Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship among physical activity,screen time and 20-meter shuttle run test (20 m SRT) performances among children and adolescents of Han ethnicity,and to provide a basis for promoting the development of cardiorespiratory fitness of Chinese children and adolescents.Methods A total of 12 221 children and adolescents aged 10-18 years of Han ethnicity were chosen by the random case method from six administrative regions,and the association among their physical activity,screen time and 20 m SRT were explored.Results The detection rate of high-grade 20 m SRT performances among girls of positive means of transportation was significantly higher than that in girls of passive means of transportation (x2 =5.753,P<0.05).The prevalence of high-grade 20 m SRT performances among children with exercise time more than 60 min/d was significantly higher than that of children with exercise time <30 min/d,30-60 min/d(P<0.05).The prevalence of high-grade 20 m SRT performances among children of screen time(>2 h/d) was significantly lower than that of children of screen time(< 1 h/d,1-2 h/d) (P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that exercise time above 60 min/d(OR =1.65) and East China(OR =4.24) were protective factors of 20 m SRT performances among Han children and adolescents in China,and screen time above 2 h/d (OR =0.84) was the risk factor.Conclusion Physical activity status(exercise time >60 min/d) is independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness of Chinese children and adolescents of Han ethnicity.However,the more screen time was associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness.
Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship between BMI and 20-meter shuttle run (20 m SRT) of children and adolescents aged 7-18 of Han nationality,and to provide scientific basis for promoting the physical health of children and adolescents with different nutritional status in Han ethnicity.Methods In the administrative regions (East China,North China,South Central China,Northwest China,Southwest China and Northeast China),17 280 children and adolescents aged 7-18 of Han nationality were randomly selected by using the random case method.Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by using the 20 m SRT,and single factor analysis of variance,linear regression were used to analyze and explore the relationship between BMI and 20 m SRT.Results For boys,the overall 20 m SRT performance of wasting,normal weight,overweight and obese group were 32.20,35.23,28.84 and 22.29 laps,respectively.And for girls,they were 25.22,26.13,23.36 and 18.39 laps,respectively.For Boys and girls,the group of normal weight achieved the best,followed by wasting group,overweight group and obesity group(P<0.05).The BMI-Z range was -3.0-8.0,and regardless of sex,the differences of 20 m SRT-Z scores between BMI-Z groups were statistically significant(P< 0.01);In both sexes,BMI-Z score was close to normal range,20 m SRT-Z score was higher,while 20 m SRT-Z score was lower in higher and lower BMI-Z score range.Conclusion Cardiopulmonary fitness level of the normal weight group among Chinese children and adolescents are higher than that of wasting,overweight and obesity group,respectively;and it showed a "parabolic" trend between BMI-Z and 20 m SRT-Z.
Abstract: Objective To understand the age,gender and regional differences of 20 meters shuttle run test(20 m SRT) in Chinese Han children and adolescents aged 7-18,and to provide scientific basis for improving the cardiopulmonary fitness level of the children and adolescents.Methods This study divided 26 provinces and autonomous regions into six regions (east,north,central south,northwest,southwest and northeast).A total of 17 280 children and adolescents were selected randomly as subjects of the research,and LMS method was used to construct a percentile graph according to their results of 20 m SRT.Results The 20 m SRT P50 values of boys and girls aged 7-18 years were between 13.87-43.23 and 13.30-28.76 laps,and the maximum oxygen uptake P50 values were between 43.12-46.57 mL/(kg · min) and 38.42-44.94 mL/(kg · min),respectively.The differences of 20 m SRT values of different age group among boys and girls(F=416.992,210.266) and VO2max (F=36.528,240.763) were of statistical significance(P<0.01),and those values among boys of the same age group were higher than those of girls(P<0.05).The mean values of boys and girls in each region were between 25.70-36.80 and 20.56-28.36 laps,respectively.In east,northwest,north,central south and northeast,20 m SRT scores increased with age,while boys and girls in the southwest region achieved better results from 7 to 12 years of age,and significantly decreased from 13 to 18 years of age.Conclusion The 20 m SRT scores of boys and girls increase with age,while the maximal oxygen uptake decrease with age.Boys' scores are higher than girls' in all age groups.The performance gap of boys and girls in the 20 m SRT and the maximum oxygen uptake began to widen from the age of 11-12.
