2017 Vol. 38, No. 5

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2017, 38(5)
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2017, 38(5): 641-643. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.001
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2017, 38(5): 644-648. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.002
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Analysis of association between the height and sun exposure among Chinese children and adolescents
DONG Yanhui, XU Rongbin, WANG Zhenghe, YANG Zhongping, WANG Xijie, YANG Zhaogeng, MA Jun
2017, 38(5): 649-653. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.003
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Objective To determine the association between height and the time of sun exposure in children and adolescents in China.Methods The data about children and adolescents aged 7-18 years of 31 provincial capital cities and municipalities was extracted from 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health and environmental data was also collected from historical data.The sun exposure time was divided into five categories,including less than 1 000 hours,1 000-1 499 hours,1 500-1 999 hours,2 000-2 499 hours,and more than 2 500 hours.Height Z-score was calculated according to different ages and genders,and the change rules of the height of Z-score of boys and girls was analyzed according to different levels of sun exposure.Pearson correlation analysis and multilevel statistical models were used to evaluate the relationship between the height and the time of sun exposure.Results The correlation between height and average time of sun exposure has increasing trend along with the age in both sexes.The mean of height of Z-score gradually increase with the rising of time of sun exposure in the sun exposure grade of 1-4 level.In the fifth grade,the mean of height Z-score was lower than the fourth grade.There was the same trends in boys and girls.The stunting rate of children and adolescents was low in the region of high grade of sun exposure.According to the results of multilevel statistical models analysis,there was a positive relationship between the height Z-score and the time of sun exposure,and the risk of stunting of children and adolescents declined obviously in 2-5 levels of sun exposure compared with the lowest grade of sun exposure.Conclusion There is a positive association between time of sun exposure and height in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The influence of time of sun exposure on the height of students is higher in the region of high grade of sun exposure where the risk of stunting is lower compared to the region of lowest sun exposure.
A study of the nutritional knowledge awareness among primary students in rural poor areas
GUAN Bingju, WANG Qingqing, PAN Hui, WANG Tingting, LI Li, GAN Qian, XING Qingbin, HU Xiaoqi, ZHANG Qian
2017, 38(5): 654-656. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.004
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Objective To assess nutritional knowledge awareness among primary students in rural poor areas,and to provide scientific basis for nutrition improvement and appropriate nutritional intervention.Methods Random multi-stage clustering sampling method was employed to select 2 939 primary students from 5 rural areas:Pingquan in Hebei,Wufeng in Hubei,Longyang in Yunan,Pingyang in Hunan,Dunhua in Jiling.And then a self-designed questionnaire was conducted to collect their basic information and information regarding nutritional knowledge.Results The accurate rates of nutritional knowledge ranged from 21.4% to 97.4%.Among them,the awareness rate of nutrition breakfast food(21.4%) was lowest,and the rate of choice of drinks (92.2%) and a reasonable choice of snacks(97.4%) ranked highest.The resident students were more correct in most questions than the non-resident students (P<0.01).The accuracy rate of the students with no migrant parents or only migrant father was higher than those with migrant parents or migrant mother (P<0.01).The accuracy rate of the relevant knowledge increased with the increasing grade,and the differences between areas were of statistical significance (P<0.01).The average score of the nutritional knowledge among the students at the high grade was (6.03± 1.75).The differences lying in grade,area,whether board or not,whether having immigrant parents or not were of statistical significance (P<0.01).Conclusion The primary students in rural poor areas are lack of nutritional knowledge.School-based nutritional propaganda and education should be offered to improve the nutritional knowledge of primary students.
AIDS knowledge and source of knowledge among college students in 15 provinces in China
WANG Yixin, MA Yinghua, ZHANG Bing, LI Tianjing, ZHOU Jia
2017, 38(5): 657-659,662. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.005
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Objective To investigate the awareness of AIDS knowledge among college students in 15 provinces in China,and to provide basic information for health intervention.Methods Undergraduate students were selected from 60 colleges in 15 provinces from municipalities and autonomous regions in China by multi-stage cluster sampling and were interviewed by questionnaires.Results The awareness on eight items of AIDS basic knowledge which provided to the public by the State (referred to the eight items) was 77.4%,showed significant differences in majors (P<0.01),living areas prior to the college (P=0.012) and relationship status (P<0.01).Compared to the students majoring Art,Science major (OR=1.324,95%CI=1.145-1.531) and Medicine major (OR =1.421,95%CI=1.204-1.678) were the promoting factors of the awareness of the eight items.Compared to unmarried and without lover,students with lover or married (OR =0.847,95%CI=0.750-0.957) had lower awareness of the eight items.AIDS knowledge from media and Internet (OR =0.702,95% CI=0.661-0.745) and knowledge from school were promoting factors,while AIDS knowledge from family (OR=1.242,95%CI=1.166-1.323) was risk factor for awareness of AIDS.Conclusion AIDS knowledge among college students is not sufficient.The publicity and education of AIDS prevention should be promoted through Internet and school settings,focusing on consciousness of self-protection among college students.
