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儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目

李红娟 张一民 王荣辉 桂春燕 张曌华 张柳 周财亮 张留伟

李红娟, 张一民, 王荣辉, 桂春燕, 张曌华, 张柳, 周财亮, 张留伟. 儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(11): 1698-1702. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022
引用本文: 李红娟, 张一民, 王荣辉, 桂春燕, 张曌华, 张柳, 周财亮, 张留伟. 儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目[J]. 中国学校卫生, 2021, 42(11): 1698-1702. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022
LI Hongjuan, ZHANG Yimin, WANG Ronghui, GUI Chunyan, ZHANG Zhaohua, ZHANG Liu, ZHOU Cailiang, ZHANG Liuwei. Research of the core items of Physical Literacy Guidelines for Children and Adolescents[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(11): 1698-1702. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022
Citation: LI Hongjuan, ZHANG Yimin, WANG Ronghui, GUI Chunyan, ZHANG Zhaohua, ZHANG Liu, ZHOU Cailiang, ZHANG Liuwei. Research of the core items of Physical Literacy Guidelines for Children and Adolescents[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 2021, 42(11): 1698-1702. doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022

儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目

doi: 10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2021.11.022
基金项目: 

北京市教育科学“十三五”规划2019年度重点课题项目 BEAA19045

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李红娟(1972-  ),女,山西太谷人,博士,教授,主要研究方向为儿童青少年身体活动促进

  • 中图分类号: R179  G478  G806

Research of the core items of Physical Literacy Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

  • 摘要:   目的  身体素养是实现体教融合、体卫融合,拓展体育教育功能的切入点和根本目标。研究儿童青少年应具备的身体素养及其实现路径,是儿童青少年卫生、体育与健康教育工作者共同的责任。本文基于国内外最新研究证据和国内专家意见,旨在研制适合中国儿童青少年的身体素养指南核心条目。  方法  本文通过系统文献检索与评价对儿童青少年身体素养的维度和指标体系进行系统梳理,经过5轮德尔菲(Delphi)调查对儿童青少年身体素养指南的核心条目进行提炼。  结果  儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目包含身体、情感、行为、认知四个相互关联的维度,具体由身体能力、情感体验、身体活动相关行为和知识理解应用能力四个要素构成。  结论  儿童青少年时期是培养身体素养的关键期、敏感期和窗口期。本研究所梳理出的儿童青少年身体素养指南核心条目,可为进一步细化指南提供框架性建议。未来可进行更多的针对中国儿童青少年身体素养的实证研究,以积累足够的证据,进一步完善中国儿童青少年身体素养指南,更好地指导儿童青少年身体素养促进工作。
  • 表  1  身体素养概念界定哲学基础及构成要素

    Table  1.   Concept definition, philosophical basis and constituent components of physical literacy

    一级主题 二级主题 核心内容
    概念界定 Whitehead定义 个体在维持终生参与身体活动所需要的动机、信心、身体能力、知识与理解能力[7]
    体育教育领域 追求个人全面发展的角度,能够有能力、有信心参与利于个人整体发展的各种环境下的各种身体活动[8]。人类在生命过程中获得的利于全人类生存发展的运动要素的综合能力[9]
    竞技运动领域 发展引导在各种环境下进行多种基本运动技能决策的基本动作技能[8, 10]
    公共卫生领域 综合利用生理、心理、认知和社会能力以支持完成运动与身体活动、促进健康[11-12]
    国际身体素养协会 重视并为终生参与身体活动承担责任所需要的动机、信心、身体能力、知识与理解能力[11, 13]
    哲学基础 一元论 人由两部分组成,即身体和精神,人是两者不可分割的整体,两者相互依赖,身体不处于劣势位置,两者同等重要[7, 14]
    现象学 个体感知世界并与世界发生互动,不断适应新的环境[7, 14]
    存在主义 个体在生活中创造自己,通过身体的感知和反应保持与世界的联系[7, 14]
    构成要素 身体维度 个体参与身体活动所需要的身体能力,主要包括动作技能、体质等[15-17]
    心理维度 身体活动过程中所需要的动机、信心、情绪的自我调节、身体的自我调节、身体自我意识等[15, 17]
    情感维度 参与身体活动的情感体验,主要包括动机、信心以及自我价值感等[18-20]
    认知维度 参与运动和掌握运动表现所需要的意识、知识、规则、意图、判断、策略、计划、战术等,身体活动所需要相关知识,如活动强度、计划等,健康生活方式相关知识,如饮食、睡眠等[15-17, 19]
    社会维度 身体活动和运动过程中的道德、人际关系、合作安全和危险、社会和文化特征等[17]
    行为维度 日常行为包括动态和静态活动,如身体活动、久坐行为等[18-19, 21]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  儿童青少年身体素养测量指标与评价方法