Abstract: Objective To detemine the relationship between 20-meter shuttle run(20 m SRT) and psychological sub-health status among Chinese Han adolescents.Methods Random sampling method was adopted to select adolescents from six major administrative regions in China.A total of 8 595 adolescents were investigated with Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents(MSQA) and 20 m SRT.Results The total prevalence of psychological sub-health symptoms of boys and girls in China was 20.9% and 21.3%,respectively.The prevalence rate of psychological sub-health symptoms among boy aged 13-18 years was between 13.2% and 24.7%,lowest among 18-year-olds(13.2%) and highest among 14-year-olds(24.7%);for girls,the figures were 15.4% and 25.9%,lowest among 18-year-olds(15.4%) and highest among 13-year-olds(25.9%).The total prevalence of psychological sub-health symptoms among boys with better 20 m SRT performance was 18.1%,significantly lower than that of boys with low 20 m SRT performance(23.1%) (P<0.05);for girls,the same pattern was found(19.5% and 22.6%,P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence rates of psychological sub-health symptoms in adolescents were lower in specific areas (southwest,northwest and South),age group(late adolescence) and students with better 20 m SRT performance(P<0.05).Conclusion Psychological sub-health symptoms is more prevalent in early adolescence and among adolescents with poor cardiorespiratory fitness.
Abstract: Objective To investigate weight perception and associated factors among primary and middle school students in urban Chongqing,and to provide scientific basis for obesity related health education and psychological intervention.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 2 798 primary and middle school students in urban Chongqing.Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were conducted.Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity of the primary and middle school students was 22.9%,boys (27.6%) was significantly higher than girls (17.8%) (x2 =24.210,P <0.01).More than a quarter of students (30.5%) showed discordance between weight perception and actual BMI.Low consistency was found between body self-perception and BMI,kappa was 0.418 and 0.403 for primary and middle school students,respectively.Multi-logistic regression analysis showed that boys(OR=1.497,95%CI=1.239-1.809),students with low family economic status (OR=1.827,95%CI:1.340,2.492) and high paternal education level (OR=2.855,95%CI=1.053-7.741) were more likely to underestimate body weight than peers.Middle school students(OR =1.932,95% CI =1.411-2.646),girls(OR =2.558,95% CI =1.854-3.531),poor family relations (OR=2.468,95%CI=1.324-4.600),and those from low-income households (OR=1.967,95%CI=1.131-3.422) were more likely to overestimate.Conclusion Obesity is prevalent among students in urban Chongqing.Monitoring adolescents' perceived weight in addition to their BMI is critical to understanding the challenge we face with childhood obesity.
Abstract: Objective To understand the influence of different warning education methods on AIDS knowledge,attitude and behavior of middle school students,and to provide a basis for exploring the better way of propagating AIDS prevention knowledge among middle school students.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select a total of 2 019 students in 51 class from three schools in Chengyang District of Qingdao,and they were randomly divided into group A,B and C with a class as the unit.AIDS warning propaganda manual was only issued to group A,AIDS warning education lectures were given to group B in PPT form,warning education lectures were given in PPT form and health manuals were handed out in group C.Moreover,the questionnaire was conducted on their AIDS knowledge,attitude and behavior in three groups.Results Before intervention,the total awareness rates of group A,group B and group C were 64.9%,61.2% and 61.2% respectively,and increased by 2.3%,27.7% and 28.0% after 2 weeks respectively.Univariate analysis showed that the awareness rate of HIV/AIDS knowledge was related to household registration,grade,intervention mode and parental education after then intervention(P<0.01).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with urban area,(95% CI) values were 1.215(1.00-1.47).Compared with the grade one,the OR(95%CI) values of primary and secondary AIDS awareness were 1.681(1.39-1.20) values in group B and group C were 1.70 and 1.56,respectively,compared with group A(P<0.05).Conclusion The awareness level of AIDS knowledge among middle school students in Chengyang district is quite low.Thus,a vivid AIDS warning education should be conducted in accordance with the physiological and psychological characteristics of middle school students to improve the awareness rate of AIDS knowledge and promote their behavior change.