Study on comparison of physical exercise behaviors among college students
LIU Yongju, ZHENG Xiao, ZHAO Huining, SU Chunhui, HU Weihong, CAO Hongyan, ZHANG Chichen
2017, 38(5): 660-662. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.006
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Objective To compare the physical exercise behaviors among college students in different universities,and to provide the reference for promoting the change of college students' exercise behavior.Methods A total of 873 college students from 4 universities in Shanxi Province were investigated by using the method of Cluster Random Sampling.Results The population distribution of different excerising stages showed an inverted U-shape.The most students were at the intentional and preparation stage,and the fewest students chose to stay at the pre-intentional and maintaining stage.There were the statistical significance in the different scores of physical exercising attitude scales,and three dimensions of behavioral cognition,emotional experience and behavioral control in 4 universities (F=5.49,8.31,6.78,5.75,P<0.01).And the students in the university of financial and economics got the worst physical exercising attitude.Also,there were the statistical significance of the different scores in all dimensions and the total scores of physical exercise changing procedures in the four universities(P<0.01).And the students in the university of financial and economics showed the worst physical exercising behavior.Conclusion In the course of implementing behavioral interventions,combining with HAPA theory can be effective in changing the ocollege students' physical exercise behaviors,but the influencing factors,such as gender,profession,must be integrated.
Survey of the dietary nutrition and anemia condition in rural boarding school students
WEI Yanli, HUO Junsheng, SUN Jing, WANG Lijuan, PIAO Wei, CHEN Di, LI Jin
2017, 38(5): 663-665,669. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.007
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Objective To preliminarily survey the dietary nutrition and anemia condition in rural boarding school students.Methods A total of 1 929 of first grade students of rural boarding junior high school were selected form 16 provinces,Basic information,dietary investigation and determination of hemoglobin were used on these students.Results The overall energy consumption was 2 151.41 kcal,protein intake was 61.27 g,carbohydrate intake was 303.16 g,fat intake was 78.10 g,19.79 g,iron intake was 19.79 g.Detection rate of anemia was 6.30%.There are differences between the dietary intake and dietary categories in the three regions.Conclusion The dietary intake structure and anemia condition in the rural boarding school students needs to be adjusted.
Associations of smoking behavior with health beliefs and time perspective among college students in Chengdu
XU Ying, WANG Rufang, MA Xiao
2017, 38(5): 666-669. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.008
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Objective To explore the relationships between smoking behavior,health beliefs and time perspective among college students in Sichuan,and to provide scientific basis for smoking behavior intervention.Methods Using random cluster sampling method,3 016 college students from Chengdu of Sichuan Province were selected and implemented with Smoking Behavior Questionnaire,Smoking Health Beliefs Scale and Future Time Perspective Questionnaire.Results The prevalence of current smoking was 20.9%.Junior students (31.65%) and male students (35.73%) had high prevalence.Average score of health beliefs was (1.74±0.46).There were significant differences in perceived benefits and perceived barriers between different groups (P<0.01).Perceived barriers,future purpose consciousness and future image were protective factors for smoking behavior(OR =0.596,0.814,0.444,P<0.01),and perceived susceptibility,perceived severity,perceived benefits and far-reach goal orientation were risk factors for smoking behavior(OR =1.371,1.332,2.640,1.630,P<0.01).Conclusion Smoking is prevalent among university students,which closely relates with health beliefs and future time perspective.Health education and time management awareness promotion might help reducing onset of smoking behavior among college students
Status of current tobacco use and its influencing factors among adolescents in Hubei province
LUO Yan, XIA Qinghua, YU Huihong, LI Ling, XU Jingdong
2017, 38(5): 670-672,675. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.009
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Objective To understand the status of tobacco use and its influencing factors among teenagers in Hubei province,and to provide scientific evidence for developing tobacco control strategies.Methods Multistage stratified clustering random sampling was used to select a total of 5 438 teenagers from 36 schools in Hubei province to have a self-administrated questionnaires survey.Results The rate of current tobacco use among adolescents in Hubei province was 5.66%.The prevalence rate of current tobacco use for boys(8.31%) was higher than that of girls(2.48%),the rate of rural(6.27%) were higher than that of urban areas (4.84%),the rate was increased with the growth of grade and disposable pocket money (P<0.01).About 89.40% of the adolescents firstly tried to smoke before 14 years old.71.71% of the current youth smokers wanted to quit smoking,91.79% of them had never received any assistances or suggestions from the professional.Logistic regression analysis showed that gender,age,pocket money of every week,parental smoking,peer smoking,the knowledge of difficulties for smoke-quitting and second-hand-smoke were influencing factors of current tobacco use among adolescents(P<0.01);Without smoking parents or friends,thinking it easy to quit smoke and knowing the harm of second-hand-smoke were the protective factors of adolescents' tobacco use behavior (OR =1.763,10.521,2.047,2.243).Conclusion The behavior of tobacco use is quite common among teenagers in Hubei province.Pupils and junior school students are the key population for health education on controlling tobacco,and school is a good place to conduct tobacco education.