    Table  2.   Measurement indicators and evaluation methods of physical literacy of children and adolescents

    一级主题 二级主题 测量/评价内容 测评方法
    身体维度 健康相关体质 肌肉力量/耐力、心肺耐力、柔韧性、身体成分[19, 22-24] 定量测评
    动作技能/动作能力 基本动作技能、动作技能(陆上、水中)、平衡、协调、灵敏性、反应时、速度、力量等[15, 19, 21, 23, 25-30] 定性测评:他人评价智能测评:电子游戏系统
    情感维度 动机 身体活动的倾向与满足性、行为规范、内在动机[19, 21-24, 26-27, 31] 定性测评:自我报告、他人评价
    信心 自我效能,同龄相比活动水平、技能水平,参与活动的益处与障碍,感知能力和社会接受度[19, 22, 25, 27-28] 定性测评:自我报告、他人评价
    心理维度 积极情绪/情感体验 享受、乐趣、愉快[21, 27] 定性测评:自我报告
    认知维度 知识、理解能力 身体活动知识、健康相关体质知识、健康生活方式知识、运动规则、计划和战术的理解、身体活动价值理解[19, 22, 25, 27, 29, 31-32] 定性测评:自我报告
    行为维度 身体活动、久坐行为 每日活动步数、久坐屏幕时间[21-22, 31] 定量测评:计步器或加速度计;定性测评:自我报告
    社会维度 社会参与、人际关系 身体活动或运动过程中与同伴、体育教师或教练员的关系[27] 定性测评:自我报告或视频或观察
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  培养儿童青少年身体素养的价值

    Table  3.   Value of cultivating the physical literacy of children and adolescents

    一级主题 二级主题 核心内容/关系
    促进身体活动 身体活动基础,促进校内外身体活动 从身体活动应具备的身体能力和心理状态的角度[27, 29, 33-34]
    较少久坐行为 屏幕久坐行为、非屏幕久坐行为 身体素养与久坐行为负相关[34-35]
    促成体育教育目标 身体素养是体育教育的培养目标,利于人的整体健康发展 增强积极参与体育课的信心、愿望、动机,享受体育课,掌握体质健康相关知识,促进身心健康[21, 29, 36]
    影响健康结局 身体健康和心理健康、慢性疾病预防 体质水平、动作能力、心肺耐力、体重、适应性、自尊、自信等[27, 37-39]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  儿童青少年身体素养核心条目重要性和可行性专家评分

    Table  4.   Expert rating on the importance of physical literacy core items of children and adolescents

    一级条目 二级条目 重要性评分 可行性评分
    x±s CV x±s CV
    情感体验 活动动机 8.73±1.68 0.26 8.18±2.14 0.07
    活动信心 9.48±1.12 0.25 8.09±2.02 0.24
    身体能力 心肺耐力 9.64±0.50 0.07 9.55±0.69 0.05
    肌肉力量 9.64±0.50 0.05 9.73±0.47 0.05
    肌肉耐力 9.55±0.69 0.07 9.64±0.67 0.07
    身体柔韧 9.45±0.82 0.07 9.64±0.67 0.09
    基本动作技能 9.27±0.90 0.13 9.09±1.22 0.10
    专项运动技能 8.91±1.38 0.20 8.64±1.75 0.15
    身体活动相关行为 身体活动 9.64±0.50 0.05 9.36±0.50 0.50
    静态行为 9.27±0.79 0.07 9.45±0.69 0.79
    知识理解应用能力 基本理论知识 9.27±1.10 0.13 9.27±1.19 0.12
    运动方法 9.27±1.01 0.11 9.00±1.00 0.11
    运动安全 8.91±1.22 0.16 8.82±1.40 0.14
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-22
  • 修回日期:  2021-03-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-01
  • 刊出日期:  2021-11-25

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