Abstract: Objective To explore associated factors that affect physical exercise participation among primary and middle school students aged 7 to 18 years in Jiangsu Province.Methods By using stratified cluster sampling,30 schools in Nanjing,Xuzhou,Suqian,Changzhou,Wuxi,Suzhou,Yangzhou and Nantong were selected from Jiangsu Province.A total of 6 847 students from grade 1 in primary schools to grade 12 in high schools conducted a questionnaire survey.Results About 53.97% of primary and middle school students regularly took part in physical exercise.With the increase of grade,the proportion of students who take part in physical exercise decreased.Of all participants,45.03% reported lack of interests in physical education class,29.07% reported dislikes of teaching methods in PE class,28.18% reported lack of sports venues and equipment,28.19% perceived low significance of sports scores in graduation,and 26.21% perceived low significance of sports scores in academic achievement.Except of gender and "dislikes of teaching methods",all factors associated with physical exercise participation(P<0.01).Conclusion Youth physical exercise participation should be coordinated by the government,school,society and family.In addition,schools and families should cooperate with each other to make physical exercise as part of the daily life and promote healthy lifestyle among primary and secondary students.
Abstract: Objective To explore the correlation among death conception,attitude towards death and quality of life among elementary students,and to provide evidence for further mental health intervention.Methods A total of 960 convenient sample of pupils from grade 3 to 6 in Guangzhou were investigated with death conception,attitude towards death and quality of life.Structural equation model was established to examine the association between death conception and death attitudes with quality of life.Results The average score of death concept was(13.24±2.78),attitudes towards death was(75.28± 12.21) and quality of life was(144.85± 18.60).Path analysis showed that the model was well fitted(x2/df=6.489,TLI=0.900,CFI=0.935,RMSEA=0.076,SRMR=0.041),death conception positively correlated with death attitude(P<0.05) and but showed no significant association with quality of life(P>0.05),death attitude positively correlated with quality of life(P<0.05),the effect of death conception on quality of life was fully mediated by death attitude(95%CI=0.003-0.057).Conclusion Elementary students have achieved a relatively mature understanding of death concept and attitudes towards death,and have moderate level of quality of life.The death conception has an indirect effect on the quality of life through the death attitude.Results highlight the need for the death education among primary schools.
Abstract: Objective To establish an evaluation index system of youth reproductive health literacy in big cities grounded on the WHO conceptual framework of health literacy.Methods Based on literature review and expert discussion,evaluation frame and indicators pool was firstly set up.Two-round Delphi process was then conducted among 20 multi-disciplinary specialists.Results The authority coefficients were 0.791 and 0.817,respectively,for the two rounds of Delphi consultation,with the response rates were both 100%.The coefficient of variable(CV) ranged for each index were 0.061-0.162 and 0.012-0.142,and the Kendall'W for third-grade indices were 0.170 and 0.375,respectively(P<0.01).The final evaluation system was composed by 45 indices involving areas of reproductive health determinants,disease and risk factors,utilization of health care,and reflecting abilities of health information accessing,understanding,appraising and applying.Conclusion The established index system has relatively good reliability,and could be used to guide further development of assessment tools and intervention packages of youth reproductive health literacy.
Abstract: Objective To explore current status of physical exercise among high school students in Shanghai,and its association with academic performance.Methods Data came from 2015 Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance in Shanghai.A total of 28 ordinary high schools and 28 secondary vocational technical school students were selected through stratified random sampling method.Questionnaire of Adolescent Health Related Behaviors in Shanghai(For high school students) was implemented.About 13 151 out of 13 200 questionnaires were eligible.The response rate was 99.63%.T test,correlation analysis,chi-square test,variance analysis and ordinal logit analysis were included in the analysis.Results About 8.6% of all the students reported over 30 min moderate-intensity physical activity(MVPA) every day during the past week,and 15.8% reported over 60min physical activity every day during the past week.In the past week,the average days for MVPA was 2.65 among ordinary high school students,significantly higher than that of secondary vocational technical school students(2.26) (t =10.347,P<0.01).Physical activity duration and intensity differed significantly in gender and grade(P<0.01).Students lack physical activity severely showed poor academic performance(P <0.01).Girl,studying in secondary vocational technical schools and senior grade was risk factor for severe physical inactivity(P<0.01).Conclusion High school students in Shanghai are insufficient in physical active.The findings suggest physical inactivity correlates poor academic performance.