Status and influencing factors of non-medical use of drugs for vocational school students in Guizhou province
ZHAO Xiaodeng, PENG Danbing, CHENG Rong, JIANG Yifan, CAO Shining, FENG Ying, LIU Tong, YANG Ying, REN Pengyu
2017, 38(5): 673-675. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.010
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Objective To understand the status of non-medical use of drugs in vocational school students in Guizhou province,and to explore its influencing factors.Methods A total 3 073 students were recruited with multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling,while surveyed by self rating.Results The rate of non-medical use of drugs in vocational school students was 11.88%.For the constituent ratio of non-medical use of drugs in vocational school students,there were statistically significant difference in different characteristics (boarding student,smoking,family economic difficulties or moderate,etc) (P<0.05).Binary logistic regression analysis found that boarding student(OR=1.768,95%CI=1.214-2.576),month pocket money ≥ 500 yuan(OR =2.407,95%CI=1.520-3.813),smoking(OR=1.676,95%CI=1.252-2.243),suicidal thoughts(OR=1.709,95%CI=1.257-2.324) and family economic difficulties or moderate(OR=4.119,95%CI=1.150-14.750 or OR=4.149,95%CI=1.238-13.907) were determined as the risk factors,and the grade two(OR=0.448,95%CI=0.334-0.602)was identified as the protective factors for non-medical use of drugs in vocational school students.Conclusion Health education on safe medication for vocational school students should be strengthened.Intervention of high-risk students should be taken to reduce the occurrence of hazards.
Effectiveness of group training on depressive mood among college students: a Meta-analysis
HU Ruyan, CHEN Jia, WANG Yanju, CHEN Zhenzhen
2017, 38(5): 676-679,682. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.011
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Objective To systematically evaluate the effects of group training on depressive mood among college students in China by using the Meta analysis.Methods All relevant studies in Chinese and English Database were searched by computer.The retrieval time was updated to June,in 2016.The retrieval words were "group training" "group practicing" "group guidance" "organization training team training""depressed gloomy despondent".Then Meta-analysis on the data collected was conducted by using RevMan 5.3 and Meta Analyst Beta3.13 software.Results A total of 142 studies were retrieved,but finally 10 studies were selected which included 415 cases(197 in intervention group and 218 in control group).Mate-analysis showed that,intervene later the instant depression score of the intervention group was higher than control group,standardized mean different(SMD =-12.63,95%CI=-14.40-10.86).In group training the difference of the follow-up and instantly scores were statistically significant(SMD =2.20,95%CI=0.18-4.22).Conclusion Targeted group training can reduce depression for college students,and provides references for relevant agencies.
Effects of the health education of tuberculosis prevention and control among college students based on Wechat group
TIAN Hua, WANG Daijun
2017, 38(5): 680-682. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.012
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Objective To explore the effects of the health education on tuberculosis prevention and control among college students based on WeChat group,and to provide evidence for effective health education.Methods Random sampling method was applied to divide 307 students selected from 6 classes into two groups:the traditional group and the WeChat group.After showing the lectures of tuberculosis preventive knowledge to the two groups,the handbooks of publicity were handed out and the propaganda board was displayed to intervene the traditional group,and the relevant health education was offered to the WeChat group by the way of Wechat.Results There were no significant differences in the awareness rate of the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis,health attitude and behavior between the two groups before the intervention(P>0.05).However,after the intervention,the rates in WeChat group were higher than those in the traditional group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The traditional way of tuberculosis intervention has no obvious effects,whereas health education based on WeChat group is an effective way of intervention.
Effects of health literacy intervention among kindergarten teachers in Jilin Province
YUAN Yue, LI Chunyu, ZHANG Hailian, JIN Jinzhen
2017, 38(5): 683-685. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.013
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Objective To understand the status of health literacy among kindergarten teachers in Jilin province and carry out health literacy intervention,to further evaluate the interventional effect.Methods Totally 622 teachers from 16 kindergartens in 10 areas of Jilin province were randomly divided into intervention group and control group according to the areas,and the training of knowledge and skills related to washing hands and brushing teeth,Heimlich maneuver,trauma treatment and emergency call was conducted,and the relevant data was collected by structured survey.Results Before the intervention,the rate of health literacy of washing hands and brushing teeth,Heimlich maneuver,trauma treatment and emergency call were 42.3%,29.2%,26.3% and 63.5% respectively in intervention group,while those in the control group were 39.0%,32.6%,22.6% and 64.8% respectively;The intervention group mastered more knowledge and skills about health literacy in the above-mentioned perspectives than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The training about the health-related knowledge and skills can effectively improve the level of health literacy and self-confidence for kindergarten teachers.Therefore,government and educational institutions should carry out regular,systematic and targeted training.
