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学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡及其姿势控制策略

黄春香 郝增明 王健

黄春香, 郝增明, 王健. 学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡及其姿势控制策略[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(11): 1708-1711, 1716. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024
引用本文: 黄春香, 郝增明, 王健. 学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡及其姿势控制策略[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(11): 1708-1711, 1716. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024
HUANG Chunxiang, HAO Zengming, WANG Jian. Static balance and control strategy in preschool children[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(11): 1708-1711, 1716. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024
Citation: HUANG Chunxiang, HAO Zengming, WANG Jian. Static balance and control strategy in preschool children[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(11): 1708-1711, 1716. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024

学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡及其姿势控制策略

doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.024
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFF0300502

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄春香(1979-  ),女,广东普宁人,硕士,副教授,主要研究方向为幼儿体育与姿势控制

  • 中图分类号: G617.8  R179  G804.49

Static balance and control strategy in preschool children

  • 摘要:   目的  探讨3~6岁学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡能力及其控制策略的增龄性规律和特点,为幼儿体质研究和体育教育实践提供重要参考。  方法  2018年1—3月,采用随机抽样方法,选取杭州市幼儿园105名3~6岁学龄前儿童为研究对象,采用2×2×3(本体感觉×视觉×年龄)三因素实验设计方案,分别在4种站姿条件下进行15 s的静态站姿平衡能力测试。依据压力中心(enter of pressure, COP)变化量化考察静态站姿平衡能力,依据COP频域分析和非线性分析量化考察姿势控制策略。  结果  在睁眼/硬地条件下,3~、4~和5~6岁儿童的AP_MV和ML_MV分别为18.05,16.00,13.40;13.55,11.03,10.12 mm/s;在闭眼/硬地条件下,3个年龄段儿童的AP_MV和ML_MV分别为21.01,19.60,15.10;12.20,10.20,10.00 mm/s。随年龄增长,左-右、前-后方向的晃动幅度和平均晃动速度均减小(P值均 < 0.01)。在睁眼/硬地和闭眼/硬地条件下,左-右方向的高频段和前-后方向的低频段均随年龄增长显著增加(P值均 < 0.01)。在睁眼/硬地条件下,3个年龄段AP_MF和AP_HF的值分别是29.00,28.61,27.20;7.45,7.44,6.01,前-后方向的中频段和高频段随年龄增长显著减小(P值均 < 0.01)。在睁眼/硬地和闭眼/硬地条件下,3~、4~和5~6岁儿童的ML_FD分别为1.43,1.44,1.52;1.49,1.48,1.56 mm,AP_FD分别为1.58,1.56,1.52;1.63,1.61,1.58,AP_MSE分别为6.81,6.90,5.61;7.25,7.41,6.60。左-右方向的分形维数随年龄增长显著增加,而前-后方向的分形维数和多尺度熵显著减小(P值均 < 0.01)。  结论  3~6岁学龄前儿童静态站姿平衡能力随年龄增长呈现非线性变化的特点,5~6岁学龄前儿童比3~5岁的静态站姿平衡能力有显著改善;3~5岁和5~6岁学龄前儿童在静态站姿中的平衡控制策略不同。
  • 表  1  不同年龄组儿童在不同站姿下COP传统特征指标比较(x±s)

    Table  1.   Traditional characteristic indicators of COP in different stances (x±s)

    年龄/岁 人数 睁眼/硬地 闭眼/硬地
    ML_SD/mm AP_SD/mm ML_MV/(mm·s-1) AP_MV/(mm·s-1) ML_SD/mm AP_SD/mm ML_MV/(mm·s-1) AP_MV/(mm·s-1)
    3~ 35 5.82±3.21 5.96±2.10 13.55±5.01 18.05±4.01 4.13±2.32 6.33±1.86 12.20±2.21 21.01±5.00
    4~ 36 4.25±1.68 5.26±2.00 11.03±4.98 16.00±4.00 3.82±1.91 6.02±1.84 10.20±2.20 19.60±4.99
    5~6 34 3.82±2.51 5.51±2.10 10.12±5.02 13.40±4.02 3.31±2.31 5.93±1.87 10.00±2.25 15.10±3.90
    F 2.81 1.09 2.59 7.06 2.01 1.05 0.93 8.16
    P 0.07 0.34 0.08 < 0.01 0.14 0.35 0.40 < 0.01
    年龄/岁 人数 睁眼/软垫 闭眼/软垫
    ML_SD/mm AP_SD/mm ML_MV/(mm·s-1) AP_MV/(mm·s-1) ML_SD/mm AP_SD/mm ML_MV/(mm·s-1) AP_MV/(mm·s-1)
    3~ 35 8.02±5.72 7.62±3.51 18.00±10.11 25.06±6.00 8.01±4.75 10.91±3.70 22.10±5.61 38.03±9.31
    4~ 36 6.27±1.92 6.91±3.40 17.00±5.23 19.60±6.01 8.10±4.74 11.05±3.71 25.01±9.60 38.00±10.32
    5~6 34 5.77±4.80 9.11±4.01 16.60±7.00 19.40±5.23 5.94±3.70 10.77±3.50 12.00±4.70 27.02±5.10
    F 2.44 6.74 1.04 4.00 4.24 0.25 7.37 8.66
    P 0.09 < 0.01 0.36 < 0.01 0.02 0.78 < 0.01 < 0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同站姿下COP频域特征指标比较(x±s)

