures.Methods A total of 3 397 junior high school students selected from Shaoxing by stratified cluster random sampling were investigated with Muliti-dimensional Life Events Rating Questionnaire(MLERQ).Results The top 5 incidence of stressful life events among middle school students were having poor test scores (72.21%),short of teachers expectations (66.79%),partial section (64.41%),parents chattering(56.20%) and being scolded by parents(40.80%).Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that studying in urban school,not only children,grade 2,grade 3,heavy study stress were risk factors of stressful life events among middle school students(B=0.234,0.210,0.317,1.195,P<0.05).Having many close friends was the protective factor of stressful life events among middle school students(P<0.01).Conclusion The stressful life events among middle school students in Shaoxing are not optimistic.Intervention measures should be taken for different characteristics of middle school students.
Abstract: Objective This study aims to compare cardiovascular metabolic indexes between adolescents with normal weight and invisible obesity,and to provide basis for evaluate obesity and cardiovascular metabolic risk of adolescents.Methods Atotal of 623 junior high school students were selected from one urban school in Harbin.Physical examination,body composition and metabolic biochemical test were carried out.There were 134 students classified as invisible obesity,defined as normal BMI but PBF >20% in male or >25 in female.A total of 235 students were selected as control group.Results The detection rate of invisible obesity was 36.3%(18.9% in boys and 48.6% in girls,respectively),with girls higher than boys(x2=34.06,P<0.05).The levels of TC and LDL-C was higher in invisible obesity group than control group,and the levels of TG were higher in invisible obesity group than control group among male adolescents,the levels of HDL-C were lower than control group among female adolescents (P< 0.05).There were no significantly differences in the level of blood pressure and blood glucose between in the two groups(P>0.05).Comparing with control group,hypertriglyceridemia was higher in boys with invisible obesity,while hypercholesterolemia and hyper -LDL-C were higher in girls with invisible obesity(P<0.05),but no significant differences in hypertension and hyperglycemia were found between two groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Invisible obesity is quite common among Chinese adolescents.Abnormal lipid metabolism already presents in invisible obese adolescents.Early identification of adolescents with invisible obesity would be effective for cardiovascular metabolic diseases prevention.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the present situation and the historical evolution of the study of childhood obesity in China,and to provide basis for carrying out an in-depth research in the future.Methods CiteSpaceⅢ was used to visualize the problem of childhood obesity in China during the period of 1978-2016,through the distribution of time,the distribution of institutions,the representative figures,the distribution of journals,the focus of research,the cluster view and the time zone view.Results The number of published papers of children's obesity in China had been increasing year by year,and in 1992,it entered into a rapid growth stage,and broke through 300 in 2007.After the first decline in 2008,it became stable.The main core journals were Chinese Joumal of School Health (488),Chinese Journal of Child Health Care (381) and Maternal and Child Health Care of China (297).Representative authors were Ma Jun (64),Mi Jie(46),Liu Geli (38).The authors had formed a cooperative network.Representatives institutions were Peking University (127),Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention (91),Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics (86).The institutions were independent of each other,lacking of cooperation."Obesity","Overweight","Preschool children","Youth","Nutrition","Insulin resistance" were high-frequency keywords which occurred greater than 200.These keywords were the hot issues in the research of children's obesity in china.The research of Chinese childhood obesity had gone through three stages,namely 1978-1984 (initial stage),1985-2001 (mature stage) and 2002-2016 (deep excavation stage).Conclusion Based on the main core journals,the study on children's obesity problem in our country works in a gradually formed cooperation network with well-known scholars as the center,with much clearer research focus.The relevant scholars and institutions should further strengthen exchanges and cooperation,to push forward the research on childhood obesity.
Abstract: Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the children and adolescent patients stuck in the nationally notified infectious disease in Tongzhou District,and to provide a scientific reference for the prevention and control of the infectious disease among adolescent.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the nationally notified infectious disease among children and adolescent in Tongzhou District.Results From 2005-2015,67 457 patients aged from 0-24 were reported to be stuck with 23 types of notified infectious disease,and the average annual incidence was 2 113.27/105 in total,and that of the notified A and B categories infectious disease was 387.84/105,and 1 725.44/ 105 for the incidence of the notified C category infectious disease.The average annual incidence of notified A and B categories infectious disease decreased from 434.57/105 in 2005 to 220.3/105 in 2015.The highest incidence rate was found in the 0-year-old group of 1167.95/105.The followed rate was in 5-year-old group of 410.27/105.The lowest incidence rates was in 10-year-old group of 80.15/105.However,the average annual incidence of notified C category infectious disease increased from 768.41/105 in 2005 to 1 814.06/105 in 2015.The highest incidence rate was found in 0 year-old-group of 9 417.82/105.The lowest incidence rate was in 10-year-old group of 203.97/105.Conclusion Among adolescents of Tongzhou District,the incidence of notified A and B categories infectious disease decrease,but the incidence of notified C category infectious disease increase first and decreased afterwards.
Abstract: Objective To investigate factors in living environment that are associated with respiratory diseases in school children and to provide scientific basis for disease prevention and control strategies.Methods A sum of 1 016 students from the 3rd,4th and 5th grade of a primary school in Guangzhou were selected using stratified sampling method during the year of 2014-2015.Information regarding individual characteristics,household socioeconomic status,disease history of parents,as well as indoor and outdoor residential environment were collected through questionnaire survey.Results Multiple Logistic regression showed that compared with students without history of respiratory disease,students with respiratory disease were more likely to be boy(OR =1.52,95%CI=1.18-1.96),having drainage ditch(OR=1.66,95%CI=1.02-2.71),garbage station(OR=1.45,95%CI=1.04-2.03) within 100 meters from the residence,and frequent usage of mosquito repellents(OR=1.69,95%CI=1.26-2.26).Conclusion Residential environments have substantial impacts on respiratory health of school-aged children.
Abstract: Objective To understand current situation of group development and management for school physician in primary and secondary schools in Guangzhou,and to provide basis for team development of school physicians.Methods A combination of questionnaires (quantitative) and field investigation (qualitative) were adopted.All schools in Guangzhou were investigated.Two primary school,as well as 2 junior and 2 senior high schools in each district of Guangzhou were selected for questionnaire survey.Results About 40.3% of all the 1 225 primary and secondary schools had full-time and part-time school physicians (n =689).Two-hundred and fifty three (62.3%) secondary schools (including vocational) schools employed full-time school physicians,and the number was 128 (16.1%) for primary schools.Rate of school physician in secondary schools was higher than that of in primary schools(x2 =236.36,P<0.01).Only 44.3% of all the schools in Guangzhou had at least 1 school physician per 600 students.Among the 1 323 school physicians,930 (70.3%) were female,565 had professional certificates as junior (52.04%),intermediate (35.93%) and senior (1.6%);61.95% of them had tertiary education and 0.7% had master degree.Nearly 83.6% of all schools admitted health services from existing school physician did not meet student demand.School physician employment needed to be improved,especially the independent employment mode among most schools.Conclusion School healthcare system in primary and secondary schools in Guangzhou need to be improved.Multi-channel employment might be helpful for team development of school physicians.