Abstract: Objective To explore the effectiveness of nutritional education on improvement of nutritional knowledge and dietary behaviors among primary students in Pudong New Area.Methods The baseline survey on nutrition-related knowledge and dietary behaviors was conducted among 720 pupils selected by random cluster sampling from 4 primary schools for migrant workers' children in Pudong New Area.The respondents were divided into intervention group and control group.Nutritional intervention were carried out to the intervention group for six months.Nutritional knowledge,dietary attitude and practice of both groups were compared before and after intervention.Results After intervention,the overall awareness rate of nutritional knowledge and dietary behaviors in intervention group increased from 17.6% to 83.3%(P<0.01),and the percentage of students having a positive dietary attitude increased from 85.2% to 99.1%(P<0.01),as well as the proportion of healthy eating behavior increased from 60.7% to 76.4%(P<0.05).However,there was no statistically differences in control group(P>0.05).Conclusion Nutritional education can significantly enhance nutritional knowledge,improve dietary behavior and promote healthy growth of students in migrant workers schools.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among college students in gay dating sites,and to provide evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention education among college students.Methods College students in gay dating sites,selected by a snowball sampling,were interviewed by electronic questionnaires.Chi-square test and t test were used to compare the awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior characteristics among different groups.Resuits Among those undergraduates from the gay dating sites,the rate of having sex was 63.8%,72.1%,86.3% and 83.7% among sophomore,junior,senior and graduate students(x2=14.197,P=0.003).The awareness of eight items of basic HIV/AIDS knowledge specific to young people(referred as eight items) showed significant differences between students who had sex and who hadn't (x2=10.144,P =0.001).Multiple same-sex sexual partners(sexual partners ≥ 2) during the last 6 months was found in 41.3% (137/332) students,and 57% of them reported consistent condom use.The rate of multiple sex partners and HIV-antibody test was of significant difference among college students with different sexual orientations(x2 was 19.753,21.791,P value was 0.001 and < 0.01,respectively).Conclusion The high rate of high-risk behaviors and lack of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among college students in gay dating sites remains a significant threat to individuals.College students who have not had sex are mainly sophomore student.Improving the education of HIV/AIDS among college students has become a pressing need.
Abstract: Objective To understand awareness and associated factors of infectious disease prevention in Xi'an primary school students.Methods A multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate 4 454 students in 93 primary schools from 14 counties of Xi'an.Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted in analyzing associated factors of infectious disease prevention.Results The awareness rate of infectious diseases prevention among primary school students in Xi'an was 48.5%.No significant difference was found between boys and girls(P=0.164).The awareness rate was highest among urban students (54.5%),followed by suburban students(47.3%),and lowest among rural students(38.9%) (P<0.05).The formation rate of health behavior was 68.9%,with girls higher than that of boys(P<0.05) and with urban area the highest,followed by suburbs and rural areas(P<0.05).The top three access to knowledge are classroom teaching or lecture(56.3%),family or friend(49.2%) and TV or radio(35.7%),and the top three requirements for intervention methods were classroom teaching or lecture(69.9%),TV or radio (40.2%) and propaganda column or blackboard(37.5%).Multiple linear regression analysis showed that students with lower parental education level and from rural areas had fewer awareness on infectious disease prevention(t =-16.990,7.516,P<0.01).Among them,boys and those who reported having infectious diseases within a year had the least awareness(t =-12.162,9.020,8.083,4.862,P<0.01).Conclusion The awareness on infectious disease prevention among primary school students in Xi'an is not sufficient and greatly needed.School-based health education should focus on effective classroom teaching,while pay close attention to students from rural areas and whose parents with a lower education background.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the e fectiveness of school tuberculosis outbreak emergency response measures in Hefei.Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on 7 school-based tuberculosis(TB) outbreaks in Hefei during 2011-2016.Active tuberculosis screening of close contacts,as well as infected patients were carried out.Results During 2011-2016,7 cases of school tuberculosis outbreaks in Hefei were reported,including 5 cases of public health emergencies.The shortest period from initial diagnosis to close contacts screening was 43 d,the longest of which was 231 d.The average delay time in diagnosing was 43 d,and the average delay time in disposition was 4 d.The difference between the average positive rates of close contacts and general contacts was of statistical significance(x2 =52.115,P<0.01).Sixteen cases were diagnosed.In the PPD screening,the positive rate was 5.51%-29.41%,with an average of 12%;after expanded screening,PPD positive rate was 0-11%,with an average of 4.21%,with significant difference(X:=52.117,P<0.01).Five patients received experts consulting and preventive treatment.Conclusion Early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis cases is the fundamental approach of tuberculosis outbreak control.Patient's history of TB exposure and tuberculin skin test(TST) helps assess latent tuberculosis infection.It is necessary to establish consultation system to control school tuberculosis outbreak and transmission.
