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哈尔滨市儿童六龄齿现状及家长知晓情况

赵宇 王海越 郝春秀 张晓丹 袁杰

赵宇, 王海越, 郝春秀, 张晓丹, 袁杰. 哈尔滨市儿童六龄齿现状及家长知晓情况[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(9): 1396-1399. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.029
引用本文: 赵宇, 王海越, 郝春秀, 张晓丹, 袁杰. 哈尔滨市儿童六龄齿现状及家长知晓情况[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(9): 1396-1399. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.029
ZHAO Yu, WANG Haiyue, HAO Chunxiu, ZHANG Xiaodan, YUAN Jie. Current status and parental awareness regarding children's first permanent molar in Harbin[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(9): 1396-1399. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.029
Citation: ZHAO Yu, WANG Haiyue, HAO Chunxiu, ZHANG Xiaodan, YUAN Jie. Current status and parental awareness regarding children's first permanent molar in Harbin[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(9): 1396-1399. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.029

哈尔滨市儿童六龄齿现状及家长知晓情况

doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.09.029
基金项目: 

中央财政重大公共卫生项目 2016/005000001

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵宇(1993-),女,内蒙古人,硕士,医师,主要从事口腔预防保健工作

    通讯作者:

    袁杰,E-mail:dryuanjie@163.com

  • 中图分类号: R193  R788

Current status and parental awareness regarding children's first permanent molar in Harbin

  • 摘要:   目的  了解哈尔滨市儿童六龄齿现状及家长对六龄齿和窝沟封闭的了解程度及影响因素, 为预防六龄齿患龋及提高窝沟封闭普及力度提供新的思路。  方法  2019年10月依托中国儿童口腔疾病综合干预项目, 对哈尔滨市11 540名儿童进行口腔检查并对家长发放问卷。  结果  哈尔滨市6~11岁儿童六龄齿平均患龋率为37.72%, 萌出率为86.98%, 窝沟封闭率为36.93%。16.8%的家长知道六龄齿萌出时间, 35.33%的家长不认识六龄齿。19.39%的家长知道儿童做窝沟封闭的时间, 没听说过窝沟封闭的家长占32.77%。家长不认识六龄齿及窝沟封闭的儿童患龋率较高(35.33%, 32.77%)。高收入、高文化水平和城市家长窝沟封闭知识知晓率较高(χ2值分别为98.35, 192.16, 172.31, P值均 < 0.05)。  结论  哈尔滨学龄儿童六龄齿患龋率较高, 家长六龄齿和窝沟封闭知晓率较低; 应针对家长群体加大口腔健康知识的宣教工作力度。
  • 表  1  不同年龄及性别儿童六龄齿萌出、窝沟封闭及患龋率比较

    Table  1.   The eruption and pit and fissure sealing and caries rate of the first permanent molar in different age and sex

    年龄/岁 性别 人数 萌出 窝沟封闭 患龋
    初萌人数 全萌人数 χ2 P 窝沟封闭人数 χ2 P 患龋人数 χ2 P
    6 728 213(29.26) 52(7.14) 15.61 0.00 39(5.36) 8.49 < 0.01 58(7.97) 9.93 < 0.01
    716 215(30.03) 119(16.62) 67(9.36) 109(15.22)
    合计 1 444 428(29.64) 171(11.84) 106(7.34) 167(11.57)
    7 1 292 312(24.15) 668(51.70) 12.30 < 0.01 251(19.43) 24.11 < 0.01 295(22.83) 1.36 0.24
    1 207 241(19.97) 744(61.64) 335(27.75) 367(30.41)
    合计 2 499 553(22.13) 1 412(56.50) 586(23.45) 662(26.49)
    8 1 164 119(10.22) 991(85.14) 0.97 0.32 452(38.83) 0.37 0.54 478(41.07) 1.61 0.20
    1 054 82(7.78) 932(88.43) 396(37.57) 482(45.73)
    合计 2 218 201(9.06) 1 923(86.70) 848(38.23) 960(43.28)
    9 1 166 31(2.66) 1 128(96.74) 3.98 0.05 575(49.31) 0.55 0.46 484(41.51) 2.26 0.13
    1 037 23(2.22) 999(96.34) 495(47.73) 544(52.46)
    合计 2 203 54(2.45) 2 127(96.55) 1 070(48.57) 1 028(46.66)
    10 1 223 9(0.74) 1 213(99.18) 1.23 0.27 670(54.78) 1.16 0.28 519(42.44) 14.51 < 0.01
    1 098 6 (0.55) 1 089(99.18) 577(52.55) 578(52.64)
    合计 2 321 15(0.65) 2 302(99.18) 1 247(53.73) 1 097(47.26)
    11 481 1(0.21) 477(99.17) 2.34 0.13 238(49.48) 1.97 0.16 227(47.19) 0.27 0.60
    374 0 374(100.00) 167(44.65) 212(56.68)
    合计 855 1(0.12) 851(99.53) 405(47.37) 439(51.35)
    注:初萌表示六龄齿已破龈而未达到咬合平面,全萌表示六龄齿高度已达到咬合平面;( )内数字为百分率或患龋率/%。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各年龄不同性别儿童六龄齿各牙位患龋率/%