Association of adverse experiences during different period with depressive disorder diagnosis among college students
LIU Wei, HE Shoujie, LI Shiyue, YANG Xu, YAN Hong
2017, 38(5): 686-688,692. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.014
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Objective To explore the relationship between adverse experiences during different period with depressive symptoms among college students,to provide basis for depression prevention.Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select undergraduates from six universities in Hubei province.Data was collected through online survey.General information,family background,adverse experiences during different period and diagnosis of depressive disorder was reported by participants.Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression was used.Results Totally 5 913 eligible questionnaire were analyzed.About 82(1.4%) of the students reported depressive disorder diagnosis.Approximately 2 198(37.2%) of students reported adverse experiences during childhood,1 757(29.7%) reported adverse experiences during adolescence,and 5 158(87.2%) reported frustrating experiences during college.Among them,1 329(22.5%) reported adverse experiences both in childhood and adolescence,and 1 160(19.6%) reported adverse experiences in all three periods.Adverse childhood experiences were positively related with depressive disorder diagnosis (OR=2.351,95%CI=1.475-3.747).Adverse adolescence experiences,frustrating experiences in college and adverse experiences in two or more periods had no relation with depressive disorder(P>0.05).Conclusion More attention should be paid among college students who had adverse childhood experiences,including psychological counseling and social support,to effectively prevent depressive symptoms and depressive disorder.
Analysis of learning stress, self efficacy and learning burnout of ethnic minority college students
WANG Defang, YANG Xiaojun
2017, 38(5): 689-692. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.015
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Objective To understand the relationship among learning stress,self efficiency and learning burnout among minority college students,and to provide reference for the promotion of their learning.Methods A total of 1 119 students of minority nationalities were measured by learning burnout scale,learning stress event scale and learning self-efficacy scale.Results Minority college students' learning stress,learning efficacy and learning burnout were on the middle level,but the proportion of students with learning difficulties was at the highest(53.4%).There was a negative correlation between academic performance,behavior efficacy and grade(r=-0.10,-0.07,P<0.01).The urban and rural students were statistically different in self-efficacy(t =3.03,P<0.01).There were some statistical differences in professional efficacy(P<0.01).And different variations of learning burnout can be found in gender,grade,birth places of students and their professions(t=-0.13,5.46,P<0.01).According to the results of regression analysis,there was a positive correlation between learning stress,ability efficacy and depression(β =0.07,0.22,P<0.01),and a negative correlation between behavioral performance and learning pressure(β =-0.58,P<0.01).Moreover,self-efficacy and achievement or achievement were also found negatively correlated(β =-0.12,-0.54;-0.57,-0.21,P<0.01).Conclusion The minority college students suffer from moderate learning pressure,learning burnout and learning self-efficacy,and learning stress and self-efficacy can affect learning burnout.
Correlation between theory of mind and empathy among alexithymia college students
WANG Xue, LI Hongchen, ZHANG Lei
2017, 38(5): 693-695. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.016
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Objective To investigate the capability of empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in alexithymia.Methods Thirty-six alexithymia patients and 32 age-,gender-and education background matching healthy controls were recruited.Chinese version of Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C) were used to measure empathy.Chinese version of Yoni task were used to measure ToM.Results Compared to controls,accuracy of cognitive items was significantly lower in alexithymia [(20.28± 3.61) vs.(21.78 ± 1.88)] (P<0.05).Second-order cognitive items was significantly lower in alexithymia [(8.81±2.54) vs.(10.19± 1.28)] (P<0.01).Affective items was significantly lower in alexithymia [(43.72±6.91) vs.(46.92±4.12)] (P<0.05).Second-order cognitive items was significantly lower in alexithymia [(32.89±5.70) vs.(35.53±3.33)] (P<0.05).Alexithymia showed lower scores in factors of perspective taking [(10.61±3.66) vs.(12.61±4.09)] (P<0.05),higher scores in factors of personal-distress [(8.83±3.64) vs.(5.72±3.97)] (P<0.01) in IRI-C.Conclusion Alexithymia patients might have deficit in the capability of empathy and Theory of mind.