Abstract: Objective To understand the current situation of sexual behavior,AIDS related knowledge,attitudes and health education among high school students in Yanqing District.Methods In Yanqing District of Beijing,students were investigated anonymously with self-reported questionnaire regarding AIDS related knowledge,attitude,sexual behavior and health education.Logistic regression was used to analyze influencing factors of sexual behaviors.Results A total of 1 484 valid questionnaires were analyzed.The awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge was 28.4%,36.7% of whom had love experiences.About 8.3% had the experience of sexual behavior and the average age for first sexual behavior was 15.5 years.Those from junior grade,higher disposable monthly cost of living,having love experience and open attitude towards sexual behavior in high school had higher risk of sexual behavior.Conclusion High school students are lack of AIDS related knowledge,and have high proportions of sexual behavior.Schools should cooperate with health departments,making school as an important setting for sexual health education.Strategies for creating reproductive health education targeted at high school students are essential for the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS.
Abstract: Objective To provide a scientific basis for the early prevention and treatment of myopia,by investigating the status of myopia and refractive in the primary school students of Huangpu district,Shanghai.Methods Cluster random sampling method was used to select 1 724 students of grade 1-3 in 4 primary schools of Huangpu District in Shanghai to have a 2-year followup study.Results After the 2-year follow-up study,the prevalence rate of myopia increased from 18.91% in 2014 to 41.94% in 2016.The prevalence rate of mild myopia rose from 15.20% in 2014 to 28.16% in 2016,the rate of moderate myopia rose from 3.31% to 12.74%,and the rate of high myopia rose from 0.41% to 1.05%.The average annual incidence of myopia was 12.83%.The average annual growth value of spherical equivalent refraction of two eyes was(-0.382±0.536) D.The change of average spherical equivalent refraction of mild myopia was greater than that of non-myopic students and moderate myopia students(P<0.05).Conclusion The prevalence rate of myopia and high myopia in the elementary and middle school students in Shanghai downtown area is high,the development of myopia is fast.Refractive development monitoring should be strengthened.Early prevention for students who have strong myopic tendency and effective intervention for students with low myopia can slow down the development of myopia.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the prevalent characteristics of health risk behaviors among adolescents in Yunfu,and to provide a reference for making comprehensive intervention measures of major health risk behaviors.Methods Muhi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted to select a total of 2 666 students which were surveyed with questionnaires of health risk behaviors.Results The incidence rates of junior high school students about bike violations,fighting,intentionally hurt themselves which was 45.79%,16.85%,10.65%,respectively,were higher than those of the high school students.And the incidence rates of having no breakfast,lack of exercise time,unsafe swimming,present smoking and drinking,addiction into video game,gambling among vocational school students,which were 47.87%,57.38%,12.79%,15.41%,42.79%,23.11%,25.57%,were higher than those of other school students.About 10.39% of students had no health risk behaviors.The proportion of vocational school students with four or more dangerous behaviors(35.74%) was higher than that of other students.Compared with people with one kind of health risk behavior,boys with four or more dangerous behaviors had the highest risk of fights(OR=65.01),and girls had the highest risk of Internet addiction(OR=77.54).Conclusion The health risk behaviors of adolescents in Yunfu are frequent and prominent.Therefore,targeted health promotion activities should be carried out and health guidance should be strengthened.