    Table  2.   The teeth most prone to decay in the first permanent molar/%

    年龄/岁 性别 患龋人数 16 26 36 46
    6 58 2.75 2.75 4.40 4.53
    109 4.05 4.05 11.03 11.17
    合计 167 3.39 3.39 7.69 7.83
    7 295 8.20 8.20 16.33 14.78
    367 12.10 12.10 22.04 22.95
    合计 662 10.08 10.08 19.09 18.73
    8 478 21.82 21.82 30.93 29.47
    482 24.38 24.38 35.20 32.73
    合计 960 23.04 23.04 32.96 31.02
    9 484 23.07 23.07 29.33 28.56
    544 29.89 29.89 37.03 39.63
    合计 1 028 26.28 26.28 32.96 33.77
    10 519 21.75 21.75 28.95 29.27
    578 31.69 31.69 37.98 35.79
    合计 1 097 26.45 26.45 33.22 32.36
    11 227 25.57 25.57 35.14 34.30
    212 36.63 36.63 41.98 40.64
    合计 439 30.41 30.41 38.13 37.08
    注:16表示右上第一恒磨牙;26表示左上第一恒磨牙;36表示左下第一恒磨牙;46表示右下第一恒磨牙。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同年龄儿童六龄齿各牙面患龋率/%

    Table  3.   Caries rates of first permanent molar in different surfaces of different ages children/%

    年龄/岁 上颌(牙面) 下颌(牙面)
    颊面 牙合面 远中面 腭面 近中面 合计 颊面 牙合面 远中面 舌面 近中面 合计
    6 0 4.99 0 0.07 0 4.99 0.35 9.35 0 0.07 0 9.49
    7 0.20 13.33 0.12 1.72 0.12 13.81 1.72 22.93 0 0 0.04 23.17
    8 0.14 27.91 0.14 4.87 0.36 28.81 4.87 37.11 0.32 0.18 0.32 37.60
    9 0.82 30.78 1.00 9.44 0.86 32.36 8.99 38.40 1.54 1.32 1.23 39.58
    10 0.73 30.93 1.08 9.22 1.12 32.79 9.65 38.22 1.72 1.68 2.02 39.08
    11 1.64 35.09 1.87 10.06 2.57 36.02 10.99 43.51 3.63 3.27 3.04 44.09
    合计 0.49 23.57 0.60 5.72 0.68 24.59 5.82 31.51 0.97 0.88 0.94 32.11
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同组别家长对六龄齿和窝沟封闭知晓状况分布

    Table  4.   The understanding degree of the first permanent molar and pit and fissure sealants of parents at different income level and educational level

    组别 人数 六龄齿 窝沟封闭
    了解 不太了解 不知道 χ2 P 了解 不太了解 不知道 χ2 P
    父母月人均收入/元
        > 10 000 692 298(43.12) 284(41.26) 111(15.62) 65.54 < 0.01 332(47.77) 312(44.63) 48(7.60) 98.35 0.04
        5 000~10 000 4 039 727(18.25) 2 221(55.33) 1 091(26.42) 1 091(26.83) 1 898(47.02) 1 050(26.15)
        < 5 000 6 809 817(11.67) 3 200(46.73) 2 792(41.60) 749(11.44) 3 336(48.51) 2 723(40.05)
    母亲学历
        本科及以上 4 270 1 623(38.45) 2 391(55.82) 256(5.73) 296.46 < 0.01 1 751(41.23) 1 964(46.27) 555(12.50) 192.16 0.03
        中专或大专 5 770 635(11.23) 2 308(39.74) 2 827(49.03) 635(11.48) 2 827(48.73) 2 308(39.79)
        高中及以下 1 500 90(5.98) 570(37.87) 840(56.15) 105(6.89) 690(45.71) 705(47.40)
    城乡
        农村 5 453 492(8.77) 2 295(42.36) 2 677(48.87) 359.51 < 0.01 601(11.01) 2 622(48.03) 2 240(40.96) 172.31 0.01
        城市 6 077 2 674(44.01) 2 066(34.48) 1 337(21.51) 2 735(45.32) 2 188(36.44) 1 155(18.24)
    注:( )内数字为构成比/%。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-06
  • 修回日期:  2021-01-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-24
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-24

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