A study on the status of sleep disorders and influencing factors among vocational colleges students in Anhui province
LI Yifeng, ZHANG Zhihua, WANG Wenjing, WU Xiaoshuang, ZHAO Feng, SUN Yehuan
2017, 38(5): 696-699. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.017
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Objective To understand the current situation of sleeping quality among vocational students,and to provide scientific basis for improving the students' sleeping quality and promote promoting the healthy development of students' physical and mental health.Methods A total of 10 158 vocational students from 5 vocational colleges in 5 cities of Anhui were selected by stratified cluster sampling,and the data about the situation of bullying,sleeping quality,smoking and drinking was collected.Chisquare test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship between cyberbullying and sleep disorder and the related factors.Results A total of 1 417 students were found with sleeping disorder.The Occupational College students sleep disorder detection rate was 13.9%(n =1 417).Among boys and girls with cyber bullying,The incidence of sleep disorders were 24.4% and 32.7%,respectively,which in boys and girls was higher than in that of those without cyberbullyingcyber bullying(12.1%,14.6%) (x2 =22.516,41.390,P<0.01).The multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that per capita income of the family,good academic performance and appropriate parental control were protective factors for sleep disorders.Being female,drinking,cyber bullying and skipped generation family were risk factors for sleep disorders with statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion Sleep disorder is prevelant among the students of vocational college in Anhui Province.Students with cyber bullying,alcohol drinking and poor academic performance and skipped generation family can be one of the key groups of intervention in sleep disorder.
Relationship among self-esteem, shame, and aggressive behavior of middle school students
LIU Yong, MENG Qingxin, ZHAO Jianfang
2017, 38(5): 700-703,707. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.018
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Objective To explore the relationships among self-esteem,shame,and aggressive behavior,and to provide references for making reasonable preventive measures.Methods A total of 1 174 students selected from Harbin were investigated by filling out Self-liking/Self-competence Scale Revised,Middle School Students' Shame Scale and Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire.Results Oral aggression and hostility were the primary forms of aggressive behaviors among middle school students;Males' scores of aggressive behavior,anger and physical aggression were significantly higher than those of females' (t =2.806,3.864,40.279,P<0.05),senior one students' score of aggressive behavior ranked highest.Junior school freshmen's score of aggressive behavior was significantly lower than those of junior three students and senior one students(P<0.05).There were also significant statisticalgrade differences between physical aggression and oral aggression(P<0.05).All dimensions of the self-esteem,shame and aggressive behavior of middle students were negativelycorrelated.Shame and aggressive behaviors were positively correlated.Self-esteem not only directly affected the aggressive behavior but also indirectly affected it,via the shame,and the direct and indirect effect scored 0.172 and 0.150,respectively;The models fitting were all good(x2/df=2.924,CFI=0.899,TLI=0.912,RMSEA =0.038,SRMR =0.044).Conclusion There is a significant statistical significance of the relationship among self-esteem,shame and aggression of middle school students;and the shame is mediated between self-esteem and aggressive behavior.
Comparative study of body shape, body composition and bone density of urban and rural primary school students in Handan
KONG Degang, GAO Hong
2017, 38(5): 704-707. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.019
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Objective To understand the current situation and differences of body shape,body composition and bone mineral density in urban and rural primary school students,and to provide references for instructing them to have a rational diet.Methods Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by Body Composition Test Instrument (DF830,Japan) and South Korea Osteopro ultrasound bone densitometer,the body circumference were measured with the height gauge and tape,etc.The objects included 916 primary school students aged 12 from Handan Experimental Primary School,Shuguang Primary School,and the three affliated primary schools,namely,Kongcun Primary School,Liucun Primary School and Pancun Primary School.Results In term of the morphological index,the average index of height(male:154.73 vs 150.31 cm;female:154.56 vs 151.17 cm),weight (malc:45.34 vs 42.08 kg;female:43.07 vs 40.80 kg) and chest circumference(male:74.18 vs 70.37 cm;female:73.04 vs 70.52 cm) of urban male and female students were significantly higher than those of rural students (P<0.01),waist circumference of urban female students was significandy lower than that of rural students (63.51 vs 65.28 cm,P<0.05),waist circumference of urban boys was slightly higher than that of rural students (66.85 vs 66.52 cm,P>0.05);In the term of the body composition index,protein (male:6.54 vs 5.07 kg;female:4.81 vs 3.57 kg),minerals(male:2.14 vs 1.32 kg;female:1.88 vs 1.19 kg),body fat(male:9.75 vs 8.05 kg;female:11.44 vs 10.09 kg),fat ratio(male:21.50% vs19.13%;female:26.56% vs 24.73%) of urban male and female students were significantly higher than those of rural students(P<0.01),water content(male:24.05 vs 26.46 kg;female:21.51 vs 23.78 kg),skeletal muscle(male:15.82 vs 17.48 kg;female:13.26 vs 15.37 kg),skeletal muscle ratio(male:34.89% vs 41.53%;female:30.78% vs 37.67%) were significantly lower(P<0.01);In the term of the bone density index,OI(male:54.17 vs 51.31;female:56.46 vs 52.81),SOS(male:1 374.51 vs 1 366.42 m/s;female:1 386.72 vs 1 371.13 m/s),Z values(male:1.48 vs 1.17;female:1.59 vs 1.16) of urban male and female students were significantly higher than those of rural students(P<0.01).Conclusion Compared with urban students,rural students are relatively slow in their growth and development.