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the effects of adverse childhood experiences and life events on the college students' inhibitory control ability,cognitive flexibility,and working memory,and to provide a reference for intervention work in relevant fields.Methods A total of 658 college students were selected from Yantai and Jinan,and the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs),adolescent life event scale(ASLEC) were used to screen subjects,E-prime software was applied to design the experiment of three subsystems of executive function.Results The incidence rate of ACEs was 44.8%;ACEs,life events and the inhibition ability have a significant correlation(r=0.50,0.47,P<0.01);In the switching task,the reaction time of ACEs group was longer than that of non-ACEs(t=-2.55,P<0.05).Compared with the group of low score in life events,the group of high score used longer reaction time in the tasks of inhibition,switching and working memory,longer average response task switching(t =3.16,2.45,2.46,P<0.01).The regression analysis results showed that ACEs,life events could predict 46% of the inhibiting ability,and ACEs and life events were of statistical significance to the regression of inhibiting ability,with the total prediction rate of 56% to the inhibiting ability.Conclusion The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences is high among the college students.Both the adverse childhood experiences and life events have negative effects on executive function of college students.
Abstract: Objective To explore whether coping style and learning self-efficacy mediated the relation between social support and learning subjective well-being among rural left-behind children.Methods Social Support,trait coping style,self-efficacy and learning subjective well-being was investigated among 1 618 students in grade 4-9 from Guizhou and Chongqing.Results Learning subjective well-being was positively correlated with learning self-efficacy,positive coping style and social support.There was a significant negative association between learning subjective well-being and negative coping style(P<0.01).Social support among rural left-behind children significantly correlated with learning self-efficacy(β=0.383,P<0.01),learning subjective well-being(β=0.195,SE=0.064,P<0.01) and negative coping styles(β=-0.321,P<0.01).Learning self-efficacy significantly associated with learning subjective well-being(β =0.402,P<0.01).Negative coping styles showed negative effect on learning subjective well-being(β=-0.224,P<0.01).Conclusion Negative coping style and learning self-efficacy among rural left-behind children plays a key role mediating the association between social support and learning subjective well-being.
Abstract: Objective To understand the changes of students' growth and development in poor rural areas since the implementation of nutrition improvement program,and to evaluate the effect of nutrition improvement program.Methods The nutritional status monitoring was carried out in 10%-30% of primary and junior middle schools which implemented nutrition improvement program in 26 pilot counties of Henan Province.The results of monitoring in 2012 and 2016 were analyzed.Results The height and weight of students in area of nutrition improvement program in 2012 were lower than the average level of students in rural areas of Henan Province in 2010.Since the implementation of the nutrition improvement program from 2012 to 2016,the average height of boys in poor rural areas had increased by 2.27 cm,with an average weight gain of 1.95 kg.The average height of girls had increased by 2.05 cm and the average weight increased by 1.75 kg.Some students' height and weight in nutrition improvement program area in 2016 had caught up with and even surpassed students' average level in the same sex and same age groups in Henan rural areas in 2014.The average annual growth rates of the height of students aged 7-16 and the weight of students aged 7-13 in poor rural area during 4-year nutrition improvement program were higher than those of rural students in Henan during 2010 to 2014.Conclusion The nutrition improvement program for students has effectively improved the growth and development level of students in poor rural areas.