    Table  2.   COP frequency domain characteristic index in different stances (x±s)

    组别 年龄/岁 人数 统计值 ML_LF AP_LF ML_MF AP_MF ML_HF AP_HF
    睁眼/硬地 3~ 35 61.00±8.32 64.01±6.51 30.20±8.00 29.00±4.21 6.91±3.67 7.45±3.10
    4~ 36 62.03±8.10 64.20±6.92 29.00±7.98 28.61±4.73 7.20±5.10 7.44±3.12
    5~6 34 60.10±7.36 67.10±6.00 29.63±6.52 27.20±4.20 8.10±4.28 6.01±2.85
    F 0.60 2.84 0.59 1.24 1.24 2.45
    P 0.55 0.06 0.56 0.10 0.29 0.09
    闭眼/硬地 3~ 35 59.00±9.05 59.02±8.01 32.01±10.03 32.20±8.32 7.20±3.67 8.00±2.22
    4~ 36 58.50±9.00 61.20±7.80 32.10±9.00 28.51±4.60 7.21±3.64 8.40±3.71
    5~6 34 57.20±8.95 65.00±7.70 32.00±8.71 28.10±4.71 9.10±5.35 7.10±2.00
    F 0.43 2.77 0.01 2.91 3.83 4.24
    P 0.66 0.07 0.99 0.06 0.03 0.02
    睁眼/软垫 3~ 35 60.00±9.00 58.10±6.80 31.10±9.42 33.00±6.50 5.82±3.50 7.45±3.10
    4~ 36 58.50±9.10 58.20±6.80 32.00±9.50 33.00±7.01 5.86±3.48 7.20±2.85
    5~6 34 58.71±8.60 66.50±6.65 30.90±8.92 28.00±6.50 7.45±3.85 5.81±2.80
    F 0.32 8.89 0.64 7.96 2.62 6.20
    P 0.73 < 0.01 0.53 < 0.01 0.08 < 0.01
    闭眼/软垫 3~ 35 55.10±9.05 50.20±8.01 38.00±10.01 41.00±8.00 6.21±2.60 8.45±3.90
    4~ 36 48.21±6.31 50.30±8.00 42.02±7.98 41.00±8.30 6.65±2.45 8.32±2.30
    5~6 34 52.30±8.75 56.10±7.25 37.60±8.02 35.12±8.20 6.75±2.58 6.92±2.01
    F 3.43 6.81 4.50 5.12 0.93 8.10
    P 0.04 < 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 0.40 < 0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同站姿下COP非线性特征指标比较(x±s)

    Table  3.   Nonlinear characteristic index of COP in different stances (x±s)

    年龄/岁 人数 睁眼/硬地 闭眼/硬地
    ML_FD AP_FD ML_MSE AP_MSE ML_FD AP_FD ML_MSE AP_MSE
    3~ 35 1.43±0.11 1.58±0.11 6.21±3.98 6.81±1.98 1.49±0.09 1.63±0.09 7.20±3.50 7.25±2.04
    4~ 36 1.44±0.13 1.56±0.13 5.80±2.31 6.90±2.00 1.48±0.08 1.61±0.10 7.10±3.02 7.41±2.31
    5~6 34 1.52±0.10 1.52±0.14 7.50±3.52 5.61±1.99 1.56±0.11 1.58±0.10 8.15±3.90 6.60±2.01
    F 5.37 2.23 1.98 5.47 5.01 2.01 0.97 2.39
    P < 0.01 0.11 0.14 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.14 0.38 0.10
    年龄/岁 人数 睁眼/软垫 闭眼/软垫
    ML_FD AP_FD ML_MSE AP_MSE ML_FD AP_FD ML_MSE AP_MSE
    3~ 35 1.36±0.08 1.63±0.09 5.71±2.01 6.82±1.80 1.41±0.09 1.69±0.05 6.83±1.99 7.80±2.10
    4~ 36 1.37±0.08 1.63±0.09 5.71±2.00 6.85±1.95 1.44±0.06 1.70±0.05 7.04±1.97 7.81±2.08
    5~6 34 1.42±0.10 1.49±0.13 5.82±2.12 4.20±1.70 1.43±0.07 1.57±0.09 6.13±2.02 4.83±1.82
    F 3.69 13.25 0.44 18.23 0.76 12.37 1.59 12.25
    P < 0.01 < 0.01 0.65 < 0.01 0.47 < 0.01 0.21 < 0.01
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-15
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-01
  • 刊出日期:  2021-11-25

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