Impact of different exercise load in physical education class on muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory function of junior high school students
WU Haitan, JI Liu
2017, 38(5): 708-711. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.020
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Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different movement intensities and continuous movement time on the heart rate,energy expenditure and metabolic equivalent of energy,muscle strength,muscle endurance and cardiorespiratory system of junior high school students,and to provide scientific references for having physical exercise scientifically,and for improving students' physical quality.Methods Totally 226 students from 6 classes of a middle school in Shanghai were selected to participate in an experiment in the last 8 weeks.The exercises of different intensity and lasting time were offered in physical education class.The 6 classes were provided with 15-minute continuous exercises of great and moderate intensity,10-minute continuous exercises of great and moderate intensity and 5-minute ones.Results The differences in average HR,EE and MET in PE classes were found of statistical significance(F=18.634,8.562,8.162,P<0.01).By paired-samples t test,the students in experimental class 1 were shown to have significant different GBMI and SU,those in class 1,2,3 and 5 were indicated to have significant difference in FVC and ER,while the students in class 4 had a significant difference in ER(P<0.05).Conclusion The larger time of continuous movement and the more intensive movement were offered to the students in the physical education class,the larger increament of exercise load they have got.The exercise load should be controlled in a stable interval during the physical education class.
Impact of body composition on plantar pressure among 6-15 years old children and adolescents
LI Xueting, LIU Hui, JIANG Qi, YANG Lu, GAO Qiannan
2017, 38(5): 712-716. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.021
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Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the indices of body pressure and body composition among children aged 6-15 years,as well as to understand the impact of body composition on plantar pressure for foot disease prevention in children.Methods Body composition and plantar pressure was measured among healthy children and adolescents aged 6-15 years old random selected from one primary school and one middle school in Haidian District of Beijing.All the 1 000 participants were classified into age-and sex-specific groups,each age group consisted of 50 boys and 50 girls.Relationship between body composition and plantar pressure were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis.Results Significant negative correlations were found between peak pressure,body weight and relative fat free mass(P<0.05),while positive relation between relative fat mass and BMI was found(P<0.05).Among boys,relative peak force negatively correlated with body weight,relative fat free mass and BMI(P<0.05),and positively correlated with relative fat mass (P<0.05).In girls,peak pressure positively correlated with body weight,relative fat mass and BMI(P<0.05),and negatively correlated with relative fat free mass(P<0.05).Significant negative correlations were found between relative peak force with body mass,relative fat mass and BMI(P<0.05),and positive correlation was found with relative fat free mass(P<0.05).In some other areas showed opposite correlations.Conclusion Foot pressure among healthy children and adolescent relates with body composition,with significant sex difference.
Risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury of undergraduate students
MAO Shaoju, CHEN Xiaolong, TANG Hanmei, FU Yanyan, LI Jianni, QIU Hongheng, ZHU Jinyun, HUANG Peng
2017, 38(5): 717-721. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.022
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Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury among undergraduate students.Methods A total of 3 854 undergraduates in Nanchang were investigated by self-designed questionnaire,including memories of parental rearing practices in childhood,multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents,adolescent life events scale,and Ottawa self-injury scale.Results Among the 3 854 undergraduate students,393 (10.2%) were diagnosed as NSSI-positive.The most common forms of self-injury behavior included "bite force yourself"(52.9%),"pick or scratching themselves" (52.9%),"pulled his hair"(42.0%),with significant sex differences.More female students reported "bite force yourself",while male reported more on "stifled his immersionuried his head in the water","excessive or careless use of drugs","swallow or drink can't eat".Logistic regression analysis showed childhood maltreatment(OR =3.493),punished due to mistakes(OR =1.995),"nagging what I did in front of others made me feel embarrassed" (OR=1.835),non-biological mother,physical abuse(OR=1.651),being disgraced(OR=1.602),impulse to throw things(OR =1.601),academic failure(OR =1.553),often feel nervous (OR =1.527) were main risk factors for NSSI among undergraduates students.The NSSI behaviors of college students were statistically correlated with their suicidal ideation,suicidal plan and suicidal attempt.The OR values were 6.596(95%CI=4.915-8.850),7.769 95%CI=4.521-13.353) and 5.683 (95%CI=2.956-10.927).Conclusion Non-suicidal self-injury behavior is prevalent among undergraduate students which warrants further concern.