Abstract: Objective To understand the loneliness and its influencing factors of children in low-income families,and to provide evidence for targetedly helping children in special needs.Methods About 2 972 children from low-income families in Beijing city were observed with a questionnaire in September-November of 2016.Results It was found that the loneliness rate of children in low-income families was 7.6%;boys' loneliness was significantly greater than girls'(30.23± 11.13,28.70± 10.85) (t =14.402,P=0.000);there was no statistical significance in age difference of the lonliness F=0.005,P=0.995);the loneliness of disabled and sick children was significantly greater than that of healthy children(34.47 ± 13.64,31.91 ± 12.05,29.19 ± 10.82) (F =13.490,P=0.000);and the loneliness of students whose parents were both absent from custody were significantly greater than that of those with one parent or both normal custody(30.73± 12.03,29.52± 10.84,28.99± 10.81) (F=3.928,P =0.020).Conclusion We should pay attention to the loneliness of children in low-income families.Except for the screened children with high levels of loneliness,the children with physical or(and) family care difficulties should also be paid more attention.And appropriate prevention and intervention measures should be taken physically and psychologically.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the association between health literacy,sleep quality and depressive symptoms among middle school students.Methods Data were collected from a middle school in Shenyang by questionnaire survey,including demographic information,Chinese Adolescent Interactive Health Literacy Questionnaire(CAIHLQ),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and self-rating depressive scale.Results The score of CAIHLQ was(106.49± 19.87).Junior school students and those from high socioeconomic status(SES) families had significantly higher health literacy scores.The detection rate of sleep disorder was 18.3% and depressive symptoms was 20.9%.Students from low SES families had significantly higher rate of sleep disorder(27.0%) and depressive symptoms(36.5%) than those higher family SES students(P<0.05).Multiple Logistic regression analyses showed that students with sleep disorder and lower health literacy had the highest risks of depressive symptoms,which indicated a dose-response relationship(P<0.05).Conclusion Students with sleep disorder and low health literacy have high risk of depressive symptoms.Health literacy improvement might help to reduce the risk of depressive symptoms.
Abstract: Objective To understand the correlation between blood pressure and body mass index(BMI) among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen and to provide reference for early prevention of hypertension.Methods A total of 40 989 students from 10 primary,10 middle and 10 high schools in Shenzhen were selected as the subjects.Height,weight and blood pressure were examined.Results The prevalence of hypertension among students in Shenzhen reached 12.49%.The detection rates of high systolic pressure and high diastolic pressure were 9.07% and 5.70% respectively.The detection rates of hypertension,high systolic pressure and high diastolic pressure were higher among obese students(23.79%,19.72% and 9.61%),compared with students with normal BMI,which was 10.67%,7.38% and 5.15% respectively.Correlation analysis indicated that systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated with BMI in male and female students(P<0.01).Students with higher BMI had elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion The status of blood pressure among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen is not optimistic.Consider significant association between elevated blood pressure with high BMI,the need to always conduct blood pressure monitoring for all obese students is also recommended.
Abstract: Objective To explore the influence of parenting style,children's temperament type on unintentional injury and the relationship between them.Methods The survey lasted six months(April to October 2015) and using muhi-stage sampling method.One primary school was selected respectively in 6 urban areas and 4 rural areas in Taiyuan city.In each primary school,2 -3 classes were randomly selected respectively from grade 4 and 5.All students in the selected classes as investigation object,a total of 2 644 students were studied in 10 schools.Results The unintentional injury detection rate was 22.8%.The generalized linear mixed effect model analysis showed that the occurrence of children's unintentional injury was different in the different parenting style (F=5.269,P<0.01);the occurrence of children's unintentional injury was different in the different children's temperament types (F=4.995,P<0.01);there was an interactive effect on the frequency of unintentional injury between parenting style and temperament type(F=170.525,P<0.01).When parenting style was authoritarian,compared with the type of easy to raise type,the type that is difficult to raise(B =-116.611,P=0.016) and the middle one to easy raise(B =-119.204,P =0.003) were the protective factors of intentional injury;When parenting style was inconsistent type,compared with the type of easy to raise type,the middle one to easy raise (B=-246.178,P=0.001) was the protective factor of intentional injury;slow start type temperament types(B=212.175,P<0.01) is the risk factor for unintentional injury.Conclusion Parenting styles and children's temperament types has interaction effects besides directly affecting the unintentional injury to children,the combination of different parenting styles and child temperament types has different effects on unintentional injury.