Characteristics of daily illness absenteeism among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen
WU Yu, YANG Wenda, WANG Yun, XIONG Huawei, ZHOU Li
2017, 38(5): 722-725,728. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.023
Abstract(142) PDF(1)
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Objective To explore the epidemiological characteristics of daily illness absenteeism among primary and middle school students from 2011 to 2016.Methods School absenteeism data was collected from the Shenzhen Student Health Monitoring Information System.R software was used to make heat maps of the daily distribution of illness absenteeism.Results Overall,915 659 absent cases were drawn from the system during 2011-2016.Heat maps showed that daily distribution of illness absenteeism was not balanced in a whole year,highest in the first half of the year,especially in last two weeks of March.The most common reason of student absenteeism was cold or flu infection(61.79%).Four patterns were observed in daily distribution of absenteeism:month-centralized-type (including colds or flu,gastrointestinal disease,mumps and HFMD);annual-fluctuation-type (including bronchitis or pneumonia,chickenpox,eye and dental disease);annual-average-type (unintentional injury and rubella) and half-year-difference type (the ENT disease and the "no diagnosis" case).Conclusion Absenteeism is highest during the first half of a year,especially in March.Preventive measures should be taken accordingly to reduce sick leave in primary and middle schools.
Analysis of the screening results of close contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis among college students in Huai'an
DING Shouhua, WAN Qingling, SHAO Wenrong, HE Nanjiang
2017, 38(5): 726-728. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.024
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Objective To analyze the screening results of close contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among college students in Huai'an,so as to provide evidence for TB control and prevention in schools.Methods Close contacts of TB among college students in Huai'an from 2013 to 2015 were screened by investigation of TB suspicious symptoms,PPD-test,chest X-ray,and Mycobacterium tuberculosis examination.Results Totally 682 cases of close contact of TB were registered among college students in Huaian from 2013 to 2015,100% close contacts received suspicious symptom of TB investigation,97.21% received PPD-test,and 70.23% received chest X-ray examination.The results of statistics showed that the rates of intensively positive of PPD(30.1%) and abnormal chest X-ray (3.5%)were both higher than that of closely-contacted sputum smear positive TB patients (16.6%,0.6%) (x2=14.570,4.087,P<0.05).The six sputum smear negative TB patients were screened to be treated by designed hospital,but among the other contacts that should be preventively cured,no one received preventive medication.Conclusion In order to control the epidemic of TB in school,standard screening should be carried out timely on the TB close contacts to reduce the spread of the epidemic,and simultaneously,preventive medication should be carried out on the contacts to reduce the risk of morbidity.
Interventive effects on injury among elementary and middle school students from 2012 to 2015 in Yixing
YANG Yaming, YANG Jie, WU Jing, WU Ming, ZHOU Jinyi, CHEN Yu, XU Bo, CHEN Yuming, LIANG Jing, HU Jing, ZHANG Xujun, LI Zhen, SUN Yan
2017, 38(5): 729-731,734. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.025
Abstract(140) PDF(2)
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Objective To understand the occurrence and change of injury among elementary and middle school students in Yixing,and to provide references for exploring the efficiency of comprehensive injury intervention-model.Methods All students in 16 pilot schools in Yixing were adopted to make the interventional and retrospective investigation according to the analysis and study of comprehensive and personalized intervention of three years from 2012 to 2015.Results The injury incidence of students was 2.23% in retrospective investigation from September to November in 2015,which was lower comparing to that of 2012 (2.89%).Tumbling/falling,injury due to animal,traffic accident and sharp instrument injury were the top four types of injury.The injury incidence among the non-local students was slightly higher than that among the local students,but the differences were of no statistical significance (x2 =0.132,P=0.716).The injury incidence in the males was significantly higher than that of females (x2 =4.110,P=0.043).Conclusion Work of injury intervention has made practical effect;furthermore,multi-sectors collaboration should be strengthened to continually explore the more effective measures.
Analysis on the causes of death of children aged 0-14 years old in Zunyi city between 2011 to 2015
CAO Jiayan, YANG Yunliang, LI Linying, LI Zeqiong
2017, 38(5): 732-734. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.026
Abstract(154) PDF(1)
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Objective To understand the level of death and the main cause of death in children aged 0-14 years in Zunyi,and to provide reference for the prevention and control of disease.Methods The death information of 0-14 years old children were collected,the mortality and the cause of death in Zunyi city in 2011-2015 were analyzed.Results 0 to 14 years old children died of a total of 823 cases.The mortality rate was 94.33/100 000.Boys' mortality (110.35/100 000) was higher than that of girls (76.37/100 000).Among 5 years old children,620 died,accounting for 75.33% of the total number of deaths,the mortality rate was 241.08/100 000.In each age group,the infant mortality rate was the highest,which was 859.60/100 000.The overall mortality rate decreased in five years.The top five causes of death were as following:injury and poisoning,perinatal diseases,congenital abnormalities,respiratory system diseases and infectious diseases and parasitic diseases,accounted for 84.81% of total deaths.Conclusion Injury and poisoning,perinatal diseases,congenital abnormalities,respiratory diseases and nervous system diseases are the main causes of death in children aged 0-14 years in Zunyi city.It is the key to reduce the mortality rate of children aged 0-14 years to take prevention and health care for children under 5 years old.
Trace-back investigation on consecutive Paratyphoid outbreak in a junior high school during 2009-2014
HU Ruyuan, WANG En
2017, 38(5): 735-738,741. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.027
Abstract(149) PDF(1)
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Objective To explore etiology of three consecutive Paratyphoid outbreak in a junior high school in Xuan'en County during 2009-2014,to reduce future outbreak risk and protect health of teachers and students.Methods Detailed history information on activities,drinking,diet and close contacts of the patients were collected.The outbreaks were compared with previous paratyphoid outbreak in Xuan'en County in epidemiological characteristics,clinical treatment and outcome.Laboratory tests were investigated,and traced back for possible risk factors.Results About 2.65%,2.76% and 2.25% of all students affected in the Paratyphoid outbreak,respectively,with no severe and fatal cases.Only 3 out of 75 water samples from centralized water supply,well and bottled water were eligible.No salmonella,shigella,eg.coli O157 was detected.No infectious agents was detected in 68 environmental specimens around school and patient house and 70 food samples from school canteen during the past week.Blood test and rectal swabs were negative among 79 canteen staffs and 21 family members.Eighteen healthy teachers and 117 students were randomly selected for health monitoring,3 students were detected salmonella paratyphi A and abnormal serum hypertrophy reaction was found in 10 blood samples.Seven patients in 2014 outbreak were the same students in 2013 outbreak.Average time for antibiotic treatment in hospital was 8 days,less than the standard treatment time,and no stool Salmonella culture before discharged from the hospital.Classmate,share the same table with patients,living in the same dormitory,close friend had the highest risk of being infected.PFGE source attribution analyses from in 38 Paratyphi strains in 2009-2014 showed high homologous rate.Conclusion Consecutive outbreak occurred in this school related with incomplete treatment on patients,no timely identification and proper management on source of infection.Schools,medical institutions play an important role in limiting the spread of infectious diseases by strengthen infectious disease monitoring and management guidelines.
Analysis of correlation between prevalence rate of anemia among Chinese children and adolescents and physical factors
LIU Fangli, ZHANG Xin, WU Jian
2017, 38(5): 739-741. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.028
Abstract(157) PDF(4)
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Objective To understand the correlation between the detection rate of anemia among Chinese teenagers and the physical factors,and to provide a reference for preventing anemia in the physical perspective.Methods Totally 71 687 students aged 7,9,12,14 year-old from the monitoring sites of schools of Chinese Students Constitution and Health Research were recruited by stratified random sampling method,and their hemoglobin indexes were examined.The correlation between detection rate of anemia and physical factors was analyzed by logistic regression.Results The detection rate of anemia was 13.0% in 2014,which was lower than that of 2010 by 1.2 points.Age,gender,district of living,results of 50 meter race and endurance running were influencing factors of the detection rate of anemia.Furthermore,results of 50 meter race and endurance running were positively correlated with the detectionrate of anemia.Conclusion The girls aged 7 to 14 in rural areas should be taken as focus of the prevention and control of anemia,and more attention should be paid to the the physical exercies to improve the prevalence of anemia among children and adolescents.
2017, 38(5): 742-744. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.029
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2017, 38(5): 745-748. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.030
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2017, 38(5): 748-750. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.031
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2017, 38(5): 751-754. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.032
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2017, 38(5): 754-756. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.033
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2017, 38(5): 757-759. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.034
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2017, 38(5): 760-761. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.035
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2017, 38(5): 765-767. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.037
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2017, 38(5): 767-769. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.038
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2017, 38(5): 770-772. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.039
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2017, 38(5): 773-775. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.040
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2017, 38(5): 775-777. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.041
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2017, 38(5): 778-782. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.042
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2017, 38(5): 782-784. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.043
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2017, 38(5): 785-787. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.044
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2017, 38(5): 788-790. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.045
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2017, 38(5): 791-793. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.046
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2017, 38(5): 793-794. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.047
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2017, 38(5): 795-798. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.048
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2017, 38(5): 798-800. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2017.05.049
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