Abstract: Objective To compare the effectiveness of aerobic exercise and combined exercises on body fat and biochemical indices among simple obesity adolescents.Methods Totally,43 overweight and obese adolescents were selected from 2014 Jiangsu weight-loss summer camps.Participants were randomly divided into two groups,one group received aerobic exercise,and another group received combined exercises(aerobic exercise combined with core strength training).Both group underwent 6 weeks of exercise intervention.Body weight,body fat percentage(BF%),body mass index(BMI),waist circumference,hip circumference and thigh circumference and biochemical indices including fasting plasma glucose(GLU),serum insulin(INS),total cholesterol (TC),three acyl glycerin(TG),high-density lipoprotein(HDL) and low density lipoprotein(LDL) were measured before and after intervention,respectively.Results After six weeks intervention,both groups showed a significant decline in BMI,waist circumference,hip circumference,and thigh circumference(P<0.05).Nevertheless,improvement of BMI,BF%,waist circumference,hip circumference,thigh circumference and skinfold thickness were greater in combined exercise group than aerobic exercise group.Meanwhile,GLU,INS and blood lipid were changed after intervention.TG,LDL variations had significant difference among two intervention group(P<0.05).Compared with aerobic exercise group,greater improvement of INS was found in combined exercise group(P<0.05).Conclusion After six weeks intervention,aerobic exercise and combined exercise could both improve body fatand metabolic function effectively among overweight and obese adolescents.
Abstract: Objective To explore current research progress on adolescent myopia prevention and control worldwide.Methods Articles regarding adolescent myopia prevention and control were searched from CNKI database,Wanfang Database and web of science core collection.Note Express 3.2,SATI 3.2,Ucinet 6.0 and SPSS 17.0 software was recruited in the bibliometrics and social network analysis.Results Articles in Chinese and English were characterized with geographical distribution,and most of which came from developed or highly developed countries,universities,and focusing on juvenile myopia prevalence(mainly in Chinese),associated factors and intervention(mainly in English),published around 2008.In terms of quantity,the publication volume of Chinese articles was significantly higher than that of English articles.In terms of growth rate,the former growth rate was significantly higher than that of the latter,and the fluctuation range of each year was inconsistent.A group of experts extinguished in English papers,but not found in Chinese articles.Most Chinese articles were published in the adolescent journals,however most English papers were published in professional ophthalmology and optical journals.Conclusion More papers regarding adolescent myopia are expected to be published in high-impact journals.It is necessary to encourage researches and a group of experts in adolescent myopia in underdeveloped countries,as well as inland and western areas of China.
Abstract: Objective To understand prevalence of hypertension and changing tendency of blood pressure among children aged 7-17 of Hui minority in Ningxia from 2005-2014,and to provide valuable information for early prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Methods Data were chosen from investigation of constitution and health in Ningxia school students from 2005 to 2014,the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of Hui children were measured by standard method.Results In 2014,the detection rate of hypertension among Hui children aged 7-17 in Ningxia was 15.2%,which was 11.4% higher than that in 2005,and the differences were of statistical significance (x2=380.53,P<0.05).The 17-age group was growing faster than other groups,increasing 4.9 times more than that in 2005.The diastolic blood pressure increased from that in 2005(65.8±8.3) to 2014 (69.0±9.8),while the systolic blood pressure increased from(98.6± 11.6) to(107.4± 11.9) of children,and the differences were of statistical significance(t =-36.33,-18.02,P<0.01),and their blood pressure increased with age.The detection rate of hypertension among boys increased from 3.4% to 14.2% in 2014,while that of girls increased from 4.2% to 16.2%.During 9 years,the rates increased by 10.8% and 12.0% for boys and girls,respectively.Although the detection rate of girls were found higher than that of boys,but the differences were of no statistical significance(P>0.05).The detection rate of hypertension among urban children increased from 5.1% in 2005 to 15.7% in 2014,while the rate of rural children increased from 3.3% to 14.9%,and the rates increased by 10.6% and 11.6%,respectively.The detection rate of rural children were found to increase quicker than that of urban children(x2=1.19,P=0.271).The detection rate of hypertension among obese children was 15.3% in 2005,and 42.1% in 2014,which were higher than those of normal subjects (x2=29.48,392.38,P<0.01),and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly correlated with BMI.Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension among children aged 7-17 in Ningxia shows an upward tendency from 2005 to 2014,and this increasing trend could be reduced by controlling overweight and